Share This Article:

Origin and SEM analysis of aerosols in the high mountain of Tenerife (Canary Islands)

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:4291KB) PP. 1119-1129
DOI: 10.4236/ns.2010.210139    6,123 Downloads   11,861 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Focusing on aerosolized matter of relevance to respiratory health, a major public health issue worldwide, we studied mineral and biological aerosol (bioaerosol) composition (TSP and PM2.5) and geographical origins during dust intrusions in the Canary Islands. Seven days’ back- ward trajectories were assessed daily during March 2004 with the ends of back trajectories being the sampling station of Iza?a (high moun- tain, 2360 m a.s.l. at the Ca?adas del Teide National Park, Tenerife island), a free troposphere site allowing characterization of dust with low influence of other pollutant sources. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to survey major types of airborne particles in the dust plumes. Control, non-intrusion conditions correspond to Atlantic oceanic middle troposphere (OMT) air masses. Of the 14 samples taken, 1 corresponded to a control (clear atmosphere conditions), and the remaining 13 to dust intrusions, with the following sources: African Dust; EAM: mixture of Europe, Africa and Oceanic; MaA: maritime aerosols. Of the air masses, 79% were directly transported to the islands from Africa, and an increase of African dust events was detected when comparing with a 52-year previous data sequence. Quartz microcristals and aggregates of quartz and platy clay were the dominant minerals identified, with marine salt and gypsum also present. Freshwater diatom tests (from two Aulacoseira species) represented the most important biogenic aerosols, although fungi and pollen were also detected. The diverse and complex mixture of respirable particles in large quantities in airborne dust, especially from nearby Sahara and from the Sahelian region, is of maximum interest for air- way pathology in the Canaries, including the highly visited highlands in Tenerife.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Delgado, J. , García, O. , Díaz, A. , Díaz, J. , Expósito, F. , Cuevas, E. , Querol, X. , Alastuey, A. and Castillo, S. (2010) Origin and SEM analysis of aerosols in the high mountain of Tenerife (Canary Islands). Natural Science, 2, 1119-1129. doi: 10.4236/ns.2010.210139.

References

[1] Hernández, F., Alonso-Pérez, S., Hernández-Armasa, J., Cuevas, E., Karlsson, L. and Romero-Campos, P.M. (2005) Influence of major African dust intrusions on the 137Cs and 40K activities in the lower atmosphere at the Island of Tenerife. Atmospheric Environment, 39, 4111- 4118.
[2] Main, C.E. (2003) Aerobiological, ecological, and health linkages. Environment International 2003, 29, 347-349.
[3] Kuhlman, K.R., Allenbach, L.B., Ball, C.L., Fusco, W.G., La Duc, M.T., Kuhlman, G.M., Anderson, R.C., Erickson, I.K., Stuecker, T., Benardini, J. and Crawford, R.L. (2005) Enumeration, isolation, and characterization of ultraviolet (UV-C) resistant bacteria from rock varnish in the Whipple Mountains, California. Icarus, 174, 585-595.
[4] Romero, O.E., Lange, C.B., Swap, R.J. and Wefer, G. (1999) Eolian-transported freshwater diatoms and phytoliths across the equatorial Atlantic record temporal cha- nges in Saharan dust transport patterns. Journal of Geophysical Research, 104(C2), 3211-3222.
[5] Gorbushina, A.A., Kort, R., Schulte, A., Lazarus, D., Schnetger, B., Brumsack, H.-J., Broughton, W.-J. and Favet, J. (2007) Life in Darwin's dust: Intercontinental transport and survival of microbes in the nineteenth century. Environmental Microbiology, 9, 2911-2922.
[6] Lacey, J. (1991) Aerobiology and health: The role of airborne fungal spores in respiratory disease. In: Hawksworth, D.L. Ed., Frontiers in Mycology. C. A. B. International, Wallingford, 157-185.
[7] Griffin, D.W., Garrison, V.H., Herman, J.R. and Shinn, E. A. (2001a) African desert dust in the Caribbean atmosphere: Microbiology and public health. Aerobiologia, 17, 203-213.
[8] Griffin, D.W., Kellogg, D.A. and Shinn, E.A. (2001b) Dust in the wind: Long range transport of dust in the atmosphere and its implications for global public and ecosystem health. Global Change & Human Health, 2, 20-33.
[9] Griffin, D.W., Westphal, D.L. and Gray, M.A. (2006) Airborne microorganisms in the African desert dust corridor over the mid-Atlantic ridge, Ocean Drilling Program, Leg 209. Aerobiologia, 22, 211-226.
[10] Kellogg, C.A., Griffin, D.W., Garrison, V.H., Peak, K., Royall, N., Smith, R.R. and Shinn, E.A. (2004) Characterization of aerosolized bacteria and fungi from desert dust events in Mali, West Africa. Aerobiologia; 20, 99-110.
[11] Salvaggio, J.E. (1994) Inhaled particles and respiratory disease. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 94, 304-309.
[12] García Carrasco, J., Hernández Vázquez, A., Blasco de la Fuente, A., Rodríguez Hernández, B.C., Ranca?o Gila, E. and Nú?ez Díaz, S. (2001) Invasión de viento sahariano y su impacto en la asistencia sanitaria urgente. Emer- gencias, 13, 372-376.
[13] Pope, C.A., Burnett, R.T., Thun, M.J., Calle, E.E., Krew- ski, D., Ito, K. and Thurston, G.D. (2002) Lung cancer, cardiopulmonary mortality, and long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution. JAMA, 287, 1132- 1141.
[14] Lee, J.-T., Son, J.-Y. and Cho, Y.-S. (2007) A comparison of mortality related to urban air particles between periods with Asian dust days and without Asian dust days in Seoul, Korea, 2000-2004. Environmental Research, 105, 409-413.
[15] Prospero, J.M. and Lamb, J.P. (2003) African droughts and dust transport to the Caribbean: Climate change and implications. Science, 302, 1024-1027.
[16] Viana, M., Querol, X., Alastuey, A., Cuevas, E. and Rodríguez, S. (2002) Influence of African dust on the levels of atmospheric particulates in the Canary Islands air quality network. Atmospheric Environment, 36, 5861- 5875.
[17] Viana, M., Querol, X., Alastuey, A., Ballester, F., Llop, S., Esplugues, A., Fernández-Patier, R., García dos Santos, S. and Herce, M.D. (2008) Characterising exposure to PM aerosols for an epidemiological study. Atmospheric Environment, 42, 1552-1568.
[18] Criado, C. and Dorta P. (2003) An unusual “blood rain” over the Canary Islands (Spain). The storm of January 1999. Journal of Arid Environments, 55, 765-783.
[19] Alonso-Pérez, S., Cuevas, E., Querol, X., Viana, M. and Guerra, J.C. (2007) Impact of the Saharan dust outbreaks on the ambient levels of total suspended particles (TSP) in the marine boundary layer (MBL) of the Subtropical Eastern North Atlantic Ocean. Atmospheric Environment, 41, 9468-9480.
[20] Querol, X., Alastuey, A., Moreno, T., Vian, M.M., Cas- tillo, S., Pey, J., Rodríguez, S., Arti?ano, B., Salvador, P., Sánchez M., García, S., Herce, M.D., Fernández-Patier, R., Moreno-Grau, S., Minguillón, M.C., Monfort, E., Sanz, M.J., Palomo-Marín, R., Pinilla-Gil, E., Cuevas E., De La Rosa, J. and Sánchez, A. (2008) Spatial and temporal variations in airborne particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) across Spain 1999-2005. Atmospheric Environ- ment, 42, 3964-3979.
[21] Prospero, J.M. (1999a) Long-term measurements of the transport of African mineral dust to the south-eastern United States: Implications for regional air quality. Jour- nal of Geophysical Research, 104, 917-927.
[22] Prospero, J.M. (1999b) Assessing the impact of advected African dust on air quality and health in the Eastern United States. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 5, 471-479.
[23] Prospero, J.M., Blades, E., Naidu, R., Mathison, G., Thani, H. and Lavoie, M.C. (2008) Relationship between African dust carried in the Atlantic trade winds and surges in pediatric asthma attendances in the Caribbean. International Journal of Biometeorology, 52, 823-832.
[24] Julià Serdà, G., Cabrera Navarro, P., Acosta Fernández, O., Martín Pérez, P., Batista Martín, J., Alamo Santana, F., Rodríguez de Castro, F. and Antó Boqué, J.M. (2005) High prevalence of asthma symptoms in the Canary Islands: climatic influence? J. Asthma, 42, 507-511.
[25] Rodríguez, S. (1999) Comparación de la variaciones de ozono superficial asociadas a procesos de transporte so- bre y bajo la inversión temperatura subtropical en Tene- rife. Unpublished Thesis, Universidad de La Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain.
[26] Alastuey, A., Querol, X., Castillo, S., Escudero, M., Avila, A., Cuevas, E., Torres, C., Romero, P.M., Expósito, F., García, O.E., Díaz, J.P., van Dingenen, R. and Putaud, J.P. (2005) Characterisation of TSP and PM2.5 at Iza?a and Sta. Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) during a Saharan dust episode (July 2002). Atmospheric Environ- ment, 39, 4715-4728.
[27] Díaz, A.M. (2006) Caracterización de los aerosoles at- mosféricos y su influencia en los niveles de radiación UV en la región de Canarias, Ph.D. Thesis, University of La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain.
[28] Díaz, A.M., Díaz, J.P., Expósito, F.J., Hernández-Leal, P.A., Savoie, D. and Querol, X. (2006) Air masses and aerosols chemical components in the free troposphere at the Subtropical Northeast Atlantic region, Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, 53, 63-90.
[29] Pósfai, M. and Molnár, á. (2000) Aerosol particles in the troposphere: A mineralogical introduction. In: Vaughan, D.J. and Wogelius, R.A., Eds., Environmental Mineralo- gy. E?tv?s University Press, Budapest, 197-252.
[30] Thomas, D. Potter, T.D. and Colman, B.R. (2003) Hand- book of weather, climate, and water. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken.
[31] Gelado, M.D., Dorta, P., Hernández, J.J., Collado, C., Rodríguez, M.J., Cardona, P. and Siruela, V. (2004) Cha- racterisation of African dust outbreaks in Gran Canaria (Canary Islands). Geophysical Research Abstracts, 6, 05227.
[32] Gómez, N., Riera, J.L. and Sabater, S. (1995) Ecology and morphological variability of Aulacoseira granulata (Bacillariophyceae) in Spanish reservoirs. Journal of Pl- ankton Research, 17, 1-16.
[33] Darby, D.A., Burckle, L.H. and Clark D.L. (1974) Airborne dust on the Arctic ice pack, its composition and fall- out rate. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 24, 166-172.
[34] Lange, C.B., Romero, O.E., Wefer, G. and Gabric, A. (1998) Offshore influence of coastal upwelling off Mauri- tania, NW Africa, as recorded by diatoms in sediment traps at 2195 m water depth. Deep-Sea Research, 45, 985- 1013.
[35] Derbyshire, E. (2007) Natural minerogenic dust and human health. AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment, 36, 73-77.
[36] Kusaka, Y., Hering, K. and Parker, J. (2005) International classification of HRCT for occupational and environmental respiratory diseases. Springer-Verlag, Tokyo.
[37] Bar-Ziv, J. and Goldberg, G.M. (1974) Simple siliceous pneumoconiosis in Negev Bedouins. Arch Environ Health, 29, 121
[38] Norboo, T., Angchuk, P.T., Yahya, M., Kamat, S.R., Pooley, F.D., Corrin, B., Kerr, I.H., Bruce, N. and Ball, K.P. (1991) Silicosis in a Himalayan village population: Role of environmental dust. Thorax, 46, 341-343.
[39] Simon, H., Grotzer, M., Nikolaizik, W., Blaser, K. and Schóni, M. (1994) High altitude climate therapy reduces peripheral blood T lymphocyte activation, eosinophilia, and bronchial obstruction in children with house-dust mi- te allergic asthma. Pediatric Pulmonology, 17, 304-311.
[40] Schultze-Werninghaus, G. (2006) Should asthma mana- gement include sojourns at high altitude? Chemical Immunology and Allergy, 91, 16-29.
[41] Silson, J.E. (1950) Dust inhalation in relation to pulmonary disease. Chest, 18, 562-573.
[42] Mitchell, J.P. and Nagel, M.W. (2004) Particle size ana- lysis of aerosols from medicinal inhalers. KONA, 22, 32-65.
[43] Boreson, J., Dillner, A.M. and Peccia, J. (2004) Correlating bioaerosol load with PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations: A comparison between natural desert and urban-fringe aerosols. Atmospheric Environment, 38, 6029-6041.
[44] Prospero, J.M., Blades, E., Mathison, G. and Naidu, R. (2005) Interhemispheric transport of viable fungi and bacteria from Africa to the Caribbean with soil dust. Aerobiologia, 21, 1-19.
[45] La Serna, I. and Domínguez, M.D. (2003) Pólenes y esporas aerovagantes en Canarias: Incidencia en alergias. Colección Materiales Didácticos Universitarios, Serie Bo- tánica 1, SPULL, Tenerife.
[46] Glikson, M., Rutherford, S., Simpson, R., Mitchell, C. and Yago, A. (1995) The microscopic and submicron components of atmospheric particulates occurring during high asthma periods in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Atmospheric Environment, 29, 549-562.
[47] Morrison, V.A. and Weisdorf, D.J. (1993) Alternaria: A sinonasal pathogen of immunocompromised hosts. Cli- nical Infectious Diseases, 16, 265-270.
[48] Hospenthal, D.R. and Bennett, J.E. (2000) Miscellaneous fungi and Prototheca. In: Mandell, G.L., Bennet, J.E. and Dolin, R. Eds., Principles and practice of infectious diseases, 5th Edition, Livingstone, Philadelphia, 2772-2780.
[49] D’Amato, G., Chatzigeorgiou, G., Corsico, R., Gioulekas, D., J?ger, L., J?ger, S., Kontou-Fili, K., Kouridakis, S., Liccardi, G., Meriggi, A., Palma-Carlos, A., Palma- Carlos, M.L., Pagan, A., Parmiani, S., Puccinelli, P., Russo, M., Spieksma, F.T., Torricelli, R. and Wuthrich, B. (1997) Evaluation of the prevalence of skin prick test positivity to Alternaria and Cladosporium in patients with suspected respiratory allergy. EEACI Position Paper. Allergy, 52, 711-716.
[50] Lebowitz, R.A., Waltzman, M.N., Jacobs, J.B., Pearlman, A. and Tierno, P.M. (2002) Isolation of fungi by standard laboratory methods in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Laryngoscope, 112, 2189-2191.
[51] Braun, H., Buzina, W., Freudenschuss, K., Beham, A. and Stammberger, H. (2003) “Eosinophilic fungal Rhinosinusitis”: A common disorder in Europe? Laryngoscope, 113, 264-269.
[52] Gaig, P., Ferrer, M., Mu?oz-Lejarazu, D., Lleonart, R., García-Abujeta, J.L., Caballero, T., Rodríguez, A., Eche- chipia, S., Martínez-Cocera, C., Domínguez, F.J., Gon- zalo, M.A. and Olona, M. (2004) Prevalencia de alergia en la población adulta espa?ola. Alergología e Inmuno- logía Clínica, 19, 68-74.
[53] Salvaggio, J.E. and O’Neil, C.E. (1992) Pathogenetic mechanisms in occupational hypersensitivity states. Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America, 4, 711- 729.
[54] Behrendt, H., Kr?mer, U., Sch?fer, T., Kasche, A., Eberlein-K?nig, B., Darsow, U. and Ring, J. (2001) A research concept to study the role of environmental pollutants in allergy. Allergy and Clinical Immunology International, 13, 122-128.
[55] Mastalerz, M., Glikson, M. and Simpson, R.W. (1998) Analysis of atmospheric particulate matter; application of optical and selected geochemical techniques. International Journal of Coal Geology, 37, 143-155.
[56] Wittmaack, K., Wehnes, H., Heinzmann, U. and Agerer, R. (2005) An overview on bioaerosols viewed by scan- ning electron microscopy. Science of the Total Environment, 346, 244- 255.
[57] Rodríguez, S., Querol, X., Alastuey, A., Kallos, G. and Kakaliagou, O. (2001) Saharan dust contributions to PM10 and TSP levels in Southern and Eastern Spain. Atmospheric Environment, 35, 2433-2447.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.