Portal hypertension-related inflammatory phenotypes: From a vitelline and amniotic point of view


Prehepatic portal hypertension induces a splanchnic low-grade inflammatory response that could switch to high-grade inflammation with the development of severe and life-threatening complications when associated with chronic liver disease. The extraembryonic origin of the portal system maybe determines the regression to an extraembryonic phenotype, i.e., vitellogenic and amniotic, during the evolution of both types of portal hypertension. Thus, prehepatic portal hypertension, or compensated hypertension by portal vein ligation in the rat, is associated with molecular mechanisms related to vitellogenesis, where hepatic steatosis and splanchnic angiogenesis stand out. In turn, extrahepatic cholestasis in the rat induces intrahepatic portal hypertension, or decompensated hypertension, with ascites and hepatorenal syndrome. The splanchnic interstitium, the mesenteric lymphatic system, and the peritoneal mesothelium seem to create an inflammatory pathway that could have a key pathophysiological relevance in the production of ascites. The hypothetical comparison between the ascitic and the amniotic fluid also allows for translational investigation. The induced regression of the splanchnic system to extraembryonic functions by portal hypertension highlights the great relevance of the extraem-bryonic structures even during postnatal life.

Share and Cite:

Aller, M. , Arias, N. , Prieto, I. , Santamaria, L. , Miguel, M. , Arias, J. and Arias, J. (2012) Portal hypertension-related inflammatory phenotypes: From a vitelline and amniotic point of view. Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology, 3, 881-899. doi: 10.4236/abb.2012.37110.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Martell, M., Coll, M., Ezkurda, N., Raurell, I. and Genesca, J. (2010) Physiopathology of splanchnic vasodilation in portal hypertension. World Journal of Hepatology, 2, 208-220. doi:10.4254/wjh.v2.i6.208
[2] Aller, M.A., Arias, J.L., Cruz, A. and Arias, J. (2007) Inflammation: A way to understanding the evolution of portal hypertension. Theoretical Biology and Medical Modeling, 4, 44. doi:10.1186/1742-4682-4-44
[3] Aller, M.A., Arias, J.L. and Arias, J. (2007) The mast cell integrates the splanchnic and systemic inflammatory response in portal hypertension. Journal of Translational Medicine, 5, 44. doi:10.1186/1479-5876-5-44
[4] Cazzaniga, M., Dionigi, E., Gobbo, G., Fioretti, A., Monti, V. and Salerno, F. (2009) The systemic inflammatory response syndrome in cirrhotic patients: Relationship with their in-hospital outcome. Journal of Hepatology, 51, 475-482. doi:10.1016/j.jhep.2009.04.017
[5] Malik, R., Mookerjee, R.P. and Jalan, R. (2009) Infection and inflammation in liver failure: Two sides of the same coin. Journal of Hepatology, 51, 426-429. doi:10.1016/j.jhep.2009.06.013
[6] Sherlock, S. (1989) The portal venous system and portal hypertension. In: Sherlock, S., Ed., Diseases of the Liver and Biliary System, Blackwell Scientific Publications, London, 151-207.
[7] Collardeu-Frachon, S. and Scoazec, J.Y. (2008) Vascular development and differentiation during human liver organogenesis. The Anatomical Record, 291,614-621. doi:10.1002/ar.20679
[8] Dobreva, M.P., Pereira, P.N.G., Deprest, J. and Zwijsen, A. (2010) On the origin of amniotic stem cells: Of mice and men. The International Journal of Developmental Biology, 54, 761-777. doi:10.1387/ijdb.092935md
[9] Aller, M.A., Prieto, I., Argudo, S., de Vicente, F., Santamaria, L., de Miguel, M.P., Arias, J.L. and Arias, J. (2010) The interstitial lymphatic peritoneal mesothelium axis in portal hypertensive ascites: When in danger, go back to the sea. International Journal of Inflammation, 2010, 18 p. doi:10.4061/2010/148689
[10] Aller, M.A., Nava, M.P., Duran, M., Chivato, T., Arias, J.L., Sánchez-Patan, F., de Vicente, F., Alvárez, E. and Arias, J. (2007) Evolutive phases of the experimental prehepatic portal hypertension. Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 22, 1127-1133. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1746.2007.04876.x
[11] Groszmann, R.J. (1994) Hyperdinamic circulation of liver disease forty years later: Pathophysiology and clinical consequence. Hepatology, 20, 1359-1363. doi:10.1002/hep.1840200538
[12] Iwakiri, Y. and Groszmann, R.J. (2006) The hyperdynamic circulation of chronic liver diseases: From the patient to the molecule. Hepatology, 43, S121-131. doi:10.1002/hep.20993
[13] Moreau, R. and Lebrec, D. (2006) Molecular and structural basis of portal hypertension. Clinics in Liver Disease, 10, 445-457. doi:10.1016/j.cld.2006.08.011
[14] Rodriguez-Vilarrupla, A., Fernandez, M., Bosch, J. and Garcia-Pagan, J.C. (2007) Current concepts on the pathophysiology of portal hypertension. Annals of Hepatology, 6, 28-36.
[15] La Villa, G. and Gentilini, P. (2008) Hemodynamic alterations in liver cirrhosis. Molecular Aspects of Medicine, 29, 112-118. doi:10.1016/j.mam.2007.09.010
[16] Iwakiri, Y. and Groszmann, R.J. (2007) Vascular endothelial dysfunction in cirrhosis. Journal of Hepatology, 46, 927-934. doi:10.1016/j.jhep.2007.02.006
[17] Harrison, D.G., Widder, J., Grumbach, I., Chen, W., Weber, M. and Searles, C. (2006) Endothelial mechanotransduction, nitric oxide and vascular inflammation. Journal of Internal Medicine, 259, 351-363. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2796.2006.01621.x
[18] Chiu, J-J. and Chien, S. (2011) Effects of disturbed flow on vascular endothelium: Pathophysiological basis and clinical perspectives. Physiological Reviews, 91, 327-387. doi:10.1152/physrev.00047.2009
[19] Colgan, S.P. and Taylor, C.T. (2010) Hypoxia: An alarm signal during intestinal inflammation. Nature Reviews. Gastroenterol & Hepatology, 7, 281-287.
[20] Carrico, C.J., Meakins, J.L., Marshall, J.C., Fry, D. and Maier, R.V. (1986) Multiple-organ-failure-syndrome: The gastrointestinal tract. The “motor” of MOF. Archives of Surgery, 121, 196-208. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1986.01400020082010
[21] Suliburk, J., Helmer, K., Moore, F. and Mercer, D. (2008) The gut in systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis. European Surgical Research, 40,184-189. doi:10.1159/000110859
[22] Deitch, E.A. (2002) Bacterial translocation or lymphatic drainage of toxic products from the gut: What is important in human beings? Surgery, 131, 241-244. doi:10.1067/msy.2002.116408
[23] Alexander, J.S., Ganta, V.C., Jordan, P.A. and Witte, M.H. (2010) Gastrointestinal lymphatics in health and disease. Pathophysiology, 17, 315-335. doi:10.1016/j.pathophys.2009.09.003
[24] Gershon, M.D. (2010) Developmental determinants of the independence and complexity of the enteric nervous system. Trends in Neuroscience, 33, 446-454. doi:10.1016/j.tins.2010.06.002
[25] Lyte, M. (2009) Reciprocal gut-brain evolutionary symbiosis provokes and amplifies the post injury systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Surgery, 146, 950-954. doi:10.1016/j.surg.2009.06.002
[26] Liu, H., Schuelert, N., McDougall, J.J. and Lee, S.S. (2008) Central neural activation of hyperdynamic circulation in portal hypertensive rats depends on vagal afferent nerves. Gut, 57, 966-973. doi:10.1136/gut.2007.135020
[27] Schrier, R.W., Arroyo, V., Bernardi, M., Epstein, M., Henriksen, J.H. and Rodes, J. (1988) Peripheral arterial vasodilatation hypothesis: A proposal for the initiation of renal sodium and water retention in cirrhosis. Hepatology, 8, 1151-1157. doi:10.1002/hep.1840080532
[28] Stocker, S.D., Madden, C.J. and Sved, A.F. (2010) Excess dietary salt intake alters the excitabiligy of central sympathetic networks. Physiology & Behavior, 100, 519- 524. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2010.04.024
[29] Aller, M.A., Arias, J.L., Nava, M.P. and Arias, J. (2004) Post-traumatic inflammation is a complex response based on the pathological expression of the nervous, immune and endocrine functional systems. Experimental Biology and Medicine, 229, 170-181.
[30] Garcia-Tsao, G., Albillos, A., Barden, G.E. and West, A.B. (1993) Bacterial translocation in acute and chronic portal hypertension. Hepatology, 17, 1081-1085. doi:10.1002/hep.1840170622
[31] Garcia-Tsao, G. and Wiest, R. (2004) Gut microflora in the pathogenesis of the complications of cirrhosis. Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology, 18, 353-372. doi:10.1016/j.bpg.2003.10.005
[32] Llamas, M.A., Aller, M.A., Marquina, D., Nava, M.P. and Arias, J. (2010) Bacterial translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes increases in chronic portal hypertensive rats. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 55, 224-254. doi:10.1007/s10620-009-1001-3
[33] Gabay, C. and Kushner, I. (1999) Acute-phase proteins and other systemic responses to inflammation. The New England Journal of Medicine, 340, 448-454. doi:10.1056/NEJM199902113400607
[34] Cray, C., Zaias, J. and Altman, N.H. (2009) Acute phase response in animals: A review. Comparative Medicine, 59, 517-526.
[35] Prieto, I., Aller, M.A., Santamaria, L., Nava, M.P., Madero, R., Perez-Robledo, J.P. and Arias, J. (2005) Prehepatic portal hypertension produces increased mast cell density in the small bowel and in mesenteric lymph nodes in the rat. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 20, 1025-1031. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1746.2005.03831.x
[36] Moquillaza, L.M., Aller, M.A., Nava, M.P., Santamaria, L., Vergara, P. and Arias, J. (2010) Partial hepatectomy, partial portal vein stenosis and mesenteric lymphadenectomy increase splanchnic mast cell infiltration in the rat. Acta Histochemica, 112, 372-382. doi:10.1016/j.acthis.2009.03.002
[37] McLachlan, J.B., Hart, J.P., Pizzo, S.V., Shelburne, C.P., Shelburne, C.P., Staats, H.F., Gunn, M.D. and Abraham, S.N. (2003) Mast cell-derived tumor necrosis factor induces hypertrophy of draining lymph nodes during infection. Nature Immunology, 4, 1199-1205. doi:10.1038/ni1005
[38] Bischoff, S.C. (2009) Physiological and pathophysiological functions of intestinal mast cells. Semininars in Immunopathology, 31, 185-205. doi:10.1007/s00281-009-0165-4
[39] C?runtu, F.A. and Benea, L. (2006) Spontaneous, bacterial peritonitis: Pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment. Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease, 15, 51-56.
[40] Jung, C., Hugot, J.-P. and Barreau, F. (2010) Peyer’s patches: The immune sensors of the intestine. International Journal of Inflammation, 2010, 823710. doi:10.4061/2010/823710
[41] Magnotti, L.J. and Deitch, E.A. (2005) Burns, bacterial translocation, gut barrier function, and failure. Journal of Burn Care Rehabilitation, 26, 383-391. doi:10.1097/01.bcr.0000176878.79267.e8
[42] Damie, S.S., Moore, E.E., Nydam, T.L., Banerjee, M., Gamboni-Robertson, F., Su, X., and Banerjee, A. (2007) Post-shock mesenteric lymph induces endothelial NF-κB activation. Journal of Surgical Research, 143, 136-140. doi:10.1016/j.jss.2007.04.016
[43] Aller, M.A., Vara, E., Garcia, C., Nava, M.P., Angulo, A., Sanchez-Patan, F., Calderon, A., Vergara, P. and Arias, J. (2006) Hepatic lipid metabolism changes in short- and long-term prehepatic portal hypertensive rats. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 12, 6828-6834.
[44] Alonso, M.J., Aller, M.A., Corcuera, M.T., Nava, M.P., Gomez, F., Angulo, A. and Arias J. (2005) Progressive hepatocytic fatty infiltration in rats with prehepatic portal hypertension. Hepato-Gastroenterology, 52, 541-546.
[45] Sanchez-Patan, F., Anchuelo, R., Aller, M.A., Vara, E., García, C., Nava, M.P. and Arias, J. (2008) Chronic prehepatic portal hypertension in the rat: Is it a type of metabolic inflammatory síndrome? Lipids in Health and Disease, 7, 4. doi:10.1186/1476-511X-7-4
[46] Kim, L.J., Nalls, M.A., Eiriksdottir, G., Sigurdsson, S., Launer, L.J., Koster, A., Chaves, P.H., Jonsdottir, B., Garcia, M., Gudnason, V., Harris, T.B. and AGES-Reykjavik Study Investigators (2011) Association of visceral and liver fat with the metabolic syndrome across the spectrum of obesity: The AGES-Reykjavik study. Obesity, 19, 1265-1271. doi:10.1038/oby.2010.291
[47] Ibrahim, M.M. (2010) Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue: Structural and functional differences. Obesity Reviews, 11, 11-18. doi:10.1111/j.1467-789X.2009.00623.x
[48] Tofail, M. and Takeda, M. (2008) Molecular characteristics of insect vitellogenins. Journal of Insect Physiology, 54, 144714-144758.
[49] Arukwe, A. and Goksφyr, A. (2003) Eggshell and egg yolk proteins in fish; hepatic proteins for the next generation: Oogenetic, population, and evolutionary implications of endocrine disruption. Comparative Hepatology, 2, 4. doi:10.1186/1476-5926-2-4
[50] Sniderman, A., Couture, P. and De Graaf, J. (2010) Diagnosis and treatment of apolipoprotein B dyslipoproteinemias. Nature Reviews. Endocrinology, 6, 335-346. doi:10.1038/nrendo.2010.50
[51] Targher, G., Day, C.P. and Bonora, E. (2010) Risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. New England Journal of Medicine, 363, 1341-1350. doi:10.1056/NEJMra0912063
[52] Jahangiri, A. (2010) High-density lipoprotein and the acute phase response.Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity, 17, 156-260. doi:10.1097/MED.0b013e328337278b
[53] Tarantino, G., Savastano, S. and Colao, A. (2010) Hepatic steatosis, low-grade chronic inflammation and hormona/growth factor/adipokine imbalance. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 16, 4773-4783. doi:10.3748/wjg.v16.i38.4773
[54] Eckersall, P.D. and Bell, R. (2010) Acute phase proteins: Biomarkers of infection and inflammation in veterinary. Veterinary Journal, 185, 23-27. doi:10.1016/j.tvjl.2010.04.009
[55] Schreiber, G., Tsykin, A., Aldred, A.R., Thomas, T., Fung, W.P., Dickson, P.W., Cole, T., Birch, H., De Jong, F.A. and Milland, J. (1989) The acute phase response in the rodent. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 557, 61-85. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1989.tb24000.x
[56] Kopf, M., Bachmann, M.F. and Marsland, B.J. (2010) Averting inflammation by targeting the cytokine environment. Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery, 9, 703-718. doi:10.1038/nrd2805
[57] Tordjman, J., Poitou, C., Hugol, D., Bouillot, J.L., Basdevant, A., Bedossa, P., Guerre-Millo, M. and Clement, Kl. (2009) Association between adipose tissue macrophages and liver histopathology in morbid obesity: Influence of glycemic status. Journal of Hepatology, 51, 354-362. doi:10.1016/j.jhep.2009.02.031
[58] Marsland, A.L., McCaffery, J.M., Muldoon, M.F. and Manuck, S.B. (2010) Systemic inflammation and the metabolic syndrome among middle-aged community volunteers. Metabolism, 59, 1801-1088. doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2010.05.015
[59] Solinas, G. and Karin, M. (2010) JNK1 and IKKβ: Molecular links between obesity and metabolic dysfunction. FASEB Journal, 24, 2596-2609. doi:10.1096/fj.09-151340
[60] Sparks, J.D., Cianci, J., Jokinen, J., Chen, L.S. and Sparks, C.E. (2010) Interleukin-6 mediates hepatic hypersecretion of apolipodrotein B. American Journal of Physiology, Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, 299, G980-G989. doi:10.1152/ajpgi.00080.2010
[61] Van der Westhuyzen, D.R., De Beer, F.C. and Webb, N.R. (2007) HDL cholesterol transport during inflammation. Current Opinion in Lipidology, 18, 147-151. doi:10.1097/MOL.0b013e328051b4fe
[62] Natarajan, P., Ray, K.K. and Cannon, C.P. (2010) High-density lipoprotein and coronary heart disease. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 55, 1283-1239. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2010.01.008
[63] Loria, P., Lonardo, A. and Targher, G. (2008) Is liver fat detrimental to vessels: Intersections in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and atherosclerosis. Clinical Science, 115, 1-12. doi:10.1042/CS20070311
[64] de Las Heras, N., Aller, M.A., Martín-Fernández, B., Miana, M., Ballesteros, S., Regadera, J., Cachofeiro, V., Arias, J. and Lahera, V. (2012) A wound-like inflammatory aortic response in chronic portal hypertensive rats. Molecular Immunology, 51, 177-187. doi:10.1016/j.molimm.2012.03.016
[65] Puxeddu, I., Ribatti, D., Crivallato, E. and Levi-Schaffer, F. (2005) Mast cells and eosinophils: A novel link between inflammation and angiogenesis in allergic diseases. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 116, 531-536. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2005.06.007
[66] Coulon, S., Heindryckx, F., Geerts, A., Van Steenkiste, C., Colle, I. and Van Vlierberghe, H. (2011) Angiogenesis in chronic liver disease and its complications. Liver International, 31, 146-162. doi:10.1111/j.1478-3231.2010.02369.x
[67] Thabut, D. and Shah, V. (2010) Intrahepatic angiogenesis and sinusoidal remodeling in chronic liver disease: New targets for the treatment of portal hypertension? Journal of Hepatology, 53, 976-980. doi:10.1016/j.jhep.2010.07.004
[68] Viggiano, T.R. and Gostout, C.J. (1992) Portal hypertensive intestinal vasculopathy: A review of the clinical endoscopic and histopathological features. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 87, 944-954.
[69] Rondonotti, E., Villa, F., Signorelli, C. and De Francis, R. (2006) Portal hypertensive enteropathy. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America, 16, 277-286. doi:10.1016/j.giec.2006.01.019
[70] Nagral, A.S., Joshi, A.S., Bhatia, S.J., Abraham, F.P. and Vora, I.M. (1993) Congestive jejunopathy in portal hypertension. Gut, 34, 694-697. doi:10.1136/gut.34.5.694
[71] Misra, V., Misra, S.P., Dwivedi, M. and Gupta, S.C. (1997) Histomorphometric study of portal hypertensive enteropathy. American Journal of Clinical Pathology, 108, 625-657.
[72] Galli, S.J., Kalesnikoff, J., Grimbaldeston, M.A., Piliponsky, A.M., Williams, C.M. and Tsai, M. (2005) Mast cells as “tunable” effector and immunoregulatory cells: recent advances. Annual Review of Immunology, 23, 749-786. doi:10.1146/annurev.immunol.21.120601.141025
[73] Diez-Arias, J.A., Aller, M.A., Palma, M.D., Arias, J.L., Arias, J.L., Mu?iz, E., Sánchez, M. and Arias, J. (2001) Increased duodenal mucosa infiltration by mast cells in rats with portal hypertension. Digestive Surgery, 18, 34-40. doi:10.1159/000050094
[74] Fernandez, M., Mejias, M., Angermayr, B., Garcia-Pagan, J.C., Rodés, J., and Bosch J. . (2005) Inhibition of VEGF receptor-2 decreases the development of hyperdynamic splanchnic circulation and porta-systemic collateral vessels in portal hypertensive rats. Journal of Hepatology, 43, 98-103. doi:10.1016/j.jhep.2005.02.022
[75] Angermayr, B., Mejias, M., Gracia-Sancho, J., Garcia-Pagan, J.C., Bosch, J. and Fernandez, M. (2006) Hemeoxigenase attenuates oxidative stress and inflammation, and increases VEGF expresión in portal hypertensive rats. Journal of Hepatology 44, 1033-1039. doi:10.1016/j.jhep.2005.09.021
[76] Moon, T.C., St. Lauren, C.D., Morris, K.E., Marcet, C., Yoshimura, T., Sekar, Y. and Befus, A.D. (2010) Advances in mast cell biology: New understanding of heterogeneity and function. Nature Immunology, 3, 111-128.
[77] Bielinska, M., Narita, N. and Wilson, D.B. (1999) Distinct roles of visceral endoderm during embryonic mouse development. The International Journal of Developmental Biology, 43, 183-205.
[78] Oberlin, E., El Hafny, B., Petit-Cocault, L. and Souyri, M. (2010) Definitive human and mouse hematopoiesis originates from the embryonic endothelium: A new class of HSCs based on VE-cadherin expression. The International Journal of Developmental Biology, 54, 1165-1173. doi:10.1387/ijdb.103121eo
[79] Zhao, S., Fu, Y.-M., Li, X.-F., Zhao, R.B., Huang, Q., Zhang, F.M. and Zhang, W.H. (2010) Alterations of bone marrow sinusoidal endothelium in rat and patients with liver cirrhosis. Digestive Disease and Science, 55, 654- 661. doi:10.1007/s10620-009-0785-5
[80] Sanyal, A.J., Bosch, J., Blei, A. and Arroyo, V. (2008) Portal hypertension and its complications. Gastroenterology, 134, 1715-1728. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2008.03.007
[81] Vollmar, B., Wolf, B., Siegmund, S., Katsen, A.D. and Menger, M.D. (1997) Lymph vessel expansion and function in the development of hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis. American Journal of Pathology, 151, 169-175.
[82] Yamauchi, Y., Ikeda, R., Michitaka, K., Hiasa, Y., Horiike, N. and Onji, M. (2002) Morphometric analysis of lymphatic vessels in primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatology Research, 24, 107-113. doi:10.1016/S1386-6346(02)00019-0
[83] Alexander, J.S., Ganta, V.C., Jordan, P.A. and Witte, M.H. (2010) Gastrointestinal lymphatics in health and disease. Pathophysiology, 17, 315-335. doi:10.1016/j.pathophys.2009.09.003
[84] Ikeda, R., Michitaka, K., Yamauchi, Y., Matsui, H. and Onji, M. (2001) Changes in gastrointestinal lymph and blood vessels in patients with cirrhotic portal hypertension. Journal of Gastroenterology, 36, 689-695. doi:10.1007/s005350170032
[85] Cardenas, A. and Arroyo, V. (2007) Management of ascites and hepatic hydrothorax. Best Practice & Research Clinical Gastroenterology, 21, 55-75. doi:10.1016/j.bpg.2006.07.012
[86] Arroyo, V., Fernandez, J. and Gines, P. (2008) Pathogenesis and treatment of hepatorenal syndrome. Seminars in Liver Disease, 28, 81-95. doi:10.1055/s-2008-1040323
[87] Mφller, S., Henriksen, J.H., and Bendtsen, F. (2008) Pathogenetic background for treatment of ascites and hepatorenal syndrome. Hepatology International, 2, 416-428.
[88] Mahmood, G., Debnath, C.R. and Mandal, A.K. (2009) Evaluation of 100 cases of ascites. Mymensingh Medical Journal, 18, 62-66.
[89] Schrier, R.W., Arroyo, V., Bernardi, M., Epstein, M., Henriksen, J.H. and Rodes, J. (1988) Peripheral arterial vasodilation hypothesis: A proposal for the initiation of renal sodium and water retention in cirrhosis. Hepatology, 8, 1151-1157. doi:10.1002/hep.1840080532
[90] Kashani, A., Landaverde, C., Medici, V. and Rossaro, L. (2008) Fluid retention in cirrhosis: Pathophysiology and management. The Quarterly Journal of Medicine, 101, 71-85. doi:10.1093/qjmed/hcm121
[91] Salerno, F. and Cazzaniga, M. (2009) Autonomic dysfunction: Often present but usually ignored in patients with liver disease. Liver International, 29, 1451-1453. doi:10.1111/j.1478-3231.2009.02141.x
[92] Arroyo, V. and Gines, P. (1993) Mechanism of sodium retention and ascites formation in cirrhosis. Journal of Hepatology, 17, 24-28. doi:10.1016/S0168-8278(05)80451-9
[93] Paulus, B.M., Ali, S., Zia, A.A., Munir, A., Davis Jr., R.C., Mansbach, C.M, Smith, W.C. and Weber, K.T. (2008) Causes and consequences of systemic venous hypertension. American Journal of Medical Sciences, 336, 489- 497. doi:10.1097/MAJ.0b013e318176abe9
[94] Witte, C.L. and Witte, M.H. (1983) Splanchnic circulatory and tissue fluid dynamics in portal hypertension. Federation Proceedings, 42, 1685-1689.
[95] Jimenez-Saenz, M., Soria, I.C., Bernardez, J.R. and Gutierrez, J.M. (2003) Renal sodium retention in portal hypertensión and hepatorenal reflex: From practice to science. Hepatology, 37, 1494. doi:10.1053/jhep.2003.50226
[96] Hamza, S.M. and Kaufman, S. (2009) Role of spleen in integrated control of splanchnic vascular tone: Physiology and pathophysiology. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 87, 1-7. doi:10.1139/Y08-103
[97] Cardenas, A. and Gines, P. (2009) Portal hypertension. Current Opinion in Gastroenterology, 25, 195-201. doi:10.1097/MOG.0b013e328329e154
[98] Riggio, O. and Angeloni, S. (2009) Ascitic fluid analysis for diagnosis and monitoring of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 15, 3845- 3850. doi:10.3748/wjg.15.3845
[99] Koulaouzidis, A., Bhat, S. and Saeed, A.A. (2009) Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 15, 1042-1049. doi:10.3748/wjg.15.1042
[100] Soriano, G., Castellote, J., Alvarez, C., Girbau, A., Gordillo, J., Baliellas, C., Casas, M., Pons, C., Román, E.M., Maisterra, S., Xiol, X. and Guarner, C. (2010) Secondary bacterial peritonitis in cirrhosis: A retrospective study of clinical and analytical characteristics, diagnosis and management. Journal of Hepatology, 52, 39-44. doi:10.1016/j.jhep.2009.10.012
[101] Bernardi, M. (2010) Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: From pathophysiology to prevention. Internal and Emergency Medicine, 5, S37-S44. doi:10.1007/s11739-010-0446-x
[102] Medzhitov, R. (2008) Origin and physiological roles of inflammation. Nature, 454, 428-435. doi:10.1038/nature07201
[103] Eisenhut, M. (2006) Changes in ion transport in inflammatory disease. Journal of Inflammation, 3, 5. doi:10.1186/1476-9255-3-5
[104] H?ussinger, D. (1996) The role of cellular hydration in the regulation of cell function. Biochemical Journal, 331, 697-710.
[105] Kennett, E.C. and Davis, M.J. (2007) Degradation of matrix glycosaminoglycans by peroxynitrite/peroxynitrous acid: Evidence of a hydroxyl-radical-like mechanism. Free Radical Biology & Medicine, 42, 1278-1289. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2007.01.030
[106] Jiang, D., Liang, J. and Noble, P.W. (2007) Hyaluronan in tissue injury and repair. Annals Review Cell Development and Biology, 23, 435-461. doi:10.1146/annurev.cellbio.23.090506.123337
[107] Ng, Ch.P., Helm, C.-L.E. and Swartz, M.A. (2004) Interstitial flow differentially stimulates blood and lymphatic endothelial cell morphogenesis in vitro. Microvascular Research, 68, 258-264. doi:10.1016/j.mvr.2004.08.002
[108] Rutowski, J.M. and Swartz, M.A. (2006) A driving force for change: Interstitial flow as a morphoregulator. Trends in Cell Biology, 17, 44-50. doi:10.1016/j.tcb.2006.11.007
[109] Ng, C.P., Hinz, B. and Swartz, M.A. (2005) Interstitial fluid flow induces myofibroblast differentiation and collagen alignement in vitro. Journal of Cell Science, 118, 4731-4739. doi:10.1242/jcs.02605
[110] Helm, C.-L.E., Fleury, M.E., Zisch, A.H., Boschetti, F. and Swartz, M.A. (2005) Synergy between interstitial flow and VEGF directs capillary morphogenesis in vitro through a gradient amplification mechanism. Proceedings of National Academy Science, 102, 15779-15784. doi:10.1073/pnas.0503681102
[111] Ng, C.P. and Swartz, M.A. (2006) Mechanisms of interstitial flow-induced remodeling of fibroblast-collagen cultures. Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 34, 446-454. doi:10.1007/s10439-005-9067-3.
[112] Goldman, J., Conley, K.A., Raehl, A., Bondy, D.M., Pytowski, B., Swartz, M.A., Rutkowski, J.M., Jaroch, D.B. and Ongstad, E.L. (2007) Regulation of lymphatic capillary regeneration by interstitial flow in skin. American Journal of Physiology Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 292, H2176-H2183. doi:10.1152/ajpheart.01011.2006
[113] Plaku, K.J. and Von der Weid, P.Y. (2006) Mast cell degranulation alters lymphatic contractile activity through action of histamine. Microcirculation, 13, 219-227. doi:10.1080/10739680600556902
[114] Kvietys, P.R. and Granger, D.N. (2010) Role of intestinal lymphatics in interstitial volume regulation and transmucosal water transport. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1207, E29-E43. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05709.x
[115] Fanous, M.Y.Z., Phillips, A.J. and Windson, J.A. (2007) Mesenteric lymph: The bridge to future management of critical illness. Journal of the Pancreas, 8, 374-399.
[116] Lynch, P.M., Deland, F.A. and Schmid-Schonbein, G.W. (2007) The primary valves in the initial lymphatics during inflammation. Lymphatic Research and Biology, 5, 3-10. doi:10.1089/lrb.2007.5102
[117] Von der Weid, P.Y. and Rehal, S. (2010) Lymphatic pump function in the inflammed gut. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1207, E69-E74. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05715.x
[118] Kohan, A., Yoder, S. and Tso, P. (2010) Lymphatics in intestinal transport of nutrients and gastrointestinal hormones. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1207, E44-E51. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05753.x
[119] Magnotti, L.J., Xu, D.-Z., Lu, Q. and Deitch, E.A. (1999) Gut-derived mesenteric lymph. Archives of Surgery, 134, 1333-1341. doi:10.1001/archsurg.134.12.1333
[120] Kaiser, V.L., Sifri, Z.C., Diksan, G.S., Berezina, T., Zaets, S., Lu, Q., Xu, D.Z. and Deitch, E.A. (2005) Trauma- hemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph from rat contains a modified form of albumin that is implicated in-endothelial cell toxicity. Shock, 23, 417-425. doi:10.1097/01.shk.0000160524.14235.6c
[121] Watkins, A.C., Caputo, F.J., Badami, C., Barlos, D., da Xu, Z., Lu, Q., Feketeova, E. and Deitch, E.A. (2008) Mesenteric lymph duct ligation attenuates lung injury and neutrophil activation after intraperitoneal injection of endotoxin in rats. Journal of Trauma, 64, 126-130. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e3181574a8a
[122] Wang, Y., Ghoshal, S., Ward, M., De Villiers, W., Woodward, J. and Eckhardt, E. (2009) Chylomicrons promote intestinal absorption and systemic dissemination of dietary antigen (ovalbumin) in mice. PLoS One, 4, e8441.
[123] Wilting, J., Becker, J., Buttler, K. and Weich, H.A. (2009) Lymphatics and inflammation. Current Medical Chemistry, 16, 4581-4592. doi:10.2174/092986709789760751
[124] Bruyere, F. and No?l, A. (2010) Lymphangiogenesis: In vitro and in vivo models. FASEB Journal, 24, 8-21. doi:10.1096/fj.09-132852
[125] Mouta, C. and Heroult, M. (2003) Inflammatory triggers of lymphangiogenesis. Lymphatics Research Biology, 1, 201-218. doi:10.1089/153968503768330247
[126] Baluk, P., Yao, L.-C., Feng, J., Romano, T., Jung, S.S., Schreiter, J.L., Yan, L., Shealy, D.J. and McDonald, D.M. (2009) TNF-α drives remodeling of blood vessels and lymphatics in sustained airway inflammation in mice. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 119, 2954-2964.
[127] Jurisic, G. and Detmar, M. (2009) Lymphatic endothelium in health and disease. Cell Tissue Research, 335, 97-108. doi:10.1007/s00441-008-0644-2
[128] Nakao, S., Maruyama, K., Zandis, S., Melhorn, M.I, Taher, M., Noda, K., Nusayr, E., Doetschman, T. and Hafezi-Moghadam, A. (2010) Lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis: concurence and/or dependence? Studies in inbred mouse strains. FASEB Journal, 24, 504-513. doi:10.1096/fj.09-134056
[129] Ji, R.C. (2009) Lymph node lymphangiogenesis: A new concept for modulating tumor metastasis and inflammatory process. Histology and Histopathology, 24, 377-384.
[130] Liersch, R. and Detmar, M. (2007) Lymphangiogenesis in development and disease. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 98, 304-310.
[131] Cueni, L.N. and Detmar, M. (2008) The lymphatic system in health and disease. Lymphatics Research and Biology, 6, 109-122. doi:10.1089/lrb.2008.1008
[132] Vetrano, S., Borroni, E.M., Sarukhan, A., Savino, B., Bonecchi, R., Correale, C., Arena, V., Fantini, M., Roncalli, M., Malesci, A., Mantovani, A., Locati, M. and Danese, S. (2010) The lymphatic system controls intestinal inflammation and inflammation-associated colon cancer through the chemokine decoy receptor D6. Gut, 59, 197-206. doi:10.1136/gut.2009.183772
[133] Alexander, J.S., Chaitanya, G.V., Grisham, M.B. and Boktor, M. (2010) Emerging roles of lymphatics in inflammatory bowel disease. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1207, E75-E85. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05757.x
[134] Lai, W.K. and Adams, D.H. (2005) Angiogenesis and chronic inflammation; the potencial for novel therapeutic approaches in chronic liver disease. Journal of Hepatology, 42, 7-11. doi:10.1016/j.jhep.2004.11.008
[135] Shimamura, K., Nakatani, T., Ueda, A., Sugama, J. and Okuwa, M. (2009) Relationship between lymphangiogenesis and exudates during the wound-healing process of mouse skin full-thickness wound. Wound Repair and Regeneration, 17, 598-605. doi:10.1111/j.1524-475X.2009.00512.x
[136] Thaunat, O., Kerjaschki, D. and Nicoletti, A. (2006) Is defective lymphatic drainage a trigger for lymphoid neogenesis? Trends in Immunology, 27, 441-445. doi:10.1016/j.it.2006.08.003
[137] Kuiper, J.J., Boomsma, F., Van Buren, H., De Man, R., Danser, A.H. and Van den Meiracker, A.H. (2008) Components of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in plasma and ascites in hepatic cirrhosis. European Journal of Clinical Investigation, 38, 939-944. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2362.2008.02044.x
[138] Bansal, S., Lindenfeld, J. and Schrier, R.W. (2009) Sodium retention in heart failure and cirrhosis: Potential role of natriuretic doses of mineralocorticoid antagonist? Circulation. Heart Failure, 2, 370-376. doi:10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.108.821199
[139] Mayberry, J.C., Welker, K.J., Goldman, R.K. and Mullins, R.J. (2003) Mechanism of acute ascites formation after trauma resuscitation. Archives of Surgery, 138, 773-776. doi:10.1001/archsurg.138.7.773
[140] Dong, M.H. and Saab, S. (2008) Complications of cirrhosis. Disease-a-Month, 54, 445-446. doi:10.1016/j.disamonth.2008.03.006
[141] Beavis, J., Harwood, J.L., Coles, G.A. and Williams, J.D. (1994) Synthesis of phospholipids by human peritoneal mesothelial cells. Peritoneal Dialysis International, 14, 348-355.
[142] Bourbon, J.R. and Chailley-Heu, B. (2001) Surfactant protein in the digestive tract, mesentery, and other organs: evolutionary significance. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 129, 151-161. doi:10.1016/S1095-6433(01)00312-9
[143] Obradovic, M.M., Stojimirovic, B.B., Trpinac, D.P., Milutinovic, D.D., Obradovic, D.I. and Nesic, V.B. (2001) Ultrastructure of peritoneal mesothelial cells. Serbian archives of entire medicine, 129, 175-179.
[144] Schilte, M.N., Celie, J.W.A.M., Ter-Wee, P.M., Beelen, R.H.J. and Van der Born, J. (2009) Factors contributing to peritoneal tissue remodeling in peritoneal dialysis. Peritoneal Dialysis International, 29, 605-617.
[145] Li, M.K. and Crawford, J.M. (2004) The pathology of cholestasis. Seminars in Liver Disease, 24, 21-24. doi:10.1055/s-2004-823099
[146] Aller, M.A., Mendez, M., Nava, M.P., Lopez, L., Arias, J.L. and Arias, J. (2009) The value of microsurgery in liver research. Liver International, 29, 1132-1140. doi:10.1111/j.1478-3231.2009.02078.x
[147] Aller, M.A., Prieto, I., Cruz, M., Losada, M., Arias, J.I., García-Domínguez, J., Argudo, S., Arias, J.L. and Arias, J. (2009) Extrahepatic cholestasis. In: Aller, M.A. and Arias, J., Eds, Microsurgery in Liver Research, Bentham Ebook, 137-156.
[148] Aller, M.A., Duran, M., Ortega, L., Arias, J.L., Nava, M.P., Prieto, I. and Arias, J. (2004) Comparative study of macro- and microsurgical extrahepatic cholestasis in the rat. Microsurgery, 24, 442-447. doi:10.1002/micr.10153
[149] Aller, M.A., Lorente, L., Alonso, S. and Arias, J. (1993) A model of cholestasis in the rat, using a microsurgical technique. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, 28, 10-14. doi:10.3109/00365529309096038
[150] Sanchez-Patan, F., Anchuelo, R., Corcuera, M.T., Casado, I., Gómez-Aguado, F., Aller, M.A., Cruz, A., Alonso, M.J. and Arias J. (2008) Biliary fibrosis in microsurgical extrahepatic cholestasis in the rat. Microsurgery, 28, 361-366. doi:10.1002/micr.20495
[151] Ramadori, G. and Saile, B. (2004) Portal tract fibrogenesis in the liver. Laboratory Investigation, 84, 153-159. doi:10.1038/labinvest.3700030
[152] Aller, M.A., Arias, J.L., Garcia-Dominguez, J., Arias, J.I., Duran, M. and Arias, J. (2008) Experimental obstructive cholestasis: The wound-like inflammatory liver response. Fibrogenesis and Tissue Repair, 1, 6. doi:10.1186/1755-1536-1-6
[153] Aller, M.A., Arias, J.L., Prieto, I., Losada, M. and Arias, J. (2010) Bile duct ligation: Step-by-step to cholangiocyte inflammatory tumorigenesis. European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 22, 651-661.
[154] Garcia-Moreno, L.M., Aller, M.A., Conejo, M., Gómez, M.A., Martin, F.R., Arias, J. and Arias, J.L. (2002) Brain Ag-NOR activity in cholestatic rats with hepatic encephalopathy. Hepatology Research, 24, 275-281. doi:10.1016/S1386-6346(02)00132-8
[155] Aller, M.A., Nava, M.P., Arias, J.L., Duran, M., Prieto, I., Llamas, M.A. and Arias J. (2004) Microsurgical extrahepatic cholestasis in the rat: A long-term study. Journal of Investigative Surgery, 17, 99-104. doi:10.1080/08941930490422537
[156] Pereira, R.M., Dos Santos, R.A.S., Oliveira, E.A., Leite, V.H., Dias, F.L., Rezende, A.S., Costa, L.P., Barcelos, L.S., Teixeira, M.M. and Simoes e Silva, A.C. (2008) Development of hepatorenal síndrome in bile duct ligated rats. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 28, 4505-4511. doi:10.3748/wjg.14.4505
[157] Thabut, D., Tazi, K.A., Bonnefont-Rousselot, D., Aller, M.A., Farges, O., Guimont, M.C., Tellier, Z., Guichard, C., Ogier-Denis, E., Poynard, T., Moreau, R. and Lebrec, D. (2007) High-density lipoprotein administration attenuates liver proinflammatory response, restores liver endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity, and lowers portal pressure in cirrhotic rats. Hepatology, 46, 1893-1906. doi:10.1002/hep.21875
[158] Assimakopoulos, S.F. and Vagianos, C.E. (2009) Bile duct ligation in rats: Areliable model of hepatorenal syndrome? World Journal of Gastroenterology, 15, 121-123. doi:10.3748/wjg.15.121
[159] Wang, G., Shen, H., Rajaraman, G., Roberts, M.S., Gong, Y., Jiang, P. and Burczynski, F. (2007) Expression and antioxidant function of liver fatty acid binding protein in normal and bileduct ligated rats. European Journal of Pharmacology, 560, 61-68. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2007.01.015
[160] Portincasa, P., Grattagliano, I., Testini, M., Caruso, M.G., Wang, D.Q., Moschetta, A., Calamita, G., Vacca, M., Valentini, A.M., Renna, G., Lissidini, G. and Palasciano, G. (2007) Parallel intestinal and liver injury during early cholestasis in the rat: Modulation by bile salts and antioxidants. Free radical biology and medicine, 42, 1381-1391. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2007.01.039
[161] Assimakopoulos, S.F., Vagianos, C.E., Patsoukis, N., Georgiou, C., Nikolopoulou, V. and Scopa, C.D. (2004) Evidence for intestinal oxidative stress in obstructive jaundice-induced gut barrier dysfunction in rats. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 180, 177-185. doi:10.1046/j.0001-6772.2003.01229.x
[162] Soylu, A.R., Aydogtu, N., Basaran, U.N., Altaner, S., Tarcin, O., Gedik, N., Umit, H., Tezel, A., Dokmeci, G., Baloglu, H., Ture, M., Kutlu, K. and Kaymak, K. (2006) Antioxidants vitamins E and C attenuate hepatic fibrosis in biliary obstructed rats. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 12, 6835-6841.
[163] Garcia-Dominguez, J., Aller, M.A., Garcia, C., de Vicente, F., Corcuera, M.T., Gómez-Aguado, F., Alonso, M.J., Vara, E. and Arias, J. (2010) Splanchnic Th2 and Th1 cytokine redistribution in microsurgical cholestatic rats. Journal of Surgical Research, 162, 203-212. doi:10.1016/j.jss.2009.06.010
[164] Waynforth, H.B. and Flecknell, P.A. (1992) Methods of obtaining body fluids. In: Waynforth, H.B. and Flecknell, P.A., Eds., Techniques in the Rat, Elsevier Academic Press, London, 68-99.
[165] Hauss, D., Fogal, S. and Ficorilli, J. (1998) Chronic collection of mesenteric lymph from conscious, tethered rats. Contemp Topics in Laboratoy Animal Science, 37, 56-58.
[166] Aller, M.A., Nava, M.P. and Arias, J. (2009) Techniques of blood, bile and lymph samples extraction. In: Aller, M.A. and Arias, J., Eds., Microsurgery in Liver Reserch, Bentham Ebook, 71-92.
[167] Mittal, A., Middleditch, M., Ruggiero, K., Buchanan, C.M., Jullig, M., Loveday, B., Cooper, G.J., Windsor, J.A. and Phillips, A.R. (2008) The proteome of rodent mesenteric lymph. American Journal of Physiology Gastrointestinal Liver Physiology, 295, G895-G903. doi:10.1152/ajpgi.90378.2008
[168] Fang, J.F., Shih, L.Y., Yuan, K.C., Fang, K.Y., Hwang, T.L. and Hsieh, S.Y. (2010) Proteomic analysis of post-hemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph. Shock, 34, 291-298. doi:10.1097/SHK.0b013e3181ceef5e
[169] Ohtani, O. and Ohtani, Y. (2008) Structure and function of rat lymph nodes. Archives of Histology and Cytology, 71, 69-76. doi:10.1679/aohc.71.69
[170] Sztrymf, B., Libert, J.M., Mougeot, C., Lebrec, D., Mazmanian, M., Humbert, M. and Herve, P. (2005) Cirrhotic rats with bacterial translocation have higher incidence and severity of hepatopulmonary syndrome. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 20, 1538-1544. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1746.2005.03914.x
[171] Frances, R., Chiva, M., Sanchez, E., González-Navajas, J.M., Llovet, T., Zapater, P., Soriano, G., Mu?oz, C., Balanzó, J., Pérez-Mateo, M., Song, X.Y., Guarner, C. and Such, J. (2007) Bacterial translocation is downregulated by anti-TNFα monoclonal antibody administration in rats with cirrhosis and ascites. Journal of Hepatology, 46, 797- 803. doi:10.1016/j.jhep.2006.11.018
[172] Cheatham, M.L. (2009) Abdominal compartment syndrome: Pathophysiology and definitions. Scandinavian Journal of Trauma and Resuscitation Emergency Medicine, 17, 10. doi:10.1186/1757-7241-17-10
[173] Hou, W. and Sanyal, A.J. (2009) Ascites: Diagnosis and management. MedicineClinics of North America, 93, 801-817. doi:10.1016/j.mcna.2009.03.007
[174] Kim, S.U., Kim, Do.Y., Lee, C.K., Park, J.Y., Kim, S.H., Kim, H.M., Choi, E.H., Kim, S., Han, K.H., Chon, C.Y., and Ahn, S.H. (2010) Ascitic fluid infection in patients with hepatitis B virus-related liver cirrhosis: Culturenegative neutrocytic ascites versus spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 25, 122-128. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1746.2009.05970.x
[175] Chan-Kyung, J.C., Shan, S.J., Winsor, E.J. and Diamandis, E.P. (2007) Proteomics analysis of human amniotic fluid. Molecular & Cell Proteomics, 6, 1406-1415. doi:10.1074/mcp.M700090-MCP200
[176] Tong, X.-L., Wang, L., Gao, T.-B., Qin, Y.-G., Qi, Y.-Q. and Xu, Y-P. (2009) Potential function of amniotic fluid in fetal development-Novel insights by comparing the composition of human amniotic fluid with umbilical cord and maternal serum at mid and late gestation. Journal of Clinical Medical Association, 72, 368-373. doi:10.1016/S1726-4901(09)70389-2
[177] Gray, T. and Huestis, M. (2007) Bioanalytical procedures for monitoring in utero drug exposure. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 388, 1455-1465. doi:10.1007/s00216-007-1228-9
[178] Schmidt, W. (1992) The amniotic fluid compartment: The fetal habitat. Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology, 127, 1-100. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-77300-6_1
[179] Bellini, C., Boccardo, F., Bonioli, E. and Campisi, C. (2006) Lymphodynamics in the fetus and newborn. Lymphology, 39, 110-117.
[180] Brace, R. (1997) Physiology of amniotic fluid volume regulation. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynecology, 40, 280- 289. doi:10.1097/00003081-199706000-00005
[181] Koski, K.G. and Fergusson, M.A. (1992) Amniotic fluid composition responds to changes in manternal dietary carbohydrate and is related to metabolic status in term fetal rats. Journal of Nutrition, 122, 385-392.
[182] Wagner, C.L., Taylor, S.N. and Johnson, D. (2008) Host factors in amniotic fluid and breast milk that contribute to gut maturation. Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology, 34, 191-204. doi:10.1007/s12016-007-8032-3
[183] Moran, E.T. (2007) Nutrition of the developing embryo and hatchling. Poultry Science, 86, 1043-1049.
[184] Lopez de Torre, B., Tovar, J.A., Uriarte, S. and Aldazabal, P. (1992) The nutrition of the fetus with intestinal atresia: Studies in the chick embryo model. Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 27, 1325-1328. doi:10.1016/0022-3468(92)90288-I
[185] Delo, D.M., De Coppi, P., Bartsch, G. and Atala, A. (2006) Amniotic fluid and placental stem cells. Methods in Enzymology, 419, 426-438. doi:10.1016/S0076-6879(06)19017-5
[186] Insausti, C.L., Blanquer, M., Bleda, P., Iniesta, P. Majado, M.J., Castellanos, G. and Moraleda, J.M. (2010) The amniotic membrane as a source of stem cells. Histology and Histopathology, 25, 91-98.
[187] Schlievert, P., Johnson, W. and Galask, R.P. (1976) Isolation of a low- molecular-weight antibacterial system from human amniotic fluid. Infection and Immunology, 14, 1156-1166.
[188] Elinson, R.P. and Beckham, Y. (2002) Development in frogs with large eggs and the origin of amniotes. Zoology, 105, 105-117.
[189] Blackburn, D.G. and Flemming, A.F. (2009) Morphology, development and evolution of fetal membranes and placentation is squamate reptiles. Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution. 312, 579-589. doi:10.1002/jez.b.21234
[190] Aller, M.A., de las Heras, N., Blanco-Rivero, J., Arias, J.I., Lahera, V., Balfagon, G. and Arias, J. (2012) Portal hypertensive cardiovascular pathology: The rescue of ancestral survival mechanisms? Clinical Research in Hepatlogy andl Gastroenteroogy, 36, 35-46.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.