Mathematical Modeling and Software Application of Blood Flow for Therapeutic Management of Stroke

DOI: 10.4236/eng.2012.44030   PDF   HTML   XML   3,633 Downloads   6,034 Views  


People in the rural areas do not have access to specialist medical care, and when they have complications of stroke, they do not have specialists to look at them and they cannot afford to travel to the cities. The primary health care centers are not equipped with sophisticated equipments. Medicine is about medication, treatment and management. In rural areas treatment is not available either because of accessibility or affordability. Even the few doctors that are available are not in primary health care centres. Well conserved one-dimensional non-linear equations of blood flow describing blood flow in distensible blood vessels were used to develop software. This model could describe discontinuities and disruption in blood flow. The computer software can be used for detecting artherosclerosis, stenosis and differentiation of haemorrhagic and ischaemic strokes for stroke management from simple measurements. The software developed is capable of computing the Siriraj and the Allen clinical scores. These scores have been proposed to help clinicians in making decisions while waiting for results of computerized tomography, hence clinicians can start anti-thrombotic treatment while waiting for the scan results. It is capable of simulating stenosis at different position and depth of flow along the arterial length, and can be used for diagnosis. The medical emphasis is on avoiding possible occurrence, every individual can know his status by inputting the required data such as flow and geometry of their arteries into the developed interface and such measurements can be obtained from simple Doppler measurements.

Share and Cite:

B. Gutti, A. Susu and O. Fasanmade, "Mathematical Modeling and Software Application of Blood Flow for Therapeutic Management of Stroke," Engineering, Vol. 4 No. 4, 2012, pp. 228-233. doi: 10.4236/eng.2012.44030.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] WHO, “The World Health Organization MONICA Project (Monitoring Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Dis-ease): A Major International Collaboration,” Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, Vol. 41, 1988, pp. 171-184.
[2] M. J. G. Har-rison, “Clinical Distinction of Cerebral Hemorrhage and Cere-bral Infarction,” Postgraduate Medical Journal, Vol. 56, 1980, pp. 629-632. doi:10.1136/pgmj.56.659.629
[3] C. Anderson and T. Stew-art-Wynne, “Stroke: Clinical Presentations of Stroke—The Classic and the Less Obvious,” Australian Family Physician, Vol. 20, 1991, pp. 1565-1573.
[4] J. Bamford, “Clinical Examination in Diagnosis and Subclassification of Stroke,” Lancet, Vol. 339, No. 8790, 1992, pp. 400-402. doi:10.1016/0140-6736(92)90085-H
[5] A. M. Von, M. Brit-ton, U. deFaire, C. Helmers, K. Miah and V. Murray, “Accu-racy of Bedside Diagnosis of Stroke,” Stroke, Vol. 12, 1981, pp. 288-293. doi:10.1161/01.STR.12.3.288
[6] D. Shinar, C. R. Gross, J. P. Mohr, L. R. Caplan, T. R. Price, P. A. Wolf, D. B. Hier, C. S. Kase, I. G. Fishman, C. L. Wolf and S. C. Kunitz, “Interob-server Variability in the Assessment of Neurologic History and Examination in the Stroke Data Bank,” Archive of Neurology, Vol. 42, No. 6, 1985, pp. 557-565. doi:10.1001/archneur.1985.04060060059010
[7] C, R. Gross, D. Shinar, J. P. Mohr, D. B. Hier, L. R. Caplan, T. R. Price, P. A. Wolf, C. S. Case, I. G. Fishman, S. Calingo and S. C. Kunitz, “Interobserver Agreement in the Diagnosis of Stroke Type,” Archive of Neurology, Vol. 43, No. 9, 1986, pp. 893-898. doi:10.1001/archneur.1986.00520090031012
[8] R. Bonita, R. Beaglehole and J. D. K. North, “Event, Incidence and Case Fatality Rates of Cerebrovascular Disease in Auckland, New Zealand,” American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 120, 1994, pp. 236-243.
[9] C. S. Anderson, K. D. Jamrozik, P. W. Bur-vill, T. M. H. Chakera, G. Johnson and E. G. Stewart-Wynn, “Ascertaining the True Incidence of Stroke: Experience from the Perth Community Stroke Study,” Medical Journal of Aus-tralia, Vol. 158, No. 2, 1993, pp. 80-84.
[10] K. Asplund, R. Bonita, K. Kuulasmaa, A. M. Rajakangas, V. Feigin, H. Schaedlich, K. Suzuki, P. Thorvaldsen and J. Tuomilehto, “For the WHO MONICA Project on Multinational Comparisons of Stroke Epidemiology: Evaluation of Case Ascertainment in the WHO MONICA Stroke Study,” Stroke, Vol. 26, 1995, pp. 355-360. doi:10.1161/01.STR.26.3.355
[11] G. C. Hawkins, R. Bonita, J. B. Broad and N. E. Anderson, “Inadequacy of Clinical Scoring Systems to Differentiate Stroke Subtypes in Population-Based Studies,” Stroke, Vol. 26, 1995, pp. 1338-1342. doi:10.1161/01.STR.26.8.1338
[12] C. Allen, “Clinical Diag-nosis of Acute Stroke Syndrome,” QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, Vol. 52, No. 4, 1983, pp. 515-523.
[13] N. Poungvarin, A. Viriyavejakul and C. Komontri, “Siriraj Stroke Score and Validation Study to Distinguish Supratentorial In-tracerebral Hemorrhage from Infarction,” British Medical Journal, Vol. 302, 1991, pp. 1565- 1567. doi:10.1136/bmj.302.6792.1565
[14] J. Bamford, P. Sander-cock, M. Dennis, J. Burn and C. Warlow, “A Prospective Study of Acute Cerebrovascular Disease in the Community: The Ox-fordshire Community Stroke Project - 1981-86.2. Incidence, Case Fatality Rates and Overall Outcome at One Year of Cere-bral Infarction, Primary Intracerebral and Subarachnoid Haem-orrhage,” Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, Vol. 53, No. 1, 1990, pp. 16-22. doi:10.1136/jnnp.53.1.16
[15] O. K. Kolapo, A. S. Ogun, M. A. Danesi, B. S. Osalusi and K. A. Odusote, “Validation Study of the Siriraj Stroke Score in African Nigerians and Evaluation of the Discriminant Values of Its Parameters: A Preliminary Pro-spective CT Scan Study,” Stroke, Vol. 37, 2006, pp. 1997-2000. doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000229893.02732.02
[16] Y. W. Nyan-daiti and S. A. Bwala, “Validation Study of the Siriraj Stroke Score in North-East Nigeria,” Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice, Vol. 11, No. 3, 2008, pp. 176-180.
[17] T. J. Pedley, “The Fluid Mechanics of Large Blood Vessels,” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1980. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511896996
[18] N. Stergiopulos, D. F. Young and T. R. Rogge, “Computer Simulation of Arterial Flow with Applications to Arterial and Aortic Stenosis,” Jour-nal of Biomechanics, Vol. 25, No. 12, 1992, pp. 1477-1488. doi:10.1016/0021-9290(92)90060-E
[19] M. S. Olufsen, “Structured Tree Outflow Condition for Blood Flow in Larger Systemic Arteries,” American Journal of Physiology, Vol. 276, 1999, pp. H257-H268.
[20] N. P. Smith, A. J. Pullan and P. J. Hunter, “An Anatomically Based Model of Transient Coronary Blood Flow in the Heart,” SIAM Journal on Applied Mathe-matics, Vol. 62, No. 3, 2002, pp. 990-1018. doi:10.1137/S0036139999355199
[21] G. Babagana, A. A. Susu and O. O. Fasanmade, “Mathematical Modeling of Stenosed Distensible Blood Vessels,” Global Journal of Engi-neering and Technology, Vol. 3, No. 3, 2010, pp. 503-511.
[22] P. Roe,and J. Pike, “Efficient Conservation and Utilisation of Approximate Riemann Solution,” Computing Methods in Applied Science and Engineering, Vol. 6, 1984, pp. 499-558.
[23] P. D. Lax and B. Wendroff, “Systems of Con-servation Laws,” Communications on Pure and Applied Mathematics, Vol. 13, No. 2, 1960, pp. 217-237. doi:10.1002/cpa.3160130205
[24] M. R. Kaazempur-Mofrad, S. Wada, J. G. Myers and C. R. Ethier, “Mass Transport and Fluid Flow in Stenotic Arteries: Axisymmetric and Asymmetric Models,” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 48, No. 21-22, 2005, pp. 4510-4517.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.