Geology and Geomorphology of the Manipur Valley Using Digitally Enhanced Satellite Image and SRTM DEM in the Eastern Himalaya, India


Landsat ETM+ data and SRTM DEM data were used to delineate the geological, structural and geomorphological features in the intermontane Imphal Valley in Manipur, India. This area has simple geology, structural features and there- fore provides an ideal site to test the utility of remote sensing and GIS techniques in geological studies. The various techniques such as band ratioing, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and generation of FCC (False Colour Composite) were employed on ETM+ data. The SRTM DEM data is used in generating the west-east transects of altitude pro- files in the valley for characterization of altitude levels of the litho-units. DEM derived drainage network and relative drainage density in the basin were used in interpreting the location of fault plane in the valley. The slope and lineament maps were prepared using SRTM DEM. It suggests that entire valley is covered by very low slope (0? - 9?). Lineaments are oriented N-S, 180? while in south-east of valley the direction is largely NW-SE. The change in lineament direction suggests that the eastern side of the valley is controlled by Indonesian Island arc strike direction.

Share and Cite:

A. Khan, S. Ahmad and S. Khurshid, "Geology and Geomorphology of the Manipur Valley Using Digitally Enhanced Satellite Image and SRTM DEM in the Eastern Himalaya, India," International Journal of Geosciences, Vol. 3 No. 5A, 2012, pp. 1010-1018. doi: 10.4236/ijg.2012.325101.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] J. B. Campbell, “Introduction to Remote Sensing,” 2nd Edition, The Guilford Press, New York, 1996.
[2] T. M. Lilles and R. W. Kiefer, “Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation,” 4th Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, 2000.
[3] I. Heywood, “An Introduction to Geographical Information Systems,” Wentley Longman, New York, 1998.
[4] T. Yomaralioglu, “Geographical Information Systems: Basic Principal and Application,” Secil Offset, Istanbul, 2000, p. 54.
[5] P. A., Longley, M. F. Goodchild, D. J. Maguire and D. W. Rhind, “Geographic Information Systems and Science,” Bath Press, London, 2001.
[6] S. N. Goward, J. G. Masek, D. L.Williams, J. R. Irons and R. J. Thompson, “The Landsat 7 Mission Terrestrial Research and Applications for the 21st Century,” Remote Sensing of Environmental, Vol. 78, 2001, pp. 3-12.doi:10.1016/S0034-4257(01)00262-0
[7] S. Reis, “Design and application of Geographic Information System (GIS) for Environmental Planning Database Purpose: A Model of Tarbzon Information System,” Ph.D. Thesis, Karadeinz Technical University, Trabzon, 2003, p. 210.
[8] S. Sarkar and D. P. Kanungo, “Land-Slides in Relation to Terrain Parameters a RS and GIS Approach,” 2002. /nhls0010pf.htm
[9] H. W. Blodget and G. F. Brown, “Geological Mapping by Use of Computer-Enhanced Imagery in Western Saudi Arabia,” US Geological Survey Professional Paper 1153, 1982, 10 p.
[10] C. D. Condid and P. S. Chaves, “Basic Concept of Computerized Digital Image Processing for Geologists,” US Geological Survey Bulletin, Vol. 1462, 1979, 16 p.
[11] D. A. Rothery, “Interactive Processing of Satellite Images for Geological Interpretation—A Case Study,” Geological Magazine, Vol. 122, 1985, pp. 57-63.doi:10.1017/S0016756800034087
[12] L. C. Rowan, A. F. Wetlaufer, A. F. Goetz, F. C. Billingseley and J. Stewart, “Discrimination of Rock Types and Detection of Hydrothermally Altered Areas in South- central Nevada by Used of Computer-Enhanced ERTS Images,” US Geological Survey Professional Paper 833, 1974, 35 p.
[13] J. P. Rigol and M. Chica-Olmo, “Merging Remote Sensing Images for Geological-Environmental Mapping: Application to Cabo de Gata-Nijar Natural Park, Spain,” Environmental Geology, Vol. 34, No. 2-3, 1998, pp. 194- 202. doi:10.1007/s002540050271
[14] F. F. Sabins, “Remote Sensing Principles and Interpretation,” 3rd Edition, W.H. Freeman and Company, New York, 2000, p. 494.
[15] S. J. Walsh, J. W. Cooper, I. E. Von Essen and K. R. Gallager, “Image Enhancement of Landsat Thematic Mapper Data and GIS Data Integration for Evaluation of Resource Characteristic,” Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, Vol. 56, No. 8, 1990, pp. 1135- 1141.
[16] P. K. Guha and I. Venkataramana, “Extraction of Geological Features by Band Combination of IRS-1 A Data,” ITC Journal, Vol. 2-3, 1992, pp. 234-238.
[17] H. Zumsprekel and T. Prinz, “Computer-Enhanced Mul- tispectral Remote Sensing Data: A Useful Tool for the Geological Mapping of Archean Terrains in (Semi)Arid Environments,” Computers & Geosciences, Vol. 26, No. 1, 2000, pp. 87-100.doi:10.1016/S0098-3004(99)00042-4
[18] N. M. Craig, “Discussion of Image Processing Methods Applied to Multispectral Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) Data for Identification of Yanomamo Settlements,” 2000.
[19] A. C. Filho and J. A. Zinck, “Mapping Waleo-Aeolian Sand Cover Formations in the Northern Amazon Basin from TM Images,” ITC Journal, Vol. 3, 1994, pp. 270- 282.

Copyright © 2021 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.