The Interaction between the Large-Scale EVs and the Power Grid


With the problem of global energy shortage and peoples awareness of energy saving, electric vehicles receive world-wide attention from government to business. Then the load of the power grid will rapidly increase in a short term, and a series of effects will bring to the power grid operation, management, production and planning. With the large-scale penetration of electric vehicles and distributed energy gradually increased, if they can be effectively controlled and regulated, they can play the roles of load shifting, stabling intermittent renewable energy sources, providing emergency power supply and so on. Otherwise they may have a negative impact, which calls for a good interaction of electric vehicles and power grid. Analyzed the status of the current study on the interaction between the electric vehicles and the power grid, this paper builds the material basis, information architecture and the corresponding control method for the interaction from the aspect of the energy and information exchanging, and then discusses the key issues, which makes a useful exploration for the further research.

Share and Cite:

Y. Huang, J. Liu, X. Shen and T. Dai, "The Interaction between the Large-Scale EVs and the Power Grid," Smart Grid and Renewable Energy, Vol. 4 No. 2, 2013, pp. 137-143. doi: 10.4236/sgre.2013.42017.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] W. Zhang, B. Wu and W. F. Li, “Discussion on Development Trend of Battery Electric Vehicles in China and Its Energy Supply Mode,” Power System Technology, Vol. 33, No. 4, 2009, pp. 1-5.
[2] Y. X. Yu and W. P. Luan, “Power System and Clean Energy,” Smart Grid, Vol. 25, No. 1, 2009, pp. 7-11. (in Chinese)
[3] O. Tremblay, L. A. Dessaint and A. I. Dekkiche, “A Generic Battery Model for the Dynamic Simulation of Hybrid Electric Vehicles,” Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference, Arlington, 9-12 September 2007, pp. 284-289.
[4] S. D. Jenkins, J. R. Rossmaier and M. Ferdowsi, “Utilization and Effect of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles in the United States,” Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference, Harbin, 3-5 September 2008, pp. 1-5.
[5] J. H. Zhao, F. S. Wen and Y. S. Xue, “Power System Stochastic Economic Dispatch Considering Uncertain Outputs from Plug-In Electric Vehicles and Wind Generators,” Automation of Electric Power System, Vol. 34, No. 20, 2010, pp. 22-29.
[6] E.-S. Li and W. M. Wu, “Influence and Countermeasure of Electric Vehicle Battery Charging to Power Systems,” East China Electric Power, Vol. 38, No. 1, 2010, pp. 0109-0113.
[7] K. Clement-Nyns, E. Haesen and J. Driesen, “The Impact of Charging Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles on a Residential Distribution Grid,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 25, No. 1, 2010, pp. 371-380. doi:10.1109/TPWRS.2009.2036481
[8] S. Acha, T. C. Green and N. Shah, “Effects of Optimised Plug—In Hybrid Vehicle Charging Strategies on Electric Distribution Network Losses,” Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition, New Orleans, 19-22 April 2010, pp. 1-6.
[9] L. T. Tian, S. L. Shi and Z. Jia, “A Statistical Model for Charging Power Demand of Electric Vehicles,” Power System Technology, Vol. 4, No. 11, 2010, pp. 126-130.
[10] X. L. Yang, “The Development Trend and Foreground of the Electric Vehicle,” Auto Mobile Science & Technology, Vol. 6, 2007, pp. 10-13.
[11] L. Q. Chen and D. S. Cui, “China New Energy Vehicle Policy,” Auto Time, Vol. 9, 2011, pp. 21-29.
[12] P. C. Sun, “The Current Situation and Development Trend of the Electric Vehicle,” Scientific Chinese, Vol. 8, 2006, pp. 44-47.
[13] L. Li and Q. B. Liu, “Study on the Influence on the EV’s Usage to the Load Curve,” Electrical Machinery Technology, Vol. 1, 2000, pp. 37-39.
[14] W. Kempton, J. Tomic and S. Letendre, “Vehicle-to-Grid Power: Battery, Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Vehicles as Resources for Distributed Electric Power in California,” Institute of Transportation Studies Report, 2001.
[15] W. Jason and P. Lincoln, “Impact of Plug-Hybrid Electric Vehicles on California’s Electricity Grid,” North Carolina: Duke University, 2009.
[16] W. Kempton and J. Tomic, “Vehicle-to-Grid Power Fun damental: Calculating Capacity and Net Revenue,” Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 144, No. 1, 2005, pp. 268-279. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2004.12.025
[17] W. Kempton and J. Tomic, “Vehicle-to-Grid Power Implementation: From Stabilizing the Grid to Supporting Large-Scale Renewable Energy,” Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 144, No. 1, 2005, pp. 280-294. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2004.12.022
[18] G. Christophe and G. George, “A Conceptual Framework for the Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) Implementation,” Energy Policy, Vol. 37, No. 11, 2009, pp. 4379-4390. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2009.05.053
[19] W. Kempton, V. Udo and K. Huber, “A Test of Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) for Energy Storage and Frequency Regulation in the PJM System,” University of Delaware, Delaware, 2008.
[20] D. Larry and H. Jessica, “A New Car, A New Grid,” IEEE Power & Energy Magazine, Vol. 8, No. 2, 2010, pp. 55-61. doi:10.1109/MPE.2009.935553
[21] S. W. Hadley and A. A. Tsvetkova, “A Potential Impacts of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Regional Power Generation,” The Electricity Journal, Vol. 22, No. 10, 2009, pp. 56-68. doi:10.1016/j.tej.2009.10.011
[22] W. H. Stanton, “Impact of Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles on the Electric Grid,” Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Ten nessee, 2006.
[23] K. Parks, P. Denholm and T. Markel, “Costs and Emissions Associated with Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging in the Xcel Energy Colorado Service Territory,” National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Colorado, 2007. doi:10.2172/903293
[24] A. W. Rashid, D. G. Matthias and B. Michael, “Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Smart Grid: Investigations Based on a Micro-Simulation,” The 12th International Conference of the International Association for Travel Behaviour Research, Jaipur, 2009.
[25] M. Rowand, “The Electricity Utility-Business Case,” Plug In Conference, San Jose, 2009.
[26] J. Taylor, A. Maitra and M. Alexander, “Evaluation of the Impact of Plug-In Electric Vehicle Loading on Distribution System Operations,” Power & Energy Society General Meeting, Calgary, 26-30 July 2009, pp. 1-6.
[27] E. S. Li and W. M. Wu. “Influence and Countermeasure of Electric Vehicle Battery Charging to Power Systems,” East China Electric Power, Vol. 38, No. 11, 2010, pp. 109-113.
[28] Y. J. Chen, “Study on the Influence on Power Quality By Electric Vehicle Charging Equipment,” Hubei Electric Power, Vol. 33, No. 6, 2009, pp. 48-50.
[29] J. G. Kang, Z. L. Wei and D. M. Cheng, “Research on Electric Vehicle Charging Mode and Charging Stations Construction,” Power Demand Side Management, Vol. 11, No. 5, 2009, pp. 64-66.
[30] L. Steven, “Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles and the Vermont Grid: A Scoping Analysis,” University of Vermont Transportation Center, Vermont, 2007.
[31] M. K. Meyers, K. Schneider and R. Pratt, “Impacts Assessment of Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles on Electric Utilities and Regional US Power Grids Part 1: Technical Analy sis,” Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Washington DC, 2007.
[32] P. Denholm and W. Short, “An Evaluation of Utility System Impacts and Benefits of Optimally Dispatched Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicles,” National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Colorado, 2007.
[33] Y. Gurkaynak and A. Khaligh. “A Control and Power Management of a Grid Connected Residential Photovoltaic System with Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Load,” Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, Washington DC, 15-19 February 2009, pp. 2086-2091.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.