Corrective Feedback, Negotiation of Meaning and Grammar Development: Learner-Learner and Learner-Native Speaker Interaction in ESL

DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2012.22008   PDF   HTML     7,581 Downloads   15,634 Views   Citations


This study aims to investigate the role of corrective feedback and negotiation of meaning within an Interactionist Approach (Long, 1996) in native speaker-Second Language learner and L2 learner-L2 learner interactions. While negotiation of meaning (NoM) and corrective feedback (CF) between native and nonnative speakers has been shown to be helpful for the nonnatives, it remains unclear whether CF and NoM between learners of equivalent or different proficiency produce greater negotiation of meaning and successful uptake of corrective feedback compared to the more traditional native-nonnative interaction. The key issue in this study is whether CF and NoM in different interactional combinations of interlocutors make a difference, in quantitative and qualitative terms. The study adopts a pretest-treatment-posttest design with six participants: two native English speakers, two Chinese L1 NNSs of high English proficiency level (NNS High) and two Chinese L1 NNSs of low English proficiency level (NNS Low). These informants generated 14 different dyads and produced 2377 turns while engaging in task-based interaction. By introducing the notions of group (i.e., NS-NNS versus NNS-NNS groups), combinations (e.g., NS-NNS High versus NNS High-NNS Low), and dyads, it is possible to compare results across groups, combinations and individuals. Results confirm that CF and NoM happen in NNS-NNS interaction yet they differ, qualitatively and quantitatively, according to the type of combination. Significantly, the best rate of success was obtained in the combination of learners with different proficiency levels i.e., the NNS High-NNS Low combination. In addition, error rates decreased from pre-test to post-test in all learners, especially NNS Low, which lends support to the notion that CF and NoM promote second language development also in interaction between learners.

Share and Cite:

Kawaguchi, S. & Ma, Y. (2012). Corrective Feedback, Negotiation of Meaning and Grammar Development: Learner-Learner and Learner-Native Speaker Interaction in ESL. Open Journal of Modern Linguistics, 2, 57-70. doi: 10.4236/ojml.2012.22008.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Blake, R. (2000). Computer mediated communication: A window on L2 Spanish interlanguage. Language Learning Technology, 4, 120-136.
[2] Bower, J., & Kawaguchi, S. (2011). Negotiation of meaning and corrective feedback in Japanese/English eTandem. Language Learning & Technology, 15, 41-71.
[3] Braidi, S. M. (2002). Reexamining the role of recasts in native speaker/ nonnative-speaker interactions. Language Learning, 52, 1-42. doi:10.1111/1467-9922.00176
[4] Brock, C., Crookes, G., Day, R., & Long, M. (1986). The differential effects of corrective feedback in native speaker-nonnative speaker conversation. In R. Day (Ed.), Talking to learn (pp. 229-236). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
[5] Brown, R., & Hanlon, C. (1970). Derivational complexity and order of acquisition in child speech. In J. R. Hayes (Ed.), Cognition and the development of language (pp. 11-53). New York: Wiley.
[6] Carroll, S., & Swain, M. (1993). Explicit and implicit negative feedback: An empirical study of the learning of linguistic generalizations. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 15, 357-366. doi:10.1017/S0272263100012158
[7] Chiba, C. (2010). Negotiation of meaning in the conversation between advanced learners of Japanese and native speakers of Japanese: Comparative study on conversation between nonnative speakers and native speakers. Japanese Language Education, 39, 138-141.
[8] Di Biase, B. (2000). Second language acqusition notes and exercises. Sydney: Language Australia.
[9] Ellis, N. C. (2002). Frequency effects in language processing. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 24, 143-188.
[10] Ellis, R. (1998). Teaching and research: Grammar in teaching. TESOL Quarterly, 32, 39-40. doi:10.2307/3587901
[11] Ellis, R., Loewen, S., & Erlam, R. (2006). Implicit and explicit corrective feedback and the acquisition of L2 grammar. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 28, 339-368. doi:10.1017/S0272263106060141
[12] Ellis, R., Tanaka, Y., & Yamazaki, A. (1994). Classroom interaction, comprehension, and the acquisition of L2 word meanings. Language Learning, 44, 449-491. doi:10.1111/j.1467-1770.1994.tb01114.x
[13] Finocchiaro, M., & Brumfit, C. (1983). The functional-notional approach: from theory to practice. New York: Oxford University Press.
[14] Gass, S. M. (1997). Input, interaction, and the second language learner. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
[15] Gass, S. M. (2003). Input and interaction. In C. Doughty, & M. Long (Eds.), The handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 224-255). Oxford: Blackwell. doi:10.1002/9780470756492.ch9
[16] Gass, S. M., & Mackey, A. (2007). Input, interaction, and output in second language acquisition. In B. Vanpatten, & J. Williams (Eds.), Theories in second language acquisition (pp. 175-200). London: LEA.
[17] Gass, S. M., & Varonis, E. M. (1994). Input, interaction, and second language production. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 16, 283-302. doi:10.1017/S0272263100013097
[18] Harmer, J. (2007). The practice of English language teaching. Harlow, England: Pearson Education.
[19] Hauser, E. (2005). Coding “corrective recasts”: The maintenance of meaning and more fundamental problems. Applied Linguistics, 26, 293-316. doi:10.1093/applin/ami010
[20] Iwasaki, J., & Oliver, R. (2003). Chat-line interaction and negative feedback. Occasional Thematic Issue of the Australian Review of Applied Linguistics (ARAL), 17, 60-73.
[21] Higgs, T. V., & Clifford, R. (1982). The push toward communication. In T. V. Higgs (Ed.), Curriculum, competence, and the foreign language teacher (pp. 57-136). Lincolnwood, IL: National Textbook Co.
[22] Iwashita, N. (2003). Negative feedback and positive evidence in taskbased interaction: Differential effects on L2 development. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 25, 1-36. doi:10.1017/S0272263103000019
[23] Kim, H., & Mathes, G. (2001). Explicit vs. implicit corrective feedback. The Korea TESOL Journal, 4, 1-15.
[24] Lee, L. (2006). A study of native and nonnative speakers’ feedback and responses in Spanish-American networked collaborative interaction. In J. Belz, & S. Thorne, (Eds.), Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education (pp. 147-176). Boston: Thomson Heinle.
[25] Li, S. F. (2010). The effectiveness of corrective feedback in SLA: A meta-analysis. Language Learning, 60, 309-365. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9922.2010.00561.x
[26] Long, M. H. (1996). The role of the linguistic environment in second language acquisition. In W. C. Ritchie, & T. K. Bhatia (Eds.), Handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 413-468). New York: Academic Press.
[27] Long, M. H., Inagaki, S., & Ortega, L. (1998). The role of implicit negative feedback in SLA: Models and recasts in Japanese and Spanish. Modern Language Journal, 82, 357-371. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4781.1998.tb01213.x
[28] Lyster, R. (1998). Recasts, repetition, and ambiguity in L2 classroom discourse. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 20, 51-81. doi:10.1017/S027226319800103X
[29] Lyster, R. (2004). Differential effects of prompts and recasts in formfocused instruction. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26, 399-432. doi:10.1017/S0272263104263021
[30] Lyster, R., & Ranta, L. (1997). Corrective feedback and learner uptake: Negotiation of form in communicative classrooms. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 20, 37-66.
[31] Mackey, A. (1999). Input, interaction, and second language development: An empirical study of question formation in ESL. SSLA, 21, 557-587.
[32] Mackey, A., & Oliver, R. (2002). Interactional feedback and children’s L2 development. System, 30, 459-477. doi:10.1016/S0346-251X(02)00049-0
[33] Mackey, A., Oliver, R., & Leeman, J. (2003). Interaction input and the incorporation of feedback: An exploration of NS-NNS and NNSNNS adult and child dyads. Language Learning, 53, 35-66. doi:10.1111/1467-9922.00210
[34] Nassaji, H. (2007). Elicitation and reformulation and their relationship with learner repair in dyadic interaction. Language Learning, 57, 511-548. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9922.2007.00427.x
[35] Nassaji, H. (2009). Effects of recasts and elicitations in dyadic interaction and the role of feedback explicitness. Language Learning, 59, 411-452. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9922.2009.00511.x
[36] Oliver, R. (1995). Negative feedback in child NS-NNS conversation. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 17, 459-481. doi:10.1017/S0272263100014418
[37] Oliver, R. (1998). Negotiation of meaning in child interactions. The Modern Language Journal, 82, 372-386. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4781.1998.tb01215.x
[38] Oliver, R. (2002). The patterns of negotiation for meaning in child interactions. The Modern Language Journal, 86, 97-111. doi:10.1111/1540-4781.00138
[39] O’Rourke, B. (2005). Form-focused Interaction in online tandem learning. CALICO Journal, 22, 433-466.
[40] Pica, T. (1994). Research on negotiation: What does it reveal about second-language learning conditions, processes, and outcomes? Language Learning, 44, 493-527. doi:10.1111/j.1467-1770.1994.tb01115.x
[41] Pica, T., & Doughty, C. (1985). Input and interaction in the communicative language classroom: A comparison of teacher-fronted and group activities. In S. M. Gass, & C. G. Madden (Eds.), Input in second language acquisition (pp. 115-132). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
[42] Pica, T., Young, R., & Doughty, C. (1987). The impact of interaction on comprehension. TESOL Quarterly, 21, 737-758. doi:10.2307/3586992
[43] Pienemann, M., Di Biase, B., & Kawaguchi, S. (2005). Extending processability theory. In M. Pienemann (Ed.), Cross-linguistic aspects of processability theory (pp. 199-251). Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
[44] Poole, A. (2005). Focus on form instruction: Foundations, applications and criticisms. The Reading Matrix, 5, 47-56.
[45] Richards, J. C., & Rodgers, T. S. (2001). Approaches and methods in language teaching (2nd ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511667305
[46] Schwartz, B. D. (1993). On explicit and negative data effecting and affecting competence and linguistic behavior. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 15, 147-163. doi:10.1017/S0272263100011931
[47] Sotillo, S. (2005). Corrective feedback via instant messenger learning activities in NS-NNS and NNS-NNS dyads. CALICO Journal, 22, 467-496.
[48] Storch, N. (2002). Patterns of interaction in ESL pair work. Language Learning, 52, 119-158. doi:10.1111/1467-9922.00179
[49] Swain, M. (1995). Three functions of output in second language learning. In G. Cook, & B. Seidlhofer (Eds.), Principle and practice in applied linguistics: Studies in honour of H. G. Widdowson (pp. 125-144). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[50] Van Lier, L. (1988). What’s wrong with the classroom talk? Prospect, 3, 267-283.
[51] Varnosfadrani, A., & Basturkmen, H. (2009). The effectiveness of implicit and explicit error correction on learners’ performance. System, 37, 82-98. doi:10.1016/j.system.2008.04.004
[52] Varonis, E. M., & Gass, S. M. (1985). Non-native/non-native conversation: A model for negotiation of meaning. Applied Linguistics, 6, 71-90. doi:10.1093/applin/6.1.71
[53] Yang, Y., & Lyster, R. (2010). Effects of form-focused practice and feedback on Chinese EFL learners’ acquisition of regular and irregular past-tense forms. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 32, 235-263. doi:10.1017/S0272263109990519
[54] Zhao, Y., & Angelova, M. (2010). Negotiation of meaning between non-native speakers in text-based chat and videoconferencing. USChina Education Review, 7, 12-26.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.