The Dynamics of Domestic Water Vending in Enugu North L.G.A of Enugu State, Nigeria


The present investigation provides a case study of water vending in Enugu North Local Government Area, Enugu State of South Eastern Nigeria. Questionnaire copies were randomly distributed in the study area to 200 households. Data obtained from the field were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square test. The analysis revealed that almost all the residents of Enugu North L.G.A. obtain their water from independent water vending systems which are operated by the private sector. Tanker truck, distributing and small retail water vendors all operate in the study area. There are an estimated number of 250 tanker truck drivers serving Enugu North L.G.A. Approximately 35 tanker trucks serve Hill- top/Udi siding ward, while there are a total of 52 retail vendors in Onuasata ward. Majority of the respondents are low income earners who spend within the ranges of NGN500 ($3.33) and NGN1500 ($10) a month on water on the average. 50.0 percent of these respondents opined that vended water was expensive. Of the respondents, 49.4 percent consumed 91 - 100 litres per capita per day, which is less than the 120 litres per capita per day recommended by the Federal Re- public of Nigeria’s National water supply and sanitation policy document of 2000. This deficit can be attributed to the cost of vended water. From the chi-square test, there is significant difference in the unit cost of water sold by vendors in the various wards in Enugu North L.G.A. In the absence of regular water provision through pipe-connections from the public utility, water vending should be supported but regulated. Meeting the water and sanitation target and optimizing water resources for the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015 will require a dramatic scaling up of joint efforts by the state government and the people in ensuring that vendors provide safe water at a low cost.

Share and Cite:

E. Onyenechere, E. Eleazu, O. Azuwike, S. Osuji and C. Igwe, "The Dynamics of Domestic Water Vending in Enugu North L.G.A of Enugu State, Nigeria," Journal of Water Resource and Protection, Vol. 4 No. 4, 2012, pp. 224-230. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2012.44025.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] D. K. Isreal, “Impact of Increased Access and Price on Household Water in Urban Bolivia,” The Journal of Environment and Development, Vol. 16, No. 3, 2007, pp. 58-83. doi:10.1177/1070496506298190
[2] D. Whittington, D. T. Lauria and X. Mu, “Paying for Ur- ban Water Services: A Study of Water Vending and Will- ingness to Pay for Water in Onitsha, Nigeria,” World Bank Publications, Washington DC, 1989.
[3] B. Baisa, L. Davis, S. W. Salant and W. Wilcox, “The Welfare Costs of Unreliable Water Service,” Unpublished MPRA Paper, 2008.
[4] H. T. Ishaku, A. A. Peters, A. Haruna and F. M. Dama, “The Role of Private Water Vending in Nigerian Peri- Urban Informal Settlements: Implications for Policy Mak- ers,” Journal of Water Resource and Protection, Vol. 2, No. 12, 2010, pp. 1082-1087. doi:10.4236/jwarp.2010.212127
[5] E. C. Uzoma, “Water Supply: A Case Study of Enugu Metropolis,” B.Sc. Thesis, Anambra State University of Technology, Enugu, 1990.
[6] S. Cairncross and J. Kinnear, “Water Vending in Urban Sudan,” International Journal of Water Resources Development, Vol. 7, No. 4, 1991, pp. 267-273. doi:10.1080/07900629108722522
[7] R. Abdullah, “The Role of Private Vending in Develop- ing Country Water Services Delivery: The Case of Kara- chi, Pakistan,” Working Paper Series, World Bank, Wash- ington DC, 1999.
[8] G. S. Debomy, “Study of Individual Water Vendors and Water Vendors Association at Teshi—Nungua and Nima, Ghana,” Project 5, Water Utilities Partnership, 2000.
[9] J. C. Headley, “The Relation of Family Income and Use of Water for Residential and Commercial Purpose in the San Francisco—Oakland Metropolitan Area,” Land Economics, Vol. 39, No. 4, 1963, pp. 441-449. doi:10.2307/3144849
[10] M. Kjellen, “Water Vending in Dares Salaam, Tanzania,” In: B. Calas and C. A. Mumma Martinon, Eds., Shared Waters, Shared Opportunities: Hydropolitics in East Africa, Nairobi and Mkukina Nyota Publishers Ltd., Tanzania, 2010, pp. 173-184.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.