Pneumothorax Complicating Port-a-Cath and Groshong Catheter Positioning in Children: Our Experience before Routine Ultrasound-Guided Puncture

DOI: 10.4236/ojanes.2013.38073   PDF   HTML     3,414 Downloads   5,361 Views  

Abstract

Objective: To study incidence and management of long term central venous catheter (CVC) placement related pneumothorax (PNX) in children. Aim: To construct a baseline value before the introduction of systematic use of ultrasound guidance, which requires specific training and equipment. Background: Anesthesia Service and Pediatric Oncology of the Italian National Cancer Center; patients were children (age ≤ 18 years) with solid tumors, needing long-term central venous catheters (Groshong or Port-a-Cath). Materials/Methods: Catheter placement was performed, mostly under general anesthesia, utilizing a micropuncture 5-7 Fr needle and fluoroscopy. In the study period ultrasound was used only in case of previously failed attempts. Relevant data were collected retrospectively. Results: From August 2008 to December 2011, 452 catheters were implanted to our patients. The prevalent approach was from subclavian vein (left 85.7%, right 9.7%); in few cases internal jugular vein was chosen (right 2.4%, left 2.2%). Pneumothorax occurred in 14 patients (3.1%; 95%CI 1.9-5.1). In 4/14 children the PNX was considered minimal and not treated. In 10 patients the PNX was drained. In 7 cases a traditional, surgical thoracostomy was performed, while in 3 children a 14-Ga polyurethane catheter (Arrow International®) was inserted over a wire guide in the pleural space by anaesthetists. Conclusions: In our centre rates of PNX are the same as those described in literature and are expected to lower when ultrasound guidance of the puncture will be routinely applied. Percutaneous drainage of PNX seems as effective as surgically placed thoracostomy catheter, but less invasive.

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S. Guenzani, P. Previtali, F. Piccioni, M. Allemano, S. Catania and M. Langer, "Pneumothorax Complicating Port-a-Cath and Groshong Catheter Positioning in Children: Our Experience before Routine Ultrasound-Guided Puncture," Open Journal of Anesthesiology, Vol. 3 No. 8, 2013, pp. 345-348. doi: 10.4236/ojanes.2013.38073.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

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