Share This Article:

Evidence of impaired facial emotion recognition in mild Alzheimer’s disease: A mathematical approach and application

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:1873KB) PP. 171-186
DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2012.23023    4,040 Downloads   7,021 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The first objective of this paper is to show the improved binary outcomes resulting from using MARIE as a diagnostic instrument that allows valid and reliable visual recognition of facial emotional expressions (VRFEE) in an objective and quantitative manner. The second objective is to demonstrate mathematical modeling of binary responses that allow the measurement of categorical dimension, sensitivity, camber, equilibrium points, transition thresholds, etc. The final objective is to illustrate the use of this test for 1) testing a homogeneous sample of healthy young participants; and 2) applying this method to a sample of 12 participants with early Alz-heimer disease compared to a matched control sample of healthy elderly participants. Design: Transforming the binary outcomes of MARIE in mathematical variables (experiment 1), allowing verification of a disorder of VRFEE in early Alzheimer’s disease (experiment 2). Measures: Comparison of numerical variables and graphic representations of both samples. Results: The objective measurement of VRFEE is possible in a healthy population. The application of this methodology to a pathological population is also made possible. The results support the current literature. Conclusion: The combination of the mathematical method with the diagnostic instrument MARIE shows its power and ease of use in clinical practice and research. Its application in many clinical conditions and in clinical research can be useful for understanding brain function. This method improves 1) the inter-examiner comparison and standardizes the quantification of VRFEE for use by multiple researchers; 2) the follow-up of a sample over time; 3) the comparison of two or more samples. This method is already available in clinical work for refining the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) in our department.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Granato, P. , Vinekar, S. , Gansberghe, J. and Bruyer, R. (2012) Evidence of impaired facial emotion recognition in mild Alzheimer’s disease: A mathematical approach and application. Open Journal of Psychiatry, 2, 171-186. doi: 10.4236/ojpsych.2012.23023.

References

[1] Beale, J.M. and Keil, F.C. (1995) Categorical effects in the perception of faces. Cognition, 57, 217-239. doi:10.1016/0010-0277(95)00669-X
[2] Bornstein, M.H., Kessen, W. and Weiskopf, S. (1976) The categories of hue in infancy. Science, 191, 201-202. doi:10.1126/science.1246610
[3] Calvo, M.G. and Nummenmaa, L. (2011) Time course of discrimination between emotional facial expressions: The role of visual saliency. Vision Research, 51, 1751-1759. doi:10.1016/j.visres.2011.06.001
[4] Harnad, S. (1987) Categorical perception: The ground-work of cognition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
[5] Levin, D.T. and Beale, J.M. (2000) Categorical perception occurs in newly learned faces, other-race faces, and inverted faces. Perception & Psychophysics, 62, 386-401. doi:10.3758/BF03205558
[6] Pollak, S.D. and Kistler, D.J. (2002) Early experience is associated with the development of categorical representations for facial expressions of emotion. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 99, 9072-9076. doi:10.1073/pnas.142165999
[7] Rossion, B. (2002) Is sex categorization from faces really parallel to face recognition? Visual Cognition, 9, 1003-1020. doi:10.1080/13506280143000485
[8] Rossion, B., Schiltz, C., Robaye, L., Pirenne, D. and Crommelinck, M. (2001) How does the brain discriminate familiar and unfamiliar faces? A PET study of face categorical perception. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 13, 1019-1034. doi:10.1162/089892901753165917
[9] Treisman, M.A., Faulkner A., Naish P.L.N. and Rosner. B.S. (1995) Voice-onset time and tone-onset time: The role of criterion-setting mechanisms in categorical perception quarterly. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 48, 334-366. doi:10.1080/14640749508401394
[10] Young, A.W., Rowland, D., Calder, A.J., Etcoff, N.L., Seth, A. and Perrett D.I. (1997) Facial expression mega-mix: Tests of dimensional and category accounts of emotion recognition. Cognition, 63, 271-313. doi:10.1016/S0010-0277(97)00003-6
[11] De Gelder, B. and Vroomen, J. (2000) The perception of emotions by ear and by eye. Cognition & Emotion, 14, 289-311. doi:10.1080/026999300378824
[12] De Gelder, B., Vroomen, J., De Jong, S.J., Masthoff, E., Trompenaars, F.J. and Hodiamont, P. (2005) Multisensory integration of emotional faces and voices in schizophrenics. Schizophrenia Research, 72, 195-203. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2004.02.013
[13] Fry, D.B., Abramson, A.S., Eimas, P.D. and Liberman, A.M. (1962) The identification and discrimination of synthetic vowels. Language and Speech, 5, 171-189.
[14] Guenter, F.H., Husain, F.T., Cohen, M.A. and Shin-Cunningham, B.G. (1999) Effects of categorization and discrimination training on auditory perceptual space. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 106, 2900-2912. doi:10.1121/1.428112
[15] Liberman, A.M., Harris, S., Hooman, H.S. and Griffith, B.C. (1957) The discrimination of speech sounds within and across phoneme boundaries. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 54, 358-368. doi:10.1037/h0044417
[16] Lisker, L. and Abramson A. (1964) A cross-language study of voicing in initial stops. Word, 20, 384-422.
[17] Neary, T.M. and Hogan, J.T. (1986) Phonological contrast in experimental phonetics: Relating distributions of production data to perceptual categorical curves. In: Ohala, J.J. and Jaeger, J.J., Eds., Experimental Phonology, Academic Press, Orlando, 141-161.
[18] Boynton, R.M. and Gordon, J. (1965) Bezold-Brücke hue shift measured by color-naming technique. Journal of the Optical Society of America, 55, 78-86. doi:10.1364/JOSA.55.000078
[19] Bülthoff, I. and Newell, F.N. (2004) Categorical perception of sex occurs in familiar but not unfamiliar faces. Visual Cognition, 11, 823-855. doi:10.1080/13506280444000012
[20] Calder, A.J., Keane, J., Manly, T., Sprengelmeyer, R., Scott, S. and Nimmo-Smith, I., Young, A.W. (2003) Facial expression recognition across the adult life span. Neuropsychologia, 41, 195-202. doi:10.1016/S0028-3932(02)00149-5
[21] Etcoff, N.L. and Magee, J.J. (1992) Categorical perception of facial expressions. Cognition, 44, 222-240. doi:10.1016/0010-0277(92)90002-Y
[22] Shah, R. and Lewis, M.B. (2003) Locating the neutral expression in the facial-emotion space. Visual Cognition, 10, 549-566. doi:10.1080/13506280244000203a
[23] Stevenage, S.V. (1998) Which twin are you? A demonstration of induced categorical perception of identical twin faces. British Journal of Psychology, 89, 39-57. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8295.1998.tb02672.x
[24] Bruyer, R. and Granato, P. (1999) Categorical ef-fects in the perception of facial expressions: MARIE A simple and discriminating clinical tool. European Review of Applied Psychology, 49, 3-10.
[25] Bruyer, R., Granato, P. and Van Gansberghe, J.P. (2007) An individual recognition score of a series of intermediate stimuli between two sources: Categorical perception of facial expressions (in French). European Review of Applied Psychology, 57, 37-49. doi:10.1016/j.erap.2006.02.001
[26] Campanella, S., Chrysochoos, A. and Bruyer, R. (2001) Categorical perception of facial gender information: Behavioural evidence and the face-space metaphor. Visual Cognition, 8, 237-262. doi:10.1080/13506280042000072
[27] Dampe, R.I. and Harnad, S.R. (2000) Neural network models of categorical perception. Perception & Psychophysics, 62, 843-867. doi:10.3758/BF03206927
[28] De Gelder, B., Teunisse, J.P. and Benson, P.J. (1997) Categorical perception of facial expressions: Categories and their internal structure. Cognition & Emotion, 11, 1- 23. doi:10.1080/026999397380005
[29] Ekman, P. and Friesen, W.V. (1975) Unmasking the face. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs.
[30] Granato, P., Bruyer, R. and Revillion, J.J. (1996) “étude objective de la perception du sourire et de la tristesse par la méthode d’analyse de recherche de l’intégration des émotions MARIE. Annales Médico-Psychologiques, 154, 1-9.
[31] Granato, P. and Bruyer, R. (2002) Measurement of facially expressed emotions by a computerized study: Method of study and analysis of integration of emotions (MARIE). European Psychiatry, 17, 339-348. doi:10.1016/S0924-9338(02)00684-3
[32] Granato, P., Godefroy, O., Van Gansbergh, J.P. and Bruyer, R. (2009) Impaired facial emotion recognition in mild Alzheimer’s disease. La Revue de Gériatrie, 34, 853-859.
[33] Granato, P. (2007) La perception visuelle des émotions faciales caractéristiques de la population générale et perturbations liées à la schizophrénie et à la maladie d’Alz- heimer. Thesis, University Lille, Lille.
[34] Hsu, S.M. and Young, A.W. (2004) Adaptation effects in facial expression recognition. Visual Cognition, 11, 871- 899.
[35] Huang, J., Chan, R.C.K., Gollan, J.K., Liu, W., Ma, Z., Li, Z. and Gong, Q. (2011) Perceptual bias of patients with Schizophrenia in morphed facial expression. Psychiatry Research, 185, 60-65. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2010.05.017
[36] Calder, A.J., Young, A.W., Perrett, D.I., Etcoff, M.L. and Rowland, D. (1996) Categorical perception of morphed facial expressions visual. Cognition, 3, 81-117. doi:10.1080/713756735
[37] Gourevitch, V. and Galanter, E. (1967) A significance test for one-parameter isosensitivity functions. Psychometrika, 32, 25-33. doi:10.1007/BF02289402
[38] Hardin, J.W. and Hilbe, J. (2003) Generalized estimating equations. CRC Press, Boca Raton.
[39] Hosmer, D.W. and Lemeshow, S. (2000) Applied logistic regression. 2nd Edition, Wiley, New York. doi:10.1002/0471722146
[40] Kaernbach, C. (2001) Slope bias of psychometric functions derived from adaptive data. Perception & Psychophysics, 63, 1389-1398. doi:10.3758/BF03194550
[41] Kee, K.S., Horan, W.P., Wynn, J.K., Mintz, J. and Green, M.F. (2006) An analysis of categorical perception of facial emotion in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 87, 228-237. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2006.06.001
[42] Klein, S.A. (2001) Measuring, estimating, and understanding the psychometric function: A commentary. Perception & Psychophysics, 63, 1421-1455. doi:10.3758/BF03194552
[43] Powers, D.A. and Xie, Y. (2000) Statistical methods for categorical data analysis. Academic Press, San Diego.
[44] Selvin, S. (2004) Biostatistics. Pearson Education Inc., Boston.
[45] Strasburger, H. (2001) Converting between measures of slope of the psychometric function. Perception & Psychophysics, 63, 1348-1355. doi:10.3758/BF03194547
[46] Wichmann, F.A. and Hill, N.J. (2001) The psychometric function: I. Fitting, sampling and goodness of fit. Perception & Psychophysics, 63, 1293-1313. doi:10.3758/BF03194544
[47] More, J.J. (1978) The Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm: Implementation and theory. In: Watson, G.A., Ed., Numerical Analysis, Springer, Berlin, 105-116.
[48] Mc Khann, G., Drachman, D., Folstein, M., Katzman, R., Price D. and Stadlan, E.M.(1984) Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease: Report of the NINCDS-ADRDA Work Group under the auspices of Department of Health and Human Services Task Force on Alzheimer’s Disease. Neurology, 34, 939-944.
[49] Mc Keith, I.G. (2004) Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of dementia with Lewy bodies. Introduction. Dementia Geriatric Cognition Disorder, 1, 1-2.
[50] Mesulam, M.M. (2001) Primary progressive aphasia. Annals of Neurology, 49, 425-432. doi:10.1002/ana.91
[51] Snowden, J.S. and Neary, D. (1993) Progressive language dysfunction and lobar atrophy. Dementia, 4, 226-231.
[52] Caselli, R.J., Jack, C.R. Jr., Petersen, R.C., Wahner, H.W. and Yanagihara, T. (1992) Asymmetric cortical degenerative syndromes: Clinical and radiologic correlations. Neurology, 42, 1462-1468. doi:10.1212/WNL.42.8.1462
[53] Folstein, M.F., Folstein, S.E. and McHugh, P.R. (1975) Mini-Mental State: A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12, 189-198. doi:10.1016/0022-3956(75)90026-6
[54] Lucas, J.A., lvnik, R.J., Bohac, D.L., Tangalos, E.G. and Kokmen, E. (1998) Normative data for the Mattis Dementia rating scale. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 20, 536-547. doi:10.1076/jcen.20.4.536.1469
[55] Mattis, S. (1976) Mental status examination for organic mental syndrome in elderly patients. In: Bellak, L. and Karasu, T.E., Eds., Geriatric Psychiatry, Grune & Stratton, New York.
[56] Deloche, G., Hannequin, D., Dordain, M., Perrier, D., Pichard, B. and Quint, S. (1996) Picture confrontation oral naming: Performance differences between aphasics and normal. Brain Language, 53, 105-120. doi:10.1006/brln.1996.0039
[57] Grober, E., Buschke, H., Crystal, H., Bang, S. and Dresner, R. (1988) Screening for dementia by memory testing. Neurology, 38, 900-903. doi:10.1212/WNL.38.6.900
[58] Van Der Linden, M. and GREMEM. (2004) L'évaluation des troubles de la mémoire—Présentation de quatre tests de mémoire épisodique (avec leur étalonnage). Solal Collection Neuropsychologie.
[59] Phillips, L.H., Scott, C., Henry, J.D., Mowat, D. and Bell, J.S. (2010) Emotion perception in Alzheimer’s disease and mood disorder in old age. Psychology Aging, 25, 38-47. doi:10.1037/a0017369

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.