An Analysis on Efficiency and Equity of Fixed-Time Ramp Metering


Various traffic management strategies have been developed to alleviate the congestion on freeways. The equity issue has been considered as one of the major challenges for the implementation of some traffic control strategies, especially ramp metering. This paper presents a comparative evaluation of the efficiency and equity performance of a traffic control strategies namely Fixed Time Ramp Metering (FTRM). Instead of focusing on a single equity measure and/or indicator, different approaches to the equity concept are discussed and various equity measures are examined. The equity and efficiency performance of traffic control strategies are compared and evaluated by incorporating them into the simulated corridor. The Bosporus Bridge of Istanbul O-1 Freeway, Turkey is used as a test-bed for the simulation model and the control strategy is employed through microscopic traffic flow simulation software, VISSIM AG. The findings from the simulations show that the equity and efficiency properties of the network vary with the measures and indicators taken into account. The results also suggest that the trade-off between equity and efficiency can be observed for some measures, whereas regarding to other measures the trade-off is not validated.

Share and Cite:

A. Kesten, M. Ergün and T. Yai, "An Analysis on Efficiency and Equity of Fixed-Time Ramp Metering," Journal of Transportation Technologies, Vol. 3 No. 2A, 2013, pp. 48-56. doi: 10.4236/jtts.2013.32A006.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] M. Papageorgiou, C. Diakaki, V. Dinopoulou, A. Kotsialos and Y. Wang, “Review of Road Traffic Control Strategies,” IEEE Proceedings, Vol. 91, No. 12, 2003, pp. 2043-2067.
[2] M. E. Hallenbeck, J. M. Ishimaru and J. Nee, “Measure ment of Recurring versus Non Recurring Congestion,” Washington State Transportation Center, Olympia, 2003.
[3] J. Kwon, M. Mauch and P. Varaiya, “The Components of Congestion: Delay from Incidents, Special Events, Lane Closures, Weather, Potential Ramp Metering Gain, and Excess Demand,” Proceedings of 85th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board (CD-ROM), Washington DC, 2006.
[4] M. Barth and K. Boriboonsomsin, “Real-World CO2 Impacts of Traffic Congestion,” Paper for the 87th Annual Meeting of Transportation Research Board, Washington DC, 2008, p. 10
[5] T. F. Golob, W. W. Recker and V. M. Alvarez, “Freeway Safety as a Function of Traffic Flow,” Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 36, No. 2004, pp. 933-946. doi:10.1016/j.aap.2003.09.006
[6] G. Pesti, P. Wiles, R. L. Cheu, P. Songchitruksa, J. Shel ton and S. Cooner, “Traffic Control Strategies for Congested Freeways and Work Zones,” Final Report FHWA/ TX-08/0-5326-2, Texas Transportation Institute, College Station, 2007.
[7] J. C. Williams, “Macroscopic Flow Models,” In: N. Gartner, C. J. Messer and A. K. Rathi, Eds., Traffic Flow Theory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Chapter 6, 1997, pp. 1-31.
[8] J.-F. Thisse, “How Transport Costs Shape the Spatial Pattern of Economic Activity,” Working Paper, OECD/ ITF, London, 2009.
[9] D. J. Rosa, “Sustainability and Infrastructure Resource Allocation,” Journal of Business & Economics Research (JBER), Vol. 7, No. 9, 2011, pp. 71-76.
[10] B. Santos, A. Antunes and E. J. Miller, “Integrating Equity Objectives in a Road Network Design Model,” Trans portation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, Vol. 2089, No. 1, 2008, pp. 35-42. doi:10.3141/2089-05
[11] P. Konings, S. Harper, J. Lynch, A. R. Hosseinpoor, D. Berkvens, V. Lorant and N. Speybroeck, “Analysis of Socioeconomic Health Inequalities Using the Concentration Index,” International Journal of Public Health, Vol. 55, No. 1, 2010, pp. 71-74. doi:10.1007/s00038-009-0078-y
[12] A. Pinto, H. Manson, B. Pauly, J. Thanos, A. Parks and A. Cox, “Equity in Public Health Standards: A Qualitative Document Analysis of Policies from Two Canadian Provinces,” International Journal for Equity in Health, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2012, p. 28. doi:10.1186/1475-9276-11-28
[13] J. L. Hall “The Distribution of Federal Economic Development Grant Funds: A Consideration of Need and the Urban/Rural Divide,” Economic Development Quarterly, 2010. doi:10.1177/0891242410366562
[14] J. L. Hall, “The Distribution of Federal Economic Development Grant Funds: A Consideration of Need and the Urban/Rural Divide,” Economic Development Quarterly, 2010. doi:10.1177/0891242410366562
[15] J. P. Chavas, “Equity Considerations in Economic and Policy Analysis,” American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 76, No. 5, 1994, pp. 1022-1033.
[16] B. Hansen, “The Political Economy of Poverty, Equity, and Growth: Egypt and Turkey,” Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1991. doi:10.2307/1243386
[17] H. P. Young, “Equity: In Theory and Practice,” Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1995.
[18] F. Cowell, “Measuring Inequality,” Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2011.
[19] M. T. Marsh and D. A. Schilling, “Equity Measurement in Facility Location Analysis: A Review and Frame work,” European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 74, No. 1, 1994, pp. 1-17. doi:10.1016/0377-2217(94)90200-3
[20] J. M. Viegas, “Making Urban Road Pricing Acceptable and Effective: Searching for Quality and Equity in Urban Mobility,” Transport Policy, Vol. 8, No. 4, 2001, pp. 289-294. doi:10.1016/S0967-070X(01)00024-5
[21] A. Karlstr?m and J. P. Franklin, “Behavioral Adjustments and Equity Effects of Congestion Pricing: Analysis of Morning Commutes during the Stockholm Trial,” Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Vol. 43, No. 3, 2009, pp. 283-296. doi:10.1016/j.tra.2008.09.008
[22] L. Jacobson, J. Stribiak, L. Nelson and D. Sallman, “Ramp Management and Control Handbook,” Federal Highway Administration, Washington DC, 2006.
[23] H. M. Zhang, T. Kim, X. Nie, W. Jin, L. Chu and W. Recker, “Evaluation of On-Ramp Control Algorithms,” California PATH Research Report, University of California, Berkeley, 2001.
[24] M. Hasan, “Evaluation of Ramp Control Algorithms Using a Microscopic Simulation Laboratory,” Master Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, 1999.
[25] J. R. Scariza, “Evaluation of Coordinated and Local Ramp Metering Algorithms Using Microscopic Traffic Simulation,” Master Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, 2003.
[26] R. Horowitz, X. Sun, L. Munoz, A. Skabardonis, P. Va raiya, M. Zhang and J. Ma, “Design, Field Implementa tion and Evaluation of Adaptive Ramp Metering Algo rithm: Final Report, California PATH Research Report,” UCB-ITS-PRR-2006-21, 2006.
[27] K. Bogenberger and A. D. May, “Advanced Coordinated Traffic Responsive Ramp Metering Strategies,” California PATH Working Paper UCB-ITS-PWP-99-19, 1999.
[28] M. Papageorgiou, and A. Kotsialos, “Freeway Ramp Metering: An Overview,” IEEE Transactions on Intelli gent Transportation Systems, Vol. 3, No. 4, 2002, pp. 271-281.
[29] M. Papageorgiou, H. Haj-Salem and F. Middelham, “ALINEA Local Ramp Metering: Summary of Field Re sults,” Transportation Research Record, No. 1603, 1998, pp. 90-98.
[30] M. Papageorgiou, H. Haj-Salem and J. M. Blosseville,“ALINEA: A Local Feedback Control Law for On-Ramp Metering,” Transportation Research Record, No. 1320, 1991, pp. 58-64.
[31] H. M. Zhang and S. Ritchie, “Freeway Ramp Metering Using Artificial Neural Networks,” Transportation Re search Part C: Emerging Technologies, Vol. 5, No. 5, 1997, pp. 273-286. doi:10.1016/S0968-090X(97)00019-3
[32] C. Taylor, D. Meldrum and L. Jacobson, “Fuzzy Ramp Metering—Design Overview and Simulation Results,” Transportation Research Record, Vol. 1634, 1998, pp. 10-18. doi:10.3141/1634-02
[33] C. Taylor and D. Meldrum, “Evaluation of a Fuzzy Logic Ramp Metering Algorithm: A Comparative Study among Three Ramp Metering Algorithms Used in the Greater Seattle Area WSDOT Technical Report WA-RD 481.2,” 2000.
[34] S. Ahn, R. L. Bertini, B. Auffray, J. H. Ross and O. Eshel, “Evaluating the Benefits of a System-Wide Adaptive Ramp-Metering Strategy in Portland,” Journal of Trans portation Research Board, Transportation Research Record, Vol. 2007, No. 1, 2012, pp. 47-56.
[35] L. Chu, H. X. Liu, W. Recker and H. M. Zhang, “Performance Evaluation of Adaptive Ramp-Metering Algorithms Using Microscopic Traffic Simulation Model,” Journal of Transportation Engineering, Vol. 130, No. 3, 2004, pp. 330-338. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-947X(2004)130:3(330)
[36] K. Ozbay, I. Yasar and P. Kachroo, “Modeling and PA RAMICS Based Evaluation of New Local Freeway Ramp Metering Strategy That Takes into Account Ramp Que ues,” Transportation Research Record, No. 1867, 2004, pp. 89-97.
[37] “Highway Capacity Manual,” Transportation Research Board, Washington DC, 2000.
[38] F. V. Webster, “Traffic Signal Settings,” Road Research Technique Paper No. 39, Road Research Laboratory, London, 1958.
[39] R. B. Allsop, “SIGSET: A Computer Program for Calculating Traffic Capacity of Signal-Controlled Road Junctions,” Traffic, Engineering and Control, Vol. 12, No. 2, 1971, pp. 58-60.
[40] M. Papageorgiou and I. Papamichail, “Handbook of Ramp Metering. Deliverable 7.5,” Report for the European IST Office, Brussels, 2007.
[41] M. J. Smith and T. Van Vuren, “Traffic Equilibrium with Responsive Traffic Control,” Transportation Science, Vol. 27, No. 2, 1993, pp. 118-132. doi:10.1287/trsc.27.2.118
[42] I. Sahin and G. Akyildiz, “Bosporus Bridge Toll Plaza in Istanbul, Turkey: Upstream and Downstream Traffic Features,” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, Vol. 1910, No. 1, 2005, pp. 99-107.
[43] R. Wiedemann, “Simulation des Stra?enverkehrsflusses,” Schtifienreihe des Instituts fur Verkehrswesen der Uni versit?t Karlsruhe, Heft 8, 1974 (in German).
[44] R. Wiedemann, “Modeling of RTI-Elements on Multi lane Roads,” Advanced Telematics in Road Transport Edited by the Commission of the European Community, Vol. DG XIII, 1991.
[45] PTV, “VISSIM Version 5.40 User Manual,” PTV Planug Transport Verkehr AG, Stumpfstra?e 1 D-76131 Karl sruhe, Germany, 2011.
[46] N. Lownes and R. Machemehl, “Vissim: A Multiparameter Sensitivity Analysis,” Winter Simulation Conference, Monterey, 3-6 December 2006, pp. 1406-1413.
[47] L. Chu and X. Yang, “Optimization of the ALINEA Ramp-Metering Control Using Genetic Algorithm with Micro-Simulation,” Transportation Research Board 82nd Annual Meeting, Washington DC, 12-16 January 2003, pp. 22-24.
[48] K. Chu, L. Yang, R. Saigal and K. Saitou, “Validation of Stochastic Traffic Flow Model with Microscopic Traffic Simulation,” IEEE International Conference on Automantion Science and Engineering, Trieste, 24-27 August 2011, pp. 672-677.
[49] L. Zhang and D. Levinson, “Ramp Metering and Freeway Bottleneck Capacity,” Transportation Research Part A, Vol. 44, No. 4, 2010, pp. 218-235. doi:10.1016/j.tra.2010.01.004

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.