Effects of primovaccination and booster vaccination on serum cortisol and humoral immune response in cattle

DOI: 10.4236/abb.2013.45079   PDF   HTML     4,413 Downloads   7,585 Views   Citations


The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of one or two doses of the anti-rabies vaccination on the serum concentration of cortisol and the humoral immune response in cattle as well as the correlation between serum cortisol concentrations and the titers of rabies-neutralizing antibodies. Nelore cattle were randomly assigned to one of three groups, which were vaccinated with one dose of rabies vaccine (group GVSR, N = 15), two doses of rabies vaccine (group GVR, N = 15) or were not vaccinated (group Gc, N = 15). A commercial liquid inactivated rabies vaccine was used. The stressors imposed on the cattle were vaccination, corral handling and the presence of people. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 30 and 60 post-vaccination. Serum cortisol concentrations were determined using a solid-phase radioimmunoassay, and rabies antibody titers were determined using a serum neutralization test with BHK21 cells (RFFIT). Both serum cortisol concentrations and antibody titers increased after the second (booster) vaccination (P < 0.05). In all the groups, the serum cortisol concentrations increased after the cattle were handled in the corral (P < 0.05). No correlation was observed between the serum cortisol concentrations and the antibody titers with any treatment or on any observation day. In conclusion, booster vaccination is indispensable for primovaccinated cattle in achieving high and protective levels of rabies antibodies. Although booster vaccination and frequent cattle handling in corrals are stressors, the response is not strong enough to cause immunosuppression in cattle.

Share and Cite:

Reis, L. , Pardo, P. , Frazatti-Gallina, N. , Paoli, R. , Oba, E. , Kronka, S. and Camargos, A. (2013) Effects of primovaccination and booster vaccination on serum cortisol and humoral immune response in cattle. Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology, 4, 607-611. doi: 10.4236/abb.2013.45079.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Kobayashi, Y., Ogawa, A., Sato, G., Sato, T., Itou, T., Samara, S.I., Carvalho, A.A., Nociti, D.P., Ito, F.H. and Sakai, T. (2006) Geographical distribution of vampire batrelated cattle rabies in Brazil. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 68, 1097-1100. doi:10.1292/jvms.68.1097
[2] Achkar, S.M., Sinhorini, I.L., Ribeiro, O.G., Carrieri, M.L., Ceretta, R.S. and Consales, C.A. (2007) Immunopathology of rabies infection in mice selected for high or Low acute inflammatory reaction. Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases, 13, 3955. doi:10.1590/S1678-91992007000100003
[3] Torres, F.D., Valença, C. and Andrade Filho, G.V. (2005) First recordo for Desmodusrotundus in urban área from the city of Olinda, Pernanbuco, northeastern Brazil: A case report. Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo, 47, 107-108. doi:10.1590/S0036-46652005000200010
[4] Lima, E.F., Riet-Correa, F., Castro, R.S., Gomes, A.B. and Lima, F.S. (2005) Sinaisclínicos, distribuição das lesões no sistemanervoso e epidemiologia da raivaem herbívorosnaregiãoNordeste do Brasil. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira, 25, 250-264. doi:10.1590/S0100-736X2005000400011
[5] Arthington, J.D., Eichert, S.D., Kunkle, W.E. and Martin, F.G. (2003) Effect of transportation and commingling on the acutephase protein response, growth, and feed intake of newly weaned beef calves. Journal of Animal Science, 81, 1120-1125.
[6] Reis, L.S.L.S., Chiacchio, S.B., Oba, E., Pardo, P.E. and Frazatti-Gallina, N.M. (2012) Effects of selenium supplementation on serum cortisol in repeatedly handled cattle. Archivos de Zootecnia, 61, 141-144. doi:10.4321/S0004-05922012000100015
[7] Hemsworth, P.H., Coleman, G.J., Barnett, J.L. and Borg, S. (2000) Relationships between human-animal interactions and productivity of commercial dairy cows. Journal of Animal Science, 78, 2821-2831.
[8] Hickey, M.C., Drennan, M. and Earley, B. (2003) The effect of abrupt weaning of suckler calves on the plasma concentrations of cortisol, catecholamines, leukocytes, acute-phase proteins and in vitro interferongamma production. Journal of Animal Science, 81, 2847-2855.
[9] Borell, E.H. (2001) The biology of stress and its application to livestock housing and transportation assessment. Journal of Animal Science, 79, E260-E267.
[10] Carrasco, G.A. and Van de Kar, L.D. (2003) Neuroendocrine pharmacology of stress. European Journal of Pharmacology, 463, 235-372. doi:10.1016/S0014-2999(03)01285-8
[11] Reis, L.S.L.S., Pardo, P.E. and Oba, E. (2006) Matricariachamomilla CH12 decreases handling stress in Nelore calves. Journal Veterinary Science, 7, 189-192. doi:10.4142/jvs.2006.7.2.189
[12] Blecha, F. (2000) Immune system response to stress. In: Moberg, G.P. and Mench, J.A., Eds., The Biology of Animal Stress: Basic Principle and Implications for Animal Welfare, CABI Publishing, London, 111-146. doi:10.1079/9780851993591.0111
[13] Ciuchini, F., Irsara, A., Pestalozza, S., Di Trani, L. and Antonucci, G. (1981) Rispostaimmunitaria in bovinivaccinaticontro la rabbia con virus attenuatoceppo ERA. Revista di ZootecniaVeterinária, 9, 176-184.
[14] Queiroz da Silva, L.H., Cardoso, T.C., Perri, S.H.V., Pinheiro, D.M. and Carvalho, C. (2003) Pesquisa de anticorpos anti-rábicosembovinosvacinados da região de Araçatuba, SP. Arquivos do InstitutoBiológico, 70, 407-413.
[15] Albas, A., Pardo, P.E., Bremer Neto, H., Gallina, N.M.F., Mourão Fuches, R.M. and Sartori, A. (2005) Vacinação anti-rábicaembovinos: comparação de cincoesquemasvacinais. Arquivos do Instituto Biológico, 72, 153-159.
[16] Giometti1, J., Chiacchio, S.B., Albas, A., Pardo, P.E., Bremer-Neto, H., Giometti, A.I. and Reis, L.S.L.S. (2006) Influência da suplementação com crômionarespostaimunehumoral anti-rábicaembovinos. Arquivos do InstitutoBiológico, 73, 421-427.
[17] Smith, J.S., Yager, P.A. and Baer, G.M. (1996) A rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) for determing rabies virus-neutralizing antibody. In: Mestin, F.X., Kaplan, M.M. and Koprowski, H., Eds., Laboratory Techniques in Rabies. World Health Organization, Geneva, 181192.
[18] Zalan, E., Wilson, C. and Pukitis, D.A. (1979). A microtest for the quantitation of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies. Journal of Biological Standardization, 7, 213-220. doi:10.1016/S0092-1157(79)80024-4
[19] Banzatto, D.A. and Kronka, S.N. (2006) Experimentaçãoagrícola. FUNEP, Jaboticabal.
[20] Aragón, V.E.F., Graça, D.S., Norte, A.L, Santiago, G.S. and Paula, O.J. (2001) Suplementação com cromo e desempenhoreprodutivo de vacas zebu primíparasmantidas a pasto. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, 53, 624-628. doi:10.1590/S0102-09352001000500019
[21] Vásquez, E.F.A. and Herrera, A.P.N. (2003) Concentraçãoplasmática de cortisol, uréia, cálcio e fósforoemvacas de cortemantidas a pastosuplementadas com levedura de cromodurante a estação de monta. Ciência Rural, 33, 743-747. doi:10.1590/S0103-84782003000400025
[22] Reis, L.S.L.S., Chiacchio, S.B., Oba, E., Pardo, P.E. and Frazatti-Gallina, N.M.V. (2009) Association between handling stress in the corral and rabies antibody titers in selenium-supplemented cattle. Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases, 15, 778788. doi:10.1590/S1678-91992009000400015
[23] Andrade, O., Orihuela, A., Solano, J. and Galina, C.S. (2001) Some effects of repeated handling and the use of a mask on stress responses in Zebu cattle during restraint. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 71, 175-181. doi:10.1016/S0168-1591(00)00177-5
[24] Lensink, B.J., Fernandez, X., Boivin, X., Pradel, P., Le Neindre, P. and Veissier, I. (2000) The impact of gentle contacts on case of handling, welfare, and growth of calves and on quality of veal meat. Journal of Animal Science, 78, 1219-1226. http://www.journalofanimalscience.org/content/78/5/1219
[25] Moberg, G.P. (2000) Biological response to stress: Implications for animal welfare. In: Moberg, G.P. and Mench, J.A., Eds., The Biology of Animal Stress: Basic Principle and Implications for Animal Welfare, CABI Publishing, London, 1-21. doi:10.1079/9780851993591.0001
[26] Chacón, S.C. and López, H.S. (1994) Es el estrés el quecontrola la respostainmune o viceversa? Veterinaria México, 25, 99-103.
[27] Benísek, Z., Suli, J., Svrcek, S., Mojzisová, J., Takácová, D., Závadová, J., Ondrejka, R. and Ondrejková, A. (2000) Experimental inactivated purified concentrated adjuvant rabies vaccine. Evaluation of its efficacy in cattle. Acta Veterinaria Brno, 69, 39-44. doi:10.2754/avb200069010039
[28] Rodrigues Da Silva, A.C., Caporale, G.M.M., Gonçalves, C.A., Targueta, M.C., Comin, F., Zanetti, C.R. and Kotait, I. (2000) Antibody response in cattle after vaccination with inactivated and attenuated rabies vaccines. Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo, 42, 9598. doi:10.1590/S0036-46652000000200006
[29] Oliveira, N.A., Andrade, M.C.R., Silva, M.V., Moura, W.C. and Contreiras, E.C. (2000) Immune response in cattle vaccinated against rabies. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 95, 83-88. doi:10.1590/S0074-02762000000100013
[30] Reis, L.S.L.S, Frazatti-Gallina, N.M, Paoli, R.L., Giuffrida, R., Albas, A., Oba, E. and Pardo, P.E. (2008) Efficiency of Matricariachamomilla CH12 and number of doses of rabies vaccine on the humoral immune response in cattle. Journal of Veterinary Science, 9, 433-435. doi:10.4142/jvs.2008.9.4.433
[31] Maria, E.K., Pardo, P.E., Frazatti-Gallina, N.M., Paoli, R.L., Mourão-Fuches, R.M. and Reis, L.S.L.S. (2009) Supplementação com zinconãoinfluencia a respostaimunehumoralanti-rábicaembovinos. Archivos de Zootecnia, 58, 605-608.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.