Synthesis and Characterization of Alumina-Zirconia Powders Obtained by Sol-Gel Method: Effect of Solvent and Water Addition Rate


The influence of solvent and the rate of addition of water on the characteristics of alumina-zirconia powders obtained by sol-gel method were investigated. The Al2O3-ZrO2 powders (1:1 molar ratio) were prepared using aluminum tri-sec-butoxide and zirconium n-propoxide as precursors. Ethanol (EtOH), isopropanol (iPrOH) and isobutanol (iBuOH) were used as solvents. The Al2O3-ZrO2 powders were characterized by nitrogen physisorption (SBET), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Prepared oxides calcined at 700℃ showed high specific surface area (200 - 240 m2/g). Obtained results suggest that the homogeneity of the mixed oxides is favored by using a water addition rate of 0.06 and 0.10 mL/min with ethanol as solvent.

Share and Cite:

J. Angel, A. Aguilera, I. Galindo, M. Martínez and T. Viveros, "Synthesis and Characterization of Alumina-Zirconia Powders Obtained by Sol-Gel Method: Effect of Solvent and Water Addition Rate," Materials Sciences and Applications, Vol. 3 No. 9, 2012, pp. 650-657. doi: 10.4236/msa.2012.39095.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] J. G. Seo, M. H. Youn and K. M. Cho, “Effect of Al2O3-ZrO2 Xerogel Support on Hydrogen Production by Steam Reforming of LNG over Ni/Al2O3-ZrO2 Catalyst,” Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering, Vol. 25, No. 1, 2008, pp. 41-45. doi:10.1007/s11814-008-0007-4
[2] J. G. Seo, M. H. Youn, K. M. Cho, S. Park and I. K. Song, “Preparation of Ni/Al2O3-ZrO2 Catalysts and Their Application to Hydrogen Production by Steam Reforming of LNG: Effect of ZrO2 Content Grafted on Al2O3,” Catalysis Today, Vol. 138, No. 3-4, 2008, pp. 130-134.doi:10.1016/j.cattod.2008.05.006
[3] P. Jasso, M. Torres, F. Tzompanzi and M. Asomoza, “Nanostructured Carbon on Steam Reforming Catalysts,” Journal of New Materials for Electrochemical Systems, Vol. 11, No. 2, 2008, pp. 95-98.
[4] Q. Liu, A. Wang, X. Wang, P. Gao, X. Wang and T. Zhang, “Synthesis, Characterization and Catalytic Applications of Mesoporous ?-Alumina from Boehmite Sol,” Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, Vol. 111, No. 1-3, 2008, pp. 323-333.doi:10.1016/j.micromeso.2007.08.007
[5] P. D. L. Mercera, J. G. Van Ommen, E. B. M. Doesburg, A. J. Burggraaf and J. R. H. Ross, “Stabilized Tetragonal Zirconium Oxide as a Support for Catalysts,” Applied Catalysis, Vol. 78, No. 1, 1991, pp. 79-96. doi:10.1016/0166-9834(91)80090-J
[6] M. G. Cutrufello, I. Ferino, R. Monaci, E. Rombi and V. Solin, “Acid-Base Properties of Zirconium, Cerium and Lanthanum Oxides by Calorimetric and Catalytic Investigation,” Topics in Catalysis, Vol. 19, No. 3-4, 2002, pp. 225-240. doi:10.1023/A:1015376409863
[7] C. Bozo, N. Guilhaume, E. Garbowski and M. Primet, “Combustion of Methane on CeO2-ZrO2 Based Catalysts,” Catalysis Today, Vol. 59, No. 1-2, 2000, pp. 33-45. doi:10.1016/S0920-5861(00)00270-4
[8] A. Haryanto, S. Fernando, N. Murali and S. Adhikari, “Current Status of Hydrogen Production Techniques by Steam Reforming of Ethanol: A Review,” Energy & Fuels, Vol. 19, No. 5, 2005, pp. 2098-2106. doi:10.1021/ef0500538
[9] A. Srivastava and M. K. Dongare, “Low-Temperature Preparation of Tetragonal Zirconia,” Materials Letters, Vol. 5, No. 3, 1987, pp. 111-115.doi:10.1016/0167-577X(87)90086-3
[10] P. D. L. Mercera, J. G. Van Ommen, E. B. M. Doesburg, A. J. Burggraaf and J. R. H. Ross, “Zirconia as a Support for Catalysts: Evolution of the Texture and Structure on Calcination in Air,” Applied Catalysis, Vol. 57, No. 1, 1990, 127-148. doi:10.1016/S0166-9834(00)80728-9
[11] W. Zhang and F. P. Glasser. “Condensation and Gelation of Inorganic ZrO2-Al2O3 Sols,” Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 28, No. 4, 1993, pp. 1129-1135.doi:10.1007/BF00400902
[12] M. L. Rojas Cervantes, R. M. Martin-Aranda, A. J. Lopez-Peinado and J. De D. Lopez-Gonzalez, “ZrO2 Obtained by the Sol-Gel Method: Influence of Synthesis Parameters on Physical and Structural Characteristics,” Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 29, No. 14, 1994, pp. 3743-3748. doi:10.1007/BF00357343
[13] Z. Feng, W. S. Postula, A. Akgerman and R. G. Anthony, “Characterization of Zirconia-Based Catalysts Prepared by Precipitation, Calcination, and Modified Sol-Gel Meth- ods,” Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, Vol. 34, No. 1, 1995, pp. 78-82. doi:10.1021/ie00040a005
[14] V. Naglieri, L. Joly-Pottuz, J. Chevalier, M. Lombardi and L. Montanaro, “Follow-Up of Zirconia Crystallization on a Surface Modified Alumina Powder,” Journal of the European Ceramic Society, Vol. 30, No. 16, 2010, pp. 3377-3387. doi:10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2010.07.029
[15] K. Balakrishnan and R. D. Gonzalez, “Preparation of Pt/Alumina Catalysts by the Sol-Gel Method,” Journal of Catalysis, Vol. 144, No. 2, 1993, pp. 395-413.doi:10.1006/jcat.1993.1341
[16] R. Gopalan, C. H. Chang and Y. S. Lin, “Thermal Stability Improvement on Pore and Phase Structure of Sol-Gel Derived Zirconia,” Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 30, No. 12, 1995, pp. 3075-3081. doi:10.1007/BF01209219
[17] C. Li, Y.-W. Chen and T.-M. Yen, “The Effects of Preparation Method on the Characteristics of Alumina-Zirconia Powders,” Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, Vol. 4, No. 3, 1995, pp. 205-215. doi:10.1007/BF00488375
[18] Y.-W. Chen, T.-M. Yen and C. Li, “Preparation of Alumina-Zirconia Materials by the Sol-Gel Method from Metal Alkoxides,” Journal of Non-Crystalline solids, Vol. 185, No. 1-2, 1995, pp. 49-55. doi:10.1016/0022-3093(94)00680-6
[19] M. Morán-Pineda, S. Castillo, T. López, R. Gómez, Cor- dero-Borboa and O. Novaro, “Synthesis, Characterization and Catalytic Activity in the Reduction of NO by CO on Alumina-Zirconia Sol-Gel Derived Mixed Oxides,” Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Vol. 21, No. 2, 1999, pp. 79-88. doi:10.1016/S0926-3373(99)00010-7
[20] T. Klimova, M. L. Rojas, P. Castillo, R. Cuevas and J. Ramirez, “Characterization of Al2O3-ZrO2 Mixed Oxide Catalytic Supports Prepared by the Sol-Gel Method,” Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, Vol. 20, No. 4-6, 1998, pp. 293-306. doi:10.1016/S1387-1811(97)00024-3
[21] J. M. Domínguez, J. L. Hernandez and G. Sandoval, “Surface and Catalytic Properties of Al2O3-ZrO2 Solid Solutions Prepared by Sol-Gel Methods,” Applied Catalysis A: General, Vol. 197, No. 1, 2000, pp. 119-130.
[22] B. E. Yoldas, “Alumina Gels That Form Porous Transparent Al2O3,” Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 10, No. 11, 1975, pp. 1856-1860. doi:10.1007/BF00754473
[23] S. Therdthianwong, A. Siangchin and A. Therdthianwong, “Improvement of Coke Resitence of Ni/Al2O3 Catalyst in CH4/CO2 Reforming by ZrO2 Addition,” Fuel Processing Technology, Vol. 89, No. 2, 2008, pp. 160-168. doi:10.1016/j.fuproc.2007.09.003
[24] D. Sarkar, D. Mohapatra, S. Ray, S. Bhattacharyya, S. Adak and N. Mitra, “Synthesis and Characterization of Sol-Gel Derived ZrO2 Doped Al2O3 Nanopowder,” Ceramics International, Vol. 33, No. 7, 2007, pp. 1275-1282. doi:10.1016/j.ceramint.2006.05.002
[25] A. Taavani-Gilan, E. Taheri-Nasaj and H. Akhondi, “The Effect of Zirconia Content on Properties of Al2O3-ZrO2 (Y2O3) Composite Nanopowders Synthesized by Aqueous Sol-Gel Method,” Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, Vol. 355, No. 4-5, 2009, pp. 311-316. doi:10.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2008.11.012
[26] J. Ortiz-Landeros, M. E. Contreras-García and H. Pfeiffer, “Synthesis of Macroporous Al2O3-ZrO2 Mixed Oxides with Mesoporous Walls, Using Polystyrene Spheres as Template,” Journal of Porous Materials, Vol. 16, No. 4, 2009, pp. 473-479. doi:10.1007/s10934-008-9221-z
[27] V. Santos, M. Zeni, C. P. Bergmann and J. M. Hohemberger, “Correlation between Thermal Treatment and Tetragonal/Monoclinic Nanostructured Zirconia Powder Obtained by Sol-Gel Process,” Review on Advanced Materials Science, Vol. 17, No. 1, 2008, pp. 62-70.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.