The Use of GIS and Google Earth for Preliminary Site Selection of Groundwater Recharge in the Azraq Oasis Area—Jordan


Groundwater is considered to be the major water resource for many areas and the only source of water in some areas in Jordan. Some of Jordan groundwater resources are presently exploited at maximum capacity and in some cases are exploited beyond there safe yield. One of the efficient ways to fight the deficit in groundwater resources is through recharging the water tables naturally or artificially. This research aimed to select the optimum sites for groundwater recharge in the Azraq Oasis area/Jordan through the use of GIS techniques. The selection criteria were based on slope, drainage density, lineament density within the study area. The adopted selection technique was the Boolean techniques (Multiplication) within a Raster GIS. Thirty five sites were selected within the study area with areas vary between 5.2 ha to 273.5 ha. The total area that has the potential for groundwater recharge is 1659.5 ha which represents ca. 3.55% of the study area.

Share and Cite:

R. Al-Adamat, "The Use of GIS and Google Earth for Preliminary Site Selection of Groundwater Recharge in the Azraq Oasis Area—Jordan," Journal of Water Resource and Protection, Vol. 4 No. 6, 2012, pp. 395-399. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2012.46045.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] E. Salameh and H. Bannayan, “Water Resources of Jordan, Present Status and Future Potentials,” Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, Amman, 1993, 183 p.
[2] M. E. Reid and S. J. Dreiss, “Modeling the Effect of Unsaturated, Stratified Sediments on Groundwater Recharge from Intermittent Streams. Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 114, No. 1-2, 1990, pp. 149-174. doi:10.1016/0022-1694(90)90079-D
[3] A. M. S. Juaidi, “GIS-Based Modeling of Groundwater Recharge for the West Bank,” Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis, An-Najah National University, Nablus, 2008.
[4] J. Ghayoumian, B. Ghermezcheshme, S. Feiznia and A. A. Noroozi, “Integrating GIS and DSS for Identification of Suitable Areas for Artificial Recharge, Case Study Meimeh Basin, Isfahan, Iran,” Environmental Geology, Vol. 47, No. 4, 2005, pp. 493-500. doi:10.1007/s00254-004-1169-y
[5] I. Chenini, A. B. Mammou and M. E. May, “Groundwater Recharge Zone Mapping Using GIS-Based Multi-Criteria Analysis: A Case Study in Central Tunisia (Maknassy Basin),” Water Resources Management, Vol. 24, No. 5, 2010, pp. 921-939. doi:10.1007/s11269-009-9479-1
[6] I. Chenini and A. B. Mammou, “Groundwater Recharge Study in Arid Region: An Approach Using GIS Techniques and Numerical Modeling,” Computers & Geosciences, Vol. 36, No. 6, 2010, pp. 801-817. doi:10.1016/j.cageo.2009.06.014
[7] A. P. Sargaonkar, B. Rathi and A. Baile, “Identifying Potential Sites for Artificial Groundwater Recharge in SubWatershed of River Kanhan, India,” Environmental Earth Sciences, Vol. 62, No. 5, 2010, pp. 1099-1108. doi:10.1007/s12665-010-0598-z
[8] M. S. Shirahatti, M. V. Ranghswami, R. Sivasamy, S. Santana Bosu, M. V. Manjunath and M. B. Guled, “Application of Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques for Groundwater Recharge Site Selection in Hard Rock Areas—A Case Study from South India,” 2010.
[9] C. F. Vorhauer and J. M. Hamlett, “GIS: A Tool for Siting Small Farm Ponds,” Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, Vol. 51, No. 5, 1996, pp. 434-438.
[10] J. R. Eastman, “Idrisi for Windows, User’s Guide, Version 2.0, Clark Labs for Cartographic Technology and Geographic Analysis,” Clark University, Worcester, 1997.
[11] S. Baban and K. Wan-Yusof, “Modelling Optimum Sites for Locating Reservoirs in Tropical Environments,” Water Resources Management, Vol. 17, No. 1, 2003, pp. 1-17. doi:10.1023/A:1023066705226
[12] J. Malczewski, “GIS-Based Land-Use Suitability Analysis: A Critical Overview,” Progress in Planning, Vol. 62, No. 1, 2004, pp. 3-65. doi:10.1016/j.progress.2003.09.002
[13] G. Shatnawi, “Determine the Best Sites forWater Harvesting Projects (Dams & Hafirs) in Northeastern Badia Using GIS Applications,” Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis, Al Al-Bayt University, Mafraq, 2006.
[14] L. Ayalew and H. Yamagishi, “The Application of GIS-Based Logistic Regression for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping in the Kakuda-Yahiko Mountains, Central Japan,” Geomorphology, Vol. 65, No. 1-2, 2005, pp. 15-31. doi:10.1016/j.geomorph.2004.06.010
[15] A. Yalcin, “GIS-Based Landslide Susceptibility Mapping Using Analytical Hierarchy Process and Bivariate Statistics in Ardesen (Turkey): Comparisons of Results and Confirmations,” Catena, Vol. 72, No. 1, 2008, pp. 1-12. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2007.01.003
[16] R. Al-Adamat, A. Diabat and G. Shatnawi, “Combining GIS with Multicriteria Decision Making for Siting Water Harvesting Ponds in Northern Jordan,” Journal of Arid Environments, Vol. 74, No. 11, pp. 1471-1477. doi:10.1016/j.jaridenv.2010.07.001
[17] V. Madrucci, F. Taioli and C. C. De Araújo, “Groundwater Favorability Map Using GIS Multicriteria Data Analysis on Crystalline Terrain, Saeo Paulo State, Brazil,” Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 357, No. 3-4, 2008, pp. 153-173. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2008.03.026
[18] R. Al-Adamat, “GIS as a Decision Support System for Siting Water Harvesting Ponds in Jordan,” Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management, Vol. 10, No. 2, 2008, pp. 189-206. doi:10.1142/S1464333208003020
[19] N.-B. Chang, G. Parvathinathan and J. B. Breeden, “Combining GIS with Fuzzy Multicriteria for Landfill Siting in a Fast-Growing Urban Region,” Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 87, No. 1, 2008, pp. 139-153. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2007.01.011
[20] P. C. Longdill, T. R. Healy and K. P. Black, “An Integrated GIS Approach for Sustainable Aquaculture Management Area Site Selection,” Ocean & Coastal Management, Vol. 51, No. 8-9, 2008, pp. 612-624. doi:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2008.06.010

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.