Diversity, Population Structure and Regeneration Status of Woody Species in Dry Woodlands Adjacent to Molapo Farms in Northern Botswana


The diversity, population structure and regeneration status of woody species were studied at Xobe and Shorobe Villages in northern Botswana. A total of 130 and 111 quadrats of 20 × 20 m size were laid down at 50 m intervals along parallel line transects at Xobe and Shorobe, respectively. A total of 46 woody species, 27 from Xobe and 41 from Shorobe were recorded. Of the 46 woody species, only 22 were recorded at both sites. Ten genera and six families were found only in Shorobe while one genus and one family were found only in Xobe. The diversity and evenness of woody species were 1.5 and 0.5 in Xobe, respectively, and 2.18 and 0.6 in Shorobe, respectively. The similarities of woody species in terms of richness of species, genera and families at the two sites were about 50%, 54% and 56%, respectively. The mean densities of woody species were 2745.7 ± 1.35 and 4269.7 ± 36 individuals ha-1 at Xobe and Shorobe, respectively. Despite differences in absolute numbers, the total mean densities of woody species at both sites did not exhibit significant (P = 0.35) differences. At both sites, woody species were dominated by individuals of only a few species, which also exhibited the highest values of important value index. The population structure patterns of the woody species were categorized into five groups. The species in the first group exhibited reverse J-shaped distribution, which indicates stable population structures. The species in the second group showed relatively good recruitment but the regeneration is negatively affected. The species in the other three groups exhibited hampered regeneration as a result of disturbances caused by humans, domestic animals and annual fires. The parameters assessed indicate the need for attention and appropriate management interventions by the relevant national authorities at various levels.

Share and Cite:

Neelo, J. , Teketay, D. , Masamba, W. & Kashe, K. (2013). Diversity, Population Structure and Regeneration Status of Woody Species in Dry Woodlands Adjacent to Molapo Farms in Northern Botswana. Open Journal of Forestry, 3, 138-151. doi: 10.4236/ojf.2013.34022.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Aarrestad, P. A., Masunga, G. S., Hytteborn, H., Pitlagano, M. L., Marokane, W., & Skarpe, C. (2011). Influence of soil, tree cover and large herbivores on field layer vegetation along a savanna landscape gradient in northern Botswana. Journal of Arid Environments, 75, 290-297. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaridenv.2010.10.009
[2] Aerts, R., Nyssen, J., & Haile, M. (2009). On the difference between “exclosures” and “enclosures” in ecology and the environment. Journal of Arid Environments, 73, 762-763.
[3] Alelign, A., Teketay, D., Yemshaw, Y., & Edwards, S. (2007). Diversity and status of regeneration of woody plants on the peninsula of Zegie, northwestern Ethiopia. Tropical Ecology, 48, 37-49.
[4] Babitseng, T. M., & Teketay, D. (2013). Impact of wine tapping on the population structure and regeneration of Hyphaene petersiana Klotzsch ex Mart. in northern Botswana. Ethnobotany Research & Applications, 11, 9-27.
[5] Banda, T., Mwangulango, N., Meyer, B., Schwartz, M. K., Mbago, F., Sungula, M., & Caro, T. (2008). The woodland vegetation of KataviRukwa ecosystem in western Tanzania. Forest Ecology and Management, 255, 3382-3395.
[6] Barnes, M. E. ( 2001). Seed predation, germination and seedling establishment of Acacia erioloba in northern Botswana. Journal of Arid Environments, 49, 541-554. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jare.2001.0805
[7] Belbin, L. (1995). A multivariate approach to the selection of biological reserves. Biodiversity and Conservation, 9, 951-963.
[8] Bendsen, H. (2002). The dynamics of land use systems in Ngamiland: Changing livelihoods options and strategies. Maun: University of Botswana Harry Openheimer Okavango Research Centre.
[9] Bengtsson-Sjors, K. (2006). Establishment and survival of woody seedlingsin a semi-arid savanna in southern Botswana. Minor Field Study 123. Uppsala: Uppsala University.
[10] Ben-Shahar, R. (1993). Patterns of elephant damage to vegetation in northern Botswana. Biological Conservation, 65, 249-256.
[11] Ben-Shahar, R. (1996a). Woodland dynamics under the influence of elephants and fire in northern Botswana. Plant Ecology, 123, 153-163. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00118268
[12] Ben-Shahar, R. (1996b). Do elephants over-utilize mopane woodlands in northern Botswana? Journal of Tropical Ecology, 12, 505-515.
[13] Ben-Shahar, R. (1998a). Changes in structure of the savannah woodlands in northern Botswana following the impacts of elephants and fire. Plant Ecology, 136, 189-194.
[14] Ben-Shahar, R. (1998b). Elephant density and impact on Kalahari woodland habitats. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa, 53, 149-155. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00359199809520383
[15] Ben-Shahar, R., & Macdonald, D. (2002). The role of soil factors and leaf protein in the utilization of mopane plants by elephants in northern Botswana. BMC Ecology, 2, 3.
[16] Birhane, E., Teketay, D., &Barklund, P. (2006). Actual and potential contribution of exclosures to enhance biodiversity of woody species in the drylands of Eastern Tigray. Journal of Drylands, 1, 134-147.
[17] Bognounou, F., Tigabu, M., Savadogo, P., Thiombiano, A., Boussim, I. J., óden, P.-C., & Guinko, S. (2010). Regeneration of five combretaceae species along a latitudinal gradient in Sahelo-Sudanian zone of Burkina Faso. Annals of Forest Sciences, 67, 306.
[18] Bonyongo, C. M., Veenendaal, E. M., & Bredenkamp, G. (2000). Floodplain vegetation of seasonal floodplains in the Nxaraga Lagoon Area Okavango Delta Botswana. South African Journal of Botany, 66, 15-21.
[19] Chimbari, M. J., Magole, L., Wiles, G., Dikgola, K., Kurugundla, N., Teketay, D., Ngwenya, B., Nyepi, M. S., Motsumi, S., Ama, K., Thakadu, O., & Chombo, O. (2009). Application of the ecohealth approach to understand flood-recession (Molapo) farming in the context of hydro-climate variability and hydro-climate change in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Maun: University of Botswana, Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Centre.
[20] Condit, R., Sukumar, R., Hubbell, S. P., & Foster, R. B. (1998). Predicting population trends from size distributions: A direct test in a tropical tree community. American Naturalist, 152, 495-509.
[21] CSO (Central Statistics Office) (2011). Botswana population and housing census. Gaborone, Botswana.
[22] DEA (2008). Okavango delta management plan. Gaborone: Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA).
[23] Dovie, D. B. K., Witkowski, E. T. F., & Shackleton, C. M. (2008). Knowledge of plant resource use based on location, gender and generation. Applied Geography, 28, 311-322.
[24] Ellery, K., & Ellery, W. (1997). Plants of the Okavango Delta: A field guide. Durban: Tsaro Publisher.
[25] El-Sheikh, M. A. (2013). Population structure of woody plants in the arid cloud forests of Dhofar, southern Oman. Acta Botanica Croatica, 72, 97-111. http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/v10184-012-0008-6
[26] Eriksson, I., Teketay, D., & Granstrom, A. (2003). Response of plant communities to fire in an Acacia woodland and a dry Afromontane forest, southern Ethiopia. Forest Ecology and Management, 177, 39-50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(02)00325-0
[27] Faith, D. P., & Walker, P. A. (1996). Environmental diversity: On the best possible use of surrogate data for assessing the relative biodiversity of sets of areas. Biodiversity and Conservation, 5, 399-415.
[28] FAO (2010). Global forest resources assessment. Rome: FAO.
[29] Feeley, K. J., Davies, S. J., Noor, N. S., Kassim, A. R., & Tan, S. (2007). Do current stem size distributions predict future population changes? An empirical test of intraspecific patterns in tropical trees at two spatial scales. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 23, 191-198.
[30] Fisaha, G., Hundera, K., & Dalle, G. (2013). Woody plants’ diversity, structural analysis and regeneration status of Wof Washa natural forest, North-east Ethiopia. African Journal of Ecology (in press).
[31] Gomez-Pompa, A., Whitmore, T. C., & Hadley, M. (1991). Paris: Rain Forest Regeneration and Management.
[32] Harper, J. L. (1977). Population biology of plants. Lomdon: Academic Press.
[33] Heinl, M., Sliva, J., & Tacheba, B. (2004). Vegetation changes after single fire-events in the Okavango Delta wetland, Botswana. South African Journal of Botany, 70, 695-704.
[34] Heinl, M., Sliva, J., Murray-Hudson, M., & Tacheba, B. (2007). Postfire succession on savanna habitats in the Okavango Delta wetland, Botswana. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 23, 705-713.
[35] Heinl, M., Sliva, J., Tacheba, B., & Murray-Hudson, M. (2008). The relevance of fire frequency for the floodplain vegetation of the Okavango Delta, Botswana. African Journal of Ecology, 46, 350-358. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2028.2007.00847.x
[36] Helm, C. V., & Witkowski, E. T. F. (2012). Characterising wide spatial variation in population size structure of a keystone African savanna tree. Forest Ecology and Management, 263, 175-188.
[37] Herrera, A. (2011). Changes in spatial structureof woody savanna vegetationafter 11 years of exclusion of large herbivores. Minor Field Studies 162. Uppsala: Uppsala University.
[38] Janzen, D. H. (1988). Tropical dry forests: The most endangered major tropical ecosystem. In E. O. Wilson (Ed.), Biodiversity (pp. 130-137). Washington: National Academic Press.
[39] Kalema, V. N. (2010). Diversity, use and resilience of woody plants in a multiple land-use equatorial African savanna, Uganda. Ph.D. Thesis, Johannesbur: University of the Witwatersrand.
[40] Kaller, A. (2003). Growth pattern and reproduction of woody vegetation in a semi-arid savannain southern Botswana. Minor Field Study 86. Uppsala: Uppsala University.
[41] Kalwij, J. M., de Boer, W. F., Mucina, L., Prins, H. H. T, Skarpe, C., & Winterbach, C. (2010). Tree cover and biomass increase in a southern African savanna despite growing elephant population. Ecological Applications, 20, 222-233. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/09-0541.1
[42] Kent, M., & Coker, P. (1992). Vegetation description and analysis. A practical approach. London: Belhaven Press.
[43] Krebs, C. J. (1989). Ecological methodology. New York: Harper Collins Publishers.
[44] Lamprecht, H. (1989). Silviculture in the tropics: Tropical forest ecosystems and their tree species—Possibilities and methods for their long-term utilization. Eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH.
[45] Leife, H. (2010). Has woody vegetation in a semi-arid savanna changed after 11 years exclusion of large herbivores? Minor Field Study 153. Uppsala: Uppsala University.
[46] Liu, Q., & Brakenhielm, S. (1996). Variability of plant species diversity in Swedish natural forest and its relation to atmospheric deposition. Academic Publishers, 125, 63-72.
[47] Louga, E. J., Witkowski, E. T. F., & Balkwill, K. (2004). Regeneration by coppicing (resprouting) of miombo (African savanna) trees in relation to land use. Forest Ecology and Management, 189, 23-35.
[48] Luoga, E. J., Witkowski, E. T. F., & Balkwill, K. (2000). Differential utilisation and ethnobotany of trees in Kitulangalo forest reserve and surrounding communal lands, eastern Tanzania. Economics Botany, 54, 328-343. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02864785
[49] Lykke, A. M. (1998). Assessment of species composition change in savanna vegetationby means of woody plants’ size class distributions and local information. Biodiversity and Conservation, 7, 1261-1275.
[50] Magurran, A. E. (2004). Measuring biological diversity. Malden and Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
[51] Makhabu, S. W. (2005a). Interactions between woody plants, elephants and other browsers in the Chobe Riverfront, Botswana. Doctoral Thesis, Oslo: Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
[52] Makhabu, S. W. (2005b). Resource partitioning within a browsing guild in a key habitat, the Chobe Riverfront, Botswana. African Journal of Ecology, 21, 641-649.
[53] Makhabu, S. W., Skarpe, C., Hytteborn, H., & Mpofu, Z. D. (2006). The plant vigour hypothesis revisited—How is browsing by ungulates and elephant related to woody species growth rate? Plant Ecology, 184, 163-172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11258-005-9060-9
[54] Margalef, R. (1972). Homage to Evelyn Hutchinson, or why is there an upper limit to diversity. Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, 44, 211-235.
[55] McCarthy, T. S., Bloem, A., & Larkin, P. A. (1998). Observations on the hydrology and geohydrology of the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Journal of Geology, 101, 101-117.
[56] McLaren, K. P., McDonald, M. A., Hall, J. B., & Healey, J. R. (2005). Predicting species response to disturbance from size class distributions of adults and saplings in a Jamaican tropical dry forest. Plant Ecology, 181, 69-84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11258-005-3497-8
[57] Mengistu, T., Teketay, A., Hulten, H., & Yemshaw, Y. (2005). The role of enclosures in the recovery of woody vegetation in degraded dryland hillsides of central and northern Ethiopia. Journal of Arid Environments, 60, 259-281.
[58] Mmolotsi, R. M., Obopile, M., Kwerepe, B. C., Sebolai, B., Rampart, M. P., Segwagwe, A. T., Ramolemana, G., Maphane, T. M., Lekorwe, L., & Kopong, I. (2012). Studies on Mukwa (Pterocarpus angolensis D. C.) dieback in Chobe Forest Reserves in Botswana. Journal of Plant Studies, 1, 154-157.
[59] Moleele, N., Ringrose, S., Arnberg, W., Lunden, B., & Vanderpost, C. (2001). Assessment of vegetation indexes useful for browse (forage) prediction in semi-arid rangelands. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 22, 741-756. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01431160051060147
[60] Moleele, N., Ringrose, S., Matheson, W., & Vander Post, C. (2002). More woody plants? The status of bush encroachment in Botswana’s grazing areas. Journal of Environmental Management, 64, 3-11.
[61] Mosugelo, D. K., Stein, M., Ringrose, S., & Nellemann, C. (2002). Vegetation changes during a 36 year period in Northern Chobe National Park, Botswana. African Journal of Ecology, 40, 232-240.
[62] Motsumi, S., Magole, L., & Kgathi, D. (2012). Indigenous knowledge and land use policy: Implications for livelihoods of flood recession farming communities in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 50-52, 185-195.
[63] Mueller-Dombois, D., & Ellenberg, H. (1974). Aims and methods of vegetation ecology. New York: John Willey and Sons, Inc.
[64] Murphy, P. G., & Lugo, A. E. (1986). Ecology of tropical dry forest. Annual Review of Ecology, 17, 67-88.
[65] Mwavu, N. E., & Witkowski, E. T. F. (2008). Sprouting of woody species following cutting and tree-fall in a lowland semi-deciduous tropical rainforest, North-Western Uganda. Forest Ecology and Management, 255, 982-992.
[66] Mwavu, N. E., & Witkowski, E. T. F. (2009a). Population structure and regeneration of multiple-use tree species in a semi-deciduous African tropical rainforest: Implications for primate conservation. Forest Ecology and Management, 258, 840-849.
[67] Mwavu, N. E., & Witkowski, E. T. F. (2009b). Seedling regeneration, environment and management in a semi-deciduous African tropical rain forest. Journal of Vegetation Science, 20, 791-804.
[68] Nangendo, G., Steege, H. T., & Bongers, F. (2006). Composition of woody species in a dynamic forest-woodland-savannah mosaic in Uganda: Implications for conservation and management. Biodiversity and Conservation, 15, 1467-1495.
[69] Nduwamungu, J. (1997). Tree and shrub diversity in Miombo Woodlands. A case study at SUA Kitulanghalo Forest Reserve, Morogoro, Tanzania. Master’s Thesis, Morogoro: Sokoine University of Agriculture.
[70] Neudeck, L., Avelino, L., Bareetseng, P., Ngwenya, B. N., Teketay, D., & Motsholapheko, M. R. (2012). The contribution of edible wild plants to food security, dietary diversity and income of households in Shorobe Village, northern Botswana. Ethnobotanical Research & Applications, 10, 449-462.
[71] Norwegian Forestry Society (1992). Chobe forest inventory and management plan. Gaborone: Ministry of Agriculture.
[72] Obiri, J., Lawes, M., & Mukolwe, M. (2002). The dynamics and sustainable use of highvalue tree species of the coastal Pondoland forests of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Forest Ecology and Management, 166, 131-148.
[73] Oosterbaan, R. J., Kortenhorst, L. F., & Sprey, L. H. (1986). Development of flood-recession cropping in the molapo’s of the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Wageningen: International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement.
[74] Pare, S., Savadogo, P., Tigabu, M., Odén, P.-C., & Ouadba, J. M. (2009). Regeneration and spatial distribution of seedling populations in Sudanian dry forests in relation to conservation status and human pressure. Tropical Ecology, 50, 339-353.
[75] Peters, C. M. (1996). The ecology and management of non-timber forest resources. Washington: World Bank Technical Paper 322.
[76] Poorter, L., Bongers, F., van Rompaey, A. R., & Klerk, M. D. (1996). Regeneration of canopy tree species at five sites in West African moist forest. Forest Ecology and Management, 84, 61-69.
[77] Rampart, M. (2007). Effects of fire and elephants on the growth of Pterocarpus angolensis (Mukwa) seedlings/saplings in the Chobe Forest Reserves (Botswana). Master’s Thesis, Bangor: University of Wales. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00044832
[78] Rao, P., Barik, S. K., Pandey, H. N., & Tripathi, R. S. (1990). Community composition and tree population structure in a sub-tropical broad-leaved forest along a disturbance gradient. Vegetatio, 88, 151-162.
[79] Ringrose, S. (2003). Characterisation of riparian woodlands and their potential water loss in the distal Okavango Delta, Botswana. Applied Geography, 23, 281-302.
[80] Ringrose, S., & Matheson, W. (2001). Spatial characteristics of Riparian Woodlands in the Distal Okavango Delta. Botswana Notes and Records, 33, 101-114.
[81] Ringrose, S., Chipanshi, A. C., Matheson, W., Chanda, R., Motoma, L., & Magole, I. (2002). Climate and human induced woody vegetation changes in Botswana and their implications for human adaptation. Environmental Management, 30, 98-109.
[82] Ringrose, S., Lesolle, D., Botshoma, T., Gopolang, B., VanderPost, C., & Matheson, W. (1999). An analysis of vegetation cover components in relation to climatic trends along the Botswana Kalahari Transect. Botswana Notes and Records, 31, 33-52.
[83] Ringrose, S., Matheson, W., & Vander Post, C. (1998). Analysis of soil organic carbon and vegetation cover trends along the Botswana Kalahari Transect. Journal of Arid Environments, 38, 379-396.
[84] Robinson, J. A., Lulla, K. P., Robinson, J. A., Lulla, K. P., Kashiwagi, M., Suzuki, M., Nellis, M. D., Charles, Bussing, E., Long, W. J. L., & McKenzie, L. J. (2002). Conservation applications of astronaut photographs of earth: Tidal-flat loss (Japan), elephant effects on vegetation (Botswana), and seagrass and mangrove monitoring (Australia). Conservation Biology, 15, 876-884.
[85] Rutina L. P. (2004). Impalas in an elephant-impacted woodland: Browser-driven dynamics of the Chobe riparian zone, northern Botswana. Ph.D. Thesis, As: Agricultural University of Norway.
[86] Rutina, L. P., Moe, S. R., & Swenson, J. E. (2005). Elephant Loxodonta africana driven woodland conversion to shrubland improves dryseason browse availability for impalas Aepyceros melampus. Wildlife Biology, 11, 207-213.
[87] Sabiiti, E. N., & Wein, R. W. (1987). Fire and acacia seeds: A hypothesis of colonization success. Journal of Ecology, 74, 937-946.
[88] Sano, J. (1997). Age and size distribution in a long-term forest dynamics. Forest Ecology Management, 92, 39-44.
[89] Savadogo, P. (2007). Dynamics of Sudanian savanna-woodland ecosystems in response to disturbances. Doctoral Thesis, UmeA: Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
[90] Savadogo, P., Tigabu, M., Sawadogo, L., & Odén, P.-C. (2007). Woody species composition, structure and diversity of vegetation patches of a Sudanian savanna in Burkina Faso. Bois et Forêts des Tropiques, 294, 7-20.
[91] Schultka, W., & Cornelius, R. (1997). Vegetation structure of a heavily grazed range in northern Kenya: Tree and shrub canopy. Journal of Arid Environments, 36, 291-306.
[92] Sekhwela, M. B. M. (2003). Woody vegetation resource changes around selected settlements along aridity gradient in the Kalahari, Botswana. Journal of Arid Environment, 54, 469-482.
[93] Sekhwela, M. B. M., Yates, D., & Lamb, D. (2000). Woody vegetation structure and wood availability in arid and sem-arid Kalahari sand system in Botswana. In S. Ringrose and C. Raban (Eds.), Towards Sustainable Natural Resource Management in the Kalahari Transect (pp. 65-82). Gaborone: University of Botswana.
[94] Senbeta, F., & Teketay, D. (2003). Diversity, community types and population structure of woody plants in Kimphee forest, a unique nature reserve in southern Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Biological Sciences, 2, 169-187.
[95] Setshogo, M. F. (2005). Preliminary checklist of the plants of Botswana. Pretoria and Gaborone: Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 37.
[96] Setshogo, M. P., & Venter, F. (2003). Trees of Botswana: Names and Distribution. Pretoria: Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 18.
[97] Shackleton, C. M. (1993). Demography and dynamics of the dominant woody species in a communal and protected area of the eastern Transvaal Lowveld. South African Journal of Botany, 59, 569-574.
[98] Skarpe, C. (1990a). Structure of the woody vegetation in disturbed and undisturbed arid savanna. Botswana. Vegetatio, 87, 11-18.
[99] Skarpe, C. (1990b). Shrub layer dynamics under different herbivore densities in an arid savanna, Botswana. Journal of Applied Ecology, 27, 873-885. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2404383
[100] Skarpe, C. (1992). Dynamics of savanna ecosystems. Journal of Vegetation Science, 3, 293-300. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3235754
[101] Sokpon, N., & Biaou, S. H. (2002). The use of diameter distributions in sustained-use management of remnant forests in Benin: Case of Bassila Forest Reserve in North Benin. Forest Ecology and Management, 161, 13-25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(01)00488-1
[102] Sop, T. K., Oldeland, J., Schmiedel, U., Ouedraogo, I., & Thiombiano. A. (2011). Population structure of three woody species in four ethnic domains of the sub-sahel of Burkina Faso. Land Degradation & Development, 22, 519-529. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ldr.1026
[103] Swaine, M. D., Lieberman, D., & Hall, J. B. (1990).Structure and dynamics of a tropical dry forest in Ghana. Vegetatio, 88, 31-51.
[104] Tabuti, J. R. S. (2007). The uses local perceptions and ecological status of 16 woody species of Gadumire Sub-county Uganda. Biodiversity and Conservation, 16, 1901-1916.
[105] Tacheba, B., Segosebe, E., Vanderpost, C., & Sebego, R. (2009). Assessing the impacts of fire on the vegetation resources that are available to the local communities of the seasonal wetlands of the Okavango, Botswana, in the context of different land uses and key government policies. African Journal of Ecology, 47, 71-77.
[106] Teketay, D. (1996b). Germination ecology of twelve indigenous and eight exotic multipurpose leguminous species from Ethiopia. Forest Ecology and Management, 80, 209-223.
[107] Teketay, D. (1997a). Seedling populations and regeneration of woody species in dry Afromontane forests of Ethiopia. Forest Ecology and Management, 98, 149-165.
[108] Teketay, D. (1997b). Germination ecology of Acacia negrii, an endemic multipurpose tree from Ethiopia. Tropical Ecology, 38, 39-46.
[109] Teketay, D. (1998). Soil seed bank at an abandoned Afromontane arable site. Feddes Repertorium, 109, 161-174.
[110] Teketay, D. (2004-2005). Causes and consequences of dryland forest degradation in Sub-Saharan Africa. Walia, 24, 3-20.
[111] Teketay, D. (2005a). Seed and regeneration ecology in dry Afromontane forests of Ethiopia: I. Seed production—Population structures. Tropical Ecology, 46, 29-44.
[112] Teketay, D. (2005b). Seed and regeneration ecology in dry Afromontane forests of Ethiopia: II. Forest disturbance and succession. Tropical Ecology, 46, 45-64.
[113] Teketay, D. (2011). Natural regeneration and management of Podocarpus falcatus (Thunb.) Mirb. in the Afromontane forests of Ethiopia. In: S. Günter, M. Weber, B. Stimm and R. Mosandi (Eds.), Silviculture in the tropics (pp. 325-336). London and New York: SpringerVerlag Berlin Heidelberg.
[114] Teketay, D., & Granstrom, A. (1995). Soil seed banks in dry Afromontane forests of Ethiopia. Journal of Vegetation Science, 6, 777-786. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3236391
[115] Teketay, D., & Granstrom, A. (1997). Seed viability of Afromontane tree species in forest soils. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 13, 81-95.
[116] Teketay. D. (1996a). Seed ecology and regeneration in dry Afromontane Forests of Ethiopia. Doctoral Thesis, UmeA: Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
[117] Tesfaye, G., Teketay, D. & Fetene, M. (2002). Regeneration of fourteen tree species in Harenna forest, southeastern Ethiopia. Flora, 197, 461-474. http://dx.doi.org/10.1078/0367-2530-1210063
[118] Tesfaye, G., Teketay, D., Fetene, M., & Beck, E. (2010). Regeneration of seven indigenous tree species in a dry Afromontane forest, southern Ethiopia. Flora, 205, 135-143.
[119] Vanderpost, C. (2009). Molapo farming in the Okavango Delta. fact sheet 7/2009. Maun: Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Centre, University of Botswana.
[120] Venter, S. M., & Witkowski, E. T. F. (2010). Baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) density, size-class distribution and population trends between four land-use types in northern Venda, South Africa. Forest Ecology and Management, 259, 294-300.
[121] West, A. G., Midgley, J. J., & Bond, W. J. (2000). Regeneration failure and potential importance of human disturbance in a subtropical forest. Applied Vegetation Science, 3, 223-232.
[122] Whelan, R. J. (2001). The ecology of fire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
[123] Wilson, B. G., & Witkowski, E. T. F. (2003). Seed banks, bark thickness and change in age and size structure (1997-1999) of the African savanna tree, Burkea Africana. Plant Ecology, 167, 151-162.
[124] Witkowski E. T. F., & O’Connor, T. G. (1996). Topo-edaphic, floristic and physiognomic gradients of woody plants in a semi-arid African savanna woodland. Vegetatio, 124, 9-23.
[125] Witkowski, E. T. F., & Garner, R. D. (2000). Spatial distribution of soil seed banks of three African savanna woody species at contrasting sites. Plant Ecology, 149, 91-106.
[126] Woldemariam, T., Teketay, D., Edwards S., & Olsson, M. (2000). Woody plant and avian species diversity in a dry Afromontane forest on the central plateau of Ethiopia: Biological indicators for conservation. Ethiopian Journal of Natural Resources, 2, 255-293.
[127] Worku, A., Teketay, D., Lemenih, M., & Fetene, M. (2012). Diversity, regeneration status and population structure of gum and resin producing woody species in Boarana, Southern Ethiopia. Forests, Trees and Livelihoods, 1-12.
[128] Zahabu, E. (2001). Impact of charcoal extraction to the miombo woodlands: The case of Kitulangalo area, Tanzania. Master’s Thesis, Morogoro: Sokoine University of Agriculture.
[129] Zar, J. H. (1999). Biostastical analysis (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
[130] Zegeye, H., Teketay, D., & Kelbessa, E. (2006). Diversity, regeneration status and socio-economic importance of the vegetation in the islands of Lake Ziway, south-central Ethiopia. Flora, 201, 483-498.
[131] Zegeye, H., Teketay, D., & Kelbessa, E. (2011). Diversity and regeneration status of woody species in Tara Gedam and Abebaye forests, northwestern Ethiopia. Journal of Forestry Research, 22, 315-328.
[132] Zida, D., Savadogo, L., Tigabu, M., Tiveau, D., & Oden, P. C. (2007). Dynamics of sapling population in savanna woodlands of Burkina Faso subjected to grazing, early fire and selective tree cutting for a decade. Forest Ecology and Management, 243, 102-115.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.