Energy Absorption of Nano-Reinforced and Sandwich Composites in Ballistic and Low-Velocity Punch-Shear


This paper presents an investigation on energy absorption characteristics of nano-reinforced panels, laminated face sheets and sandwich composites in high velocity ballistic and low velocity punch-shear experiments. The vinyl ester panels were reinforced with 1.25 and 2.5 wt. percent nanoclay and exfoliated graphite platelets. Three different face sheets were manufactured with E-glass, Owens Corning HP ShieldStrand? glass and T-700 Carbon woven fabric in vinyl ester; and one with the E-glass and graphite platelets impregnated vinyl ester matrix. The sandwich composites were fabricated with balsa, PVC foam, 3D-fiber reinforced Tycor? and fire resistant fly-ash based Eco-Core? cores in between E-glass/vinyl ester face sheets. Ballistic tests were conducted according to NIJ level III using a universal receiver equipped with a barrel to launch 0.308 caliber M80 ball round projectile at about 890 m/s. Low velocity punch-shear tests were performed at around 3 m/s according to ASTM D3763 Standard using a drop-weight impact test system. The tortuosity of the fractured surface in nanocomposite specimens has been investigated using digital microscope. In ballistic tests, the 3-D fiber reinforced Tycor? core provided the most resistance when projectile strikes at the web-flange interface region. The 2.5 wt. pct. graphite platelet reinforced nanocomposite, HP ShieldStrand? glass vinyl ester face sheets, and E-glass/Eco-Core? sandwich composite showed the best energy absorption under low velocity punch-shear.

Share and Cite:

B. Pramanik and P. Mantena, "Energy Absorption of Nano-Reinforced and Sandwich Composites in Ballistic and Low-Velocity Punch-Shear," Open Journal of Composite Materials, Vol. 2 No. 3, 2012, pp. 87-96. doi: 10.4236/ojcm.2012.23010.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] B. A. Gama and J. W. Gillespie Jr., “Punch Shear Based Penetration Model of Ballistic Impact of Thick-Section Composites,” Composite Structures, Vol. 86, No. 4, 2008, pp. 356-369. doi:10.1016/j.compstruct.2007.11.001
[2] B. A. Gama, S. M. W. Islam, M. Rahman, J. W. Gillespie Jr., T. A. Bogetti, B. A. Cheeseman, C. Yen and C. P. R. Hoppel, “Punch Shear Behavior of Thick-Section Composites under Quasi-Static, Low Velocity, and Ballistic Impact Loading,” SAMPE Journal, Vol. 41, No. 4, 2005, pp. 6-13.
[3] J. R. Xiao, B. A. Gama and J. W. Gillespie Jr., “Progressive Damage And Delamination in Plain Weave S-2 glass/SC-15 Composites under Quasi-Static Punch-Shear Loading,” Composite Structures, Vol. 78, No. 2, 2007, pp. 182-196. doi:10.1016/j.compstruct.2005.09.001
[4] M. Shaker, F. Ko and J. Song, “Comparison of the Low and High Velocity Impact Response of Kevlar Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy Composites,” Journal of Composites Technology and Research (JCTR), Vol. 21, No. 4, 1999, pp. 224-229. doi:10.1520/CTR10985J
[5] M. V. Hosur, C. R. L. Murthy and T. S. Ramamurthy, “Low-Velocity Impact Response and Evaluation of Delamination Damage in CFRP Laminates,” Noise Control and Acoustics Division, ASME, Vol. 24, 1997, pp. 203- 214.
[6] L. J. Deka, S. D. Bartus and U. K. Vaidya, “Multi-Site Impact Response of S2-glass/epoxy Composite Laminates,” Composite Science and Technology, Vol. 69, No. 6, 2009, pp. 725-735. doi:10.1016/j.compscitech.2008.03.002
[7] J. E. Samuels and K. M. Higgins, “Ballistic Resistance of Personal Body Armor, NIJ Standard – 0101.04,” National Institute of Justice and National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2000, Gaithersburg.
[8] ASTM Standard D3763, “Standard Test Method for High Speed Puncture Properties of Plastics Using Load and Displacement Sensors,” ASTM International, 2006, West Conshohocken.
[9] L. T. Drzal and H. Fukushima, “Expanded Graphite Products Produced Therefrom,” US Patent No.7550529, 2009.
[10] E. Wang, N. Gardner and A. Shukla, “The Blast Resistance of Sandwich Composites with Stepwise Graded Cores,” International Journal of Solids and Structures, Vol. 46, No. 18-19, 2009, pp. 3492-3502.
[11] R. L. Smith, J. J. Mecholsky and S. W. Freiman, “Estimation of Fracture Energy from the Work of Fracture and Fracture Area: I. Stable Crack Growth,” International Journal of Fracture, Vol. 156, No. 1, 2009, pp. 97-102. doi:10.1007/s10704-009-9350-7
[12] D. Broek, “Elementary Engineering Fracture Mechanics,” Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Leiden, 1982. doi:10.1007/978-94-011-9055-8
[13] Keyence Corporation, “User’s Manual 96MOO189, Digital Microscope VHX-600E,” Keyence Corporation, 2007, Elmwood Park.
[14] B. Pramanik, “Punch-Shear and Ballistic Energy Absorption Characteristics of Nano-Reinforced Panels, Laminated Face Sheets and Sandwich Composites,” M.S. Thesis, University of Mississippi, Oxford, 2010.
[15] M. S. Lou, J. C. Chen and C. M. Li, “Surface Roughness Prediction Technique for CNC End-Milling,” Industrial Technology, Vol. 15, No. 1, 1999, pp. 1-6.
[16] D. Hyde, “DPlot User Manual,” HydeSoft Computing, LLC, 2008, Vicksburg.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.