Buffer Occupancy of Double-Buffer Traffic Shaper in Real-Time Multimedia Applications across Slow-Speed Links


In this paper, a double-buffer traffic shaper was investigated to adjust video frame rate inflow into the TCP sender-buffer of a multimedia application source across a slow-speed link. In order to guarantee QoS across a slow-speed link (i.e. < 1 MBPS), the double-buffer traffic shaper was developed. In this paper, the buffer size dynamics of double-buffer was investigated. The arrival and departure of frames were modeled as a stochastic process. The transition matrix for the process was generated and the stationary probability computed. A simulation program was written in Matlab 7.0 to monitor the buffer fullness of the second buffer when a 3600 seconds H.263 encoder trace data was used as test data. In the second buffer, it was discovered that over 90% of the play-time, the buffer occupancy was upper bounded at 300 frames per second and utilization maintained below 30%.

Share and Cite:

A. O. Oluwatope, D. T. Oyewo, F. E. Olayiwola, G. A. Aderounmu and E. A. Adagunodo, "Buffer Occupancy of Double-Buffer Traffic Shaper in Real-Time Multimedia Applications across Slow-Speed Links," Communications and Network, Vol. 5 No. 1, 2013, pp. 84-92. doi: 10.4236/cn.2013.51008.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] N. Feamster, “Adaptive Delivery of Real-Time Streaming Video,” Master’s Thesis, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, 2001.
[2] L. Tilley, “Computing Studies Multimedia Applications,” Number 1, Germany, 2005.
[3] G. Ji, “VBR Video Streaming over Wireless Networks,” Master’s Thesis, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, 2009, pp. 10-22.
[4] C. Huang, J. Li and K. W. Ross, “Can Internet Videoon-Demand Be Profitable?” ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review, Vol. 37, No. 4, 2007, pp. 133-144.
[5] M. Karakas, “Determination of Network Delay Distribution of Network over the Internet,” Master’s Thesis, Middle East Technical University, The Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Ankara, 2003.
[6] M. Salomoni and M. Bonfigle, “A Software Audio Terminal for Interactive Communications in Web-Based Educational Environments over the Internet,” In Booktitle, 1999. http://www.cineca.it/nume03/Papers/IECON99/iecon2.htm
[7] S.-J. Yang and H.-C. Chou, “Adaptive QoS Parameters Approach to Modeling Internet Performance,” International Journal of Network Management, Vol. 13, No. 1, 2003, pp. 69-82. doi:10.1002/nem.460
[8] C. Dinesh, H. Zhang and D. Ferrari, “Delay Jitter Control for Real-Time Communication in a Packet Switching Network,” IEEE Conference on Communications Software, “Communications for Distributed Applications and Systems”, 18-19 April 1991, Chapel Hill, pp. 35-43. http://trace.kom.aau.dk/trace/tut/html
[9] D. Austerberry, “The Technology of Video and Audio Streaming,” 2nd Edition, Focal Press, Burlington, 2005.
[10] J. Apostolopoulos, W. Tan and S. Wee, “Video Streaming: Concepts, Algorithms and Systems,” Technical Report, Mobile and Media Systems Laboratory, HP Laboratories, Palo Alto, 2002.
[11] FCC, “Sixth Broadband Deployment Report,” Technical Report, Federal Communications Commission, 2010. http://www.fcc.gov/Daily-Releases/Daily-Busi-ness/2010/db0720/FCC-10129A1.pdf
[12] P. de Cuetos, P. Guillote, K. Ross and D. Thoreau, “Implementation of Adaptive Streaming of Stored MPEG4 FGS Video over TCP,” IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo, Vol. 1, 2002, pp. 405-408. doi:10.1109/ICME.2002.1035804
[13] Y. Xiong, M. Wu and W. Jia, “Efficient Frame Schedule Scheme for Real-Time Video Transmission across the Internet Using TCP,” Journal of Networks, Vol. 4, No. 3, 2009, pp. 216-223. doi:10.4304/jnw.4.3.216-223
[14] K. Ibrahim, “TCP Traffic Shaping in ATM Networks,” Department of Electronics, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Uluda? University, Bursa, 2000.
[15] B. A. Farouzan, “Data Communications and Networking,” 4th Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2007.
[16] Lee, B., Lim, H., Kang, H., and Kim, C. “A Study on Efficient Delay Distribution Methods for Real-Time VBR Traffic Transfer,” Technical Report, Department of Computer Science, Seoul National University, Korea Institute of Advanced Engineering, Seoul, 1997.
[17] L. Ioan and G. Niculescu, “Two Mathematical Models fo Performance Evaluation of Leaky-Bucket Algorithm,” Revue Roumaine des Sciences Techniques Serie Electrotechnique et Energetique, Vol. 50, No. 3, 2005, pp. 357-372.
[18] O. Tickoo, A. Balan, S. Kalyanaraman and J. W. Woods, “Integrated End-to-End Buffer Management and Congestion Control for Scalable Video Communications,” International Conference on Image Processing, Barcelona, 14-17 September 2003, pp. 257-260.
[19] L. Lam, Y. Jack, B. Lee, S. Liew and W. Wang, “A Transparent Rate Adaptation Algorithm for Streaming Video over the Internet,” Department of Information Engineering, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, 2005.
[20] J. Dubious and H. Chiu, “High Speed Video Transmission for Telemedicine Using ATM Technology,” Proceedings of World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 7, 2005, pp. 357-361.
[21] Y. Xiong, M. Wu and W. Jia, “Delay Prediction for Real-Time Video Adaptive Transmission over TCP,” Journal of multimedia, Vol. 5, No. 3, 2010, pp. 216-222. doi:10.4304/jmm.5.3.216-223
[22] J. Doggen and F. Van der Schueren, “Design and Simulation of a H.264 AVC Video Streaming Model,” Department of Applied Engineering, University College of Antwerp, Antwerp, 2008.
[23] L. Arne and K. Jirka, “Evalvid-RA: Trace Driven Simulation of Rate Adaptive MPEG-4 VBR Video,” Department of Communication Systems, Technical University of Berlin, Berlin, 2007.
[24] Y. Won and B. Shim, “Empirical Study of VBR traffic Smoothing in Wireless Environment,” Division of Electrical and Computer Engineering Hanyang University, Seoul, 2002.
[25] X. Li, “Simulation: Queuing Models,” Technical Report, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, 2009.
[26] S. Balsamo, “A Tool for the Numerical Solution of Cooperating Markov Chains in Product-Form,” 2010, pp. 311-324.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.