Distribution of Some Elements in the Egyptian Black Sands from Abu Khashaba Beach Area


Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) technique was used to determine the concentrations of titanium (Ti), vanadium (V), Chromium (Cr), Manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), zirconium (Zr), cadmium (Cd) and hafnium (Hf) in black sands samples. 18 black sands samples were collected from the Mediterranean coast-Abu Khashabou Rosetta area, Egypt. Alkaline fusion procedure using mixture of Li-meta borate and tetra borate was used for the digestion of black sands samples. The average concentrations of Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn, As, Zr, Cd and Hf were 435.06 ppm, 322.32 ppm, 2515.03 ppm, 596.45 ppm, 185894 ppm, 249.95 ppm,309.32 ppm, 1077.26 ppm, 33.56 ppm and 3520.32 ppm, respectively. The procedure was tested with Basalt Hawaiian Volcanic Observatory (BHVO-2) standard reference material.

Share and Cite:

H. Mahmoud, A. Abdel-Lateef and A. Attiah, "Distribution of Some Elements in the Egyptian Black Sands from Abu Khashaba Beach Area," Journal of Analytical Sciences, Methods and Instrumentation, Vol. 3 No. 1, 2013, pp. 62-66. doi: 10.4236/jasmi.2013.31007.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] G. A. Dabbour, “Geological and Mineralogical Studies on Rutile in the Black Sand Deposits from the Egyptian Med. Coast,” Ph.D. Thesis, Cairo University, Giza, 1980.
[2] G. A. Dabbour, “Estimation of the Economic Minerals Reserves in Rosetta Beach Sands,” Egyptian Minerals, Vol. 7, 1995, pp. 1-6.
[3] Y. H. Dawod and M. H. Abd-Naby, “Mineral Chemistry of Monazite from the Black Sand Deposits, Northern Sinai, Egypt: A Provenance Perspective,” Mineralogical Magazine, Vol. 71, No.4, 2007, pp. 389-406.
[4] M. A. El-Askary and O. E. Frihy, “Mineralogy of the Subsurface Sediments at Rosetta and Damietta Promontories,” Egyptian Bulletin of the Institute of Oceanography and Fishery, Vol. 13, No. 2, 1987, pp. 111-120.
[5] A. F. A. El-Hadry, “Geologic and radiometric investigations on Abu Khashaba deposits, East Rosetta, Egypt,” M.Sc. Thesis, Cairo University, Giza, 1988.
[6] M. I. M. Ibrahim, “Investigation of Some Physical Properties of Zircon and Rutile to Prepare High Purity Mineral Concentrates from Black Sand Deposits,” M.Sc. Thesis, Mansoura University, Mansoura, 1995.
[7] M. N. El-Miligy and A. A. El-Azab, “Black Sand Project,” EGSA Annals, Paper No. 67, 1994, pp. 1-24.
[8] NMA, “International Report on Development of New Reserves for Black Sand Deposits,” Abu Khashaba Rosetta, Egypt, 1988.
[9] S. R. Taylor and S. M. McLennan, “The Continental Crust Its Composition and Evolution: An Examination of the Geochemical Record Preserved in Sedimentary Rocks,” Blackwell, Oxford, 1985.
[10] B. Anders, W. Junge, J. Knoth, W. Michaelis and J. R. Vogt, “Nuclear Methods in Environmental Research,” US-DOE, CONF-840408, 1984, p. 202.
[11] Standards Australia, “Australian Standard,” AAS 2912.2, 1994.
[12] G. Bumaa, G. Amar, S. V. Amosava and V. A. Potapov, Zhurnal Analiticheskoi Khimii, Vol. 47, 1992, p. 934.
[13] R. Boisvert, M. Bergeron and J. Tourcotte, Re-Examination of the Determination of Palladium, Platinum and Rhodium in Rocks by Nickel Sulphide Fire Assay Followed by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Measurements,” Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 246, No. 2, 1991, pp. 365-373. doi:10.1016/S0003-2670(00)80974-5
[14] J. Tilch, M. Schuster and M. Schwarzer, “Determination of Palladium in Airborne Particulate Matter in a German City,” Fresenius’ Journal of Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 367, No. 5, 2000, pp. 450-453. doi:10.1007/s002160000380
[15] L. P. Kolosova, A. E. Aladyshkina, L. A. Ushinskaya and T. N. Kopylova, Zhurnal Analiticheskoi Khimii, Vol. 46, 1991, p. 1386.
[16] O. I. Artem, V. M. Stepanov, S. L. Terekhovich and B. M. Karater, Zhurnal Analiticheskoi Khimii, Vol. 48, 1993, p. 91.
[17] G. E. M. Hall and J. C. Pelchat, “Analysis of Geological Materials for Gold, Platinum and Palladium at Low ppb Levels by Fire Assay-ICP Mass Spectrometry,” Chemical Geology, Vol. 115, No. 1-2, 1994, pp. 61-72. doi:10.1016/0009-2541(94)90145-7
[18] M. E. Farago, P. Kavanagh, R. Blanks, J. Kelly, et al., “Platinum Metal Concentrations in Urban Road Dust and Soil in the United Kingdom,” Fresenius’ Journal of Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 354, No. 5-6, 1996, pp. 660-663.
[19] E. K. Shibuya, J. E. S. Sarkis, J. Enzweiler, A. P. S. Jorge and A. M. G. Figueiredo, “Determination of Platinum Group Elements and Gold in Geological Materials Using an Ultraviolet Laser Ablation High-Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometric Technique,” Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, Vol. 13, No. 9, 1998, pp. 941-944. doi:10.1039/a801477i
[20] A. P. S. Jorge, J. Enzweiler, E. K. Shibuya, J. E. S. Sarkis and A. M. G. Figueiredo, “Platinum-Group Elements and Gold Determination in NiS Fire Assay Buttons by UV Laser Ablation ICP-MS,” Geostandards Newsletter, Vol. 22, No. 1, 1998, pp. 47-55. doi:10.1111/j.1751-908X.1998.tb00544.x

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.