Share This Article:

Laboratory Profile of HIV-2 and Dual HIV-1/HIV-2 Associated Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Nigeria

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:77KB) PP. 192-196
DOI: 10.4236/wja.2013.33025    3,562 Downloads   5,222 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Background: HIV-2 is comparatively less pathogenic with slow progression of infection to clinical disease and consequently there is less of information on the occurrence of HIV-2 associated disease than HIV-1. We hereby describe some laboratory profiles of individuals presenting with HIV-2 and dual HIV-1/2 related AIDS at the University College hospital in Ibadan over a period of seven years. Methodology: Blood samples from patients presenting with the AIDS defining illness at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria were tested for antibodies to HIV-1/2 using rapid test devices or ELISA. Initially reactive samples were further tested by immunoblotting for differentiation into HIV-1 or HIV-2 or HIV-1/2 dual infection. Blood samples from individuals with confirmed infections were further analyzed for CD4 cell lymphocyte number, plasma HIV-1 RNA concentration, hematological and blood chemistry parameters. The data analysis was done using descriptive statistics and Levene-S test for equality of variance. Results: Thirty five patients, 18 and 17 with HIV-2 and dual HIV-1/2 infections respectively were identified during the period covered by this study (2005-2012). The median age of the patients was 48 years old (Range: 42 - 70 years old) and mean CD4 cell count of HIV-2 patients at enrollment was 324 (Range: 16 - 696) and 350 (Range 54 - 863) per microlitre of blood for patients with dual HIV-1/2 infection. HIV-1 RNA was not detected in the plasma of the 18 patients with serological HIV-2 infection but 2 (11.8%) of the 17 patients with dual HIV-1/2 serological profile had detectable HIV-1 RNA (1,287,275 copies/ml and 1,816,491 copies/ml). Conclusion: The results emphasize the need to consider HIV-2 infection in the investigation of patients presenting with the AIDS related illness but with negative HIV-1serology. The study also shows the importance of inclusion of multispot HIV-1 and 2 rapid tests for differentiating HIV-1 from HIV-2 infections in regions where both types of HIV circulate or epidemiologically indicated.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

G. Odaibo and D. Olaleye, "Laboratory Profile of HIV-2 and Dual HIV-1/HIV-2 Associated Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Nigeria," World Journal of AIDS, Vol. 3 No. 3, 2013, pp. 192-196. doi: 10.4236/wja.2013.33025.

References

[1] P. J. Kanki, “Biologic Features of HIV-2: An Update,” AIDS Clinical Review, 1991, pp. 17-38.
[2] D. O. Olaleye, T. O. Harry and G. N. Odaibo, “The Virology and Dynamics of the Epidemic,” In: O. Adeyi, P. J. Kanki, O. Odutolu and J. A. Idoko, Eds., AIDS in Nigeria: A Nation on the Threshold, Harvard Center for Population and Development, Cambridge, 2006, pp. 37-66.
[3] S. T. Meloni, A. Ojesina and D. O. Olaleye, “The Molecular Epidemiology of HIV,” In: O. Adeyi, P. J. Kanki, O. Odutolu and J. A. Idoko, Eds., AIDS in Nigeria: A Nation on the Threshold, Harvard Center for Population and Development, Cambridge, 2006, pp. 67-92.
[4] D. Olaleye, L. Bernstein, C. Ekwezor et al., “Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 and 2 Infections in Nigeria,” The Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol. 167, No. 3, 1993, pp. 710-714. doi:10.1093/infdis/167.3.710
[5] J. Chikwen, I. Mohammed and O. T. Oyebode, “Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection in Borno State of Nigeria,” East African Medical Journal, Vol. 65, No. 5, 1988, pp. 342-346.
[6] T. Harry, O. Ekanna, J. Chikwen et al., “Seroepidemiology of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Borno State of Nigeria by Sentinel Sueveillance,” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1993, pp. 99-103.
[7] S Jaffar, A. D. Grant, J. Whitworth, P. G. Smith and H. Whittle, “The Natural History of HIV-1 and HIV-2 Infections in Adults in Africa: A Literature Review,” Bulletin of World Health Organization, Vol. 82, No. 6, 2004, pp. 462-469.
[8] A. G. Poulsen, P. Aaby, O. Larsen et al., “9-Year HIV-2-Associated Mortality in an Urban Community in Bissau,” West African Lancet, Vol. 349, No. 9056, 1997, pp. 911-914. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(96)04402-9
[9] H. Whittle, J. Morris and J. Todd, T. Corrah, S. Sabally, J. Bangali, P. T. Ngom, M. Rolfe and A. Wilkins, “HIV-2 Infected Patients Survive Longer than HIV-1-Infected Patients,” AIDS, Vol. 8, No. 11, 1994, pp. 1617-1620. doi:10.1097/00002030-199411000-00015
[10] Fedral Ministry of Health, “Nigeria; National HIV Sero-Prevalence Sentinel Survey among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Nigeria,” Technical Report, 2010, pp. 1-96.
[11] K. Peterson, S. Jallow, S. L. Rowland-Jones and T. I. de Siliva, “Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV-2 Infection: Recommendations for Management in Low-Resource Settings,” AIDS Research and Treatment, 2011, p. 13.
[12] A. S. Alabi, S. Jaffar, Ariyoshi et al., “Plasma Viral Load, CD4 Cell Percentage, HLA and Survival of HIV-1, HIV-2 and Dually Infected Gambian Patients,” AIDS, Vol. 17, No. 10, 2003, pp. 1513-1520.
[13] S. Jallow, A. Alabi, R. Sarge-Njie et al., “Virological Response to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Patients Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2 (HIV-2) and Patients Dually Infected with HIV-1 and HIV-2 in the Gambia and Emergence of Drug-Resistant Variants,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, Vol. 47, No. 7, 2009, pp. 2200-2208. doi:10.1128/JCM.01654-08
[14] P. J. Bock and D. M. Markovitz, “Infection with HIV-2,” AIDS, Vol. 15, 2001, pp. S35-S45. doi:10.1097/00002030-200100005-00006
[15] N. K. Barry, S. Ariyoshi, S. Jaffar et al., “Low Peripheral Blood Viral HIV-2 RNA in Individuals with High CD4 Percentage Differentiates HIV-2 from HIV-1 Infection,” Journal of Human Virology, Vol. 1, 1998, pp. 457-468.
[16] D. K. Oladepo, E. O. Idigbe, R. O. Audu et al., “Establishment of Reference CD4 and CD8 Lymphocyte Subsets in Healthy Nigerian Adults,” Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, Vol. 16, No. 9, 2009, pp. 1374-1377. doi:10.1128/CVI.00378-08
[17] Federal Ministry of Health, “Abuja, Nigeria, National Guidelines for HIV and AIDS Treatment and Care in Adolescents and Adults,” pp. 1-67. http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/guidelines/nigeria_art.pdf
[18] T. de Siliva, C. van Tienen, S. Rowland-Jones and M. Cotton, “Dual infection with HIV-1 and HIV-2: Double Trouble or Destructive Interference?” HIV Therapy, Vol. 4, No. 3, 2010, pp. 305-323. doi:10.2217/hiv.10.26

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.