Numerical Computations to Produce Cokeable Coal Blends at The Ajaokuta Steel Plant, Nigeria

DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2007.62010   PDF   HTML     5,271 Downloads   7,152 Views   Citations


A mathematical model and its associated numerical search algorithm has been developed for routine coal blending to include local coals for cokemaking at the Nigerian blast furnace-based Ajaokuta Steel Plant. A typical binary blend proposed using the model includes 28.38% and 29.00% of the ash- laden Lafia and non-caking Okaba coals, respectively. The proposed blends satisfy basic chemical and mechanical strength requirements at the lowest cost per ton of coal. The blending calculations showed that only low ash, low sulphur, medium volatile and high vitrinite reflectance prime grade coals such as the UK Ogmore should be imported for blending with the ash-laden medium coking Lafia coal. When the proposed blends are successfully confirmed with bench and pilot scale carbonization tests, cokemaking at Ajaokuta will be conducted with substantial savings in foreign exchange.

Share and Cite:

A. ADELEKE and P. ONUMANYI, "Numerical Computations to Produce Cokeable Coal Blends at The Ajaokuta Steel Plant, Nigeria," Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Vol. 6 No. 2, 2007, pp. 121-134. doi: 10.4236/jmmce.2007.62010.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Poos, A., 1992, “Future requirements for blast furnace coke quality”. Cokemaking International , vol. 4, 29-30.
[2] Bujnowska, B., and Collin, G., 1992, “Coal tar pitch for improving coking properties of coal” , In Proc. 2nd International cokemaking congress, London, 1992, pp. 142-146.
[3] Task Force on the maximum utilization of Nigerian coals at the Ajaokuta steel plant, 1987, Abuja, Nigeria.
[4] Raw Materials and products specification for Federal Government steel companies,1994, 1st edn., Abuja, Nigeria.
[5] Moitra A.K., Banerjee, N.G., Shrinkhande K.Y., Sing, K. Raja, K, and Banerjee, S., 1972 Studies on coal carbonisation in India, 1st edn, Central Fuel Research Institute Publication, Calculta.
[7] Adeleke A.O., 1997: Numerical Computations for coal blend optimization, M.Sc Mathematics Thesis, University of Jos, Nigeria.
[8] Skerl, G.E., 1988, “Automatic coal blend optimisation for cokemaking”. Iron and steel Engineer, USA, July edn, pp. 39-43.
[9] Ndaji, F.E., Marsh, H.A., 1987, “Laboratory Scale assessment of the utilization potential of sub-bituminous Nigerian coals as components of coking blends”, Fuel Processing Technology, Vol. 17, 131-143.
[10] Price, J.T. and Grandsen, J.F., 1987, “Improving coke quality with Canadian coals”, In Proc. 1st International cokemaking congress, Essen, section E3, preprints vol.
[11] Panaitescu, C., 1991, Petrographia Carbunilor cocsurilor si producelor Carbonice,1st edn., Editura Enciclopedia, Bucharest.
[12] Peskett, A.P., 1999 coal Indaba 99, Extract from final proceedings.
[13] Fatunla, S.O ,1993, Fundamentals of FORTRAN programming, 1st edn., ADA+JANE Press,Benin
[14] Hudspeth, M.K., 1983, Introductory Geometry, 1st edn., Addison Wesley, London
[15] Cross, M., and Moscardini, A.O., 1985, Learning the art of Mathematical modeling, 1st edn., Elis Horwood Ltd, Sussex.
[16] Eckert, E.R.G. and Drake, R.M., 1972, Analysis of heat and mass transfer, international student edn., McGraw-Hill, London.
[17] Curtis, F.G., 1977, Applied Numerical Analysis, 2nd edn., Addison-Wesley,Reading
[18] Buchtele, J., Rozkosny, I and sebestova, E., 1992, “Effect of the organic matter structure on the coking properties and on the texture formation of model cokes”,In Proc. 2nd in international cokemaking congress, London, pp. 214 – 230.
[19] Prasad, H.N., Rao P.V.T., Poddar, N.N. and Chaterjee, A., “Selection of coals for cokemaking by classical top charging and stamp charging”,In Proc. 2nd international cokemaking congress, London, 1992, pp. 231-235.
[20] Katsuhiko, O., Akira, K., Mitsumas, H., Seiji, N. and Kan, A., 1987, “Evaluation of coking coal”, In Proc. 1st International cokemaking congress, Essen, 1987, section E7.
[21] Weskamp, W., Rhode, W., Stewen, W., and Habermehl, T., 1987, “Greater coke strength through reactive additives to coking blends”,In Proc. 1st International cokemaking congress, Essen, section II. 1.
[22] Echterhoff, J.,Killich, H.J. and Frick, H.,1992,”Production of blast furnace coke by stamp charging and utilization of recycled coke breeze”,In Proc. 2nd international cokemaking congress,London,pp172-186
[23] Xiaofeng, X., Akira, O., Tsunenori, N. and Shigeru, M.J., 1998, “Properties and structure of brown coal treated by hydrothermal process”, 8th Australian coal science conference, NSW, pp. 148.
[24] Broken Hill Proprietary Company (BHP) Publication, 1998, Winning Illawarra Coal, 8th Australian Coal Conference, NSW.
[25] Singh, B.N., Singh B.K., Venugopal, R., Mitra, A.N. and Mukherjee, T., 1987, “Stamp charging of Indian coals”, In Proc. 1 st International okemaking congress,Essen, section E6.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.