Synthesis and Piezoelectric Properties of Pb0.98Sm0.02[(Zry,Ti1–y)0.98(Fe1/23+,Nb1/25+)0.02]O3 Ceramics
Fares Kahoul, Louanes Hamzioui, Nora Abdessalem, Ahmed Boutarfaia
DOI: 10.4236/msa.2012.31008   PDF   HTML   XML   4,067 Downloads   7,271 Views   Citations


The structural and electrical properties of Pb0.98Sm0.02[(Zry,Ti1–y)0.98( Fe1/23+,Nb1/25+)0.02]O3 ceramics system with the composition near the morphotropic phase boundary were investigated as a function of the Zr/Ti ratio by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Studies were performed on the samples prepared by solid state reaction for y = 0.47, 0.49, 051, 0.53, 0.55 and 0.57. Combined with piezoelectric properties results, it was consistently shown that an MPB exists between y = 0.51 and y = 0.55 in this system. When y < 0.51, the tetragonal phase dominates at ambient temperatures. In the range of y > 0.55, the rhombohedral phase dominates. Lattice parameters of the tetragonal phase and rhombohedral phase were found to vary with chemical composition. The average particle size ranged from 17.18 to 26.05 nm. The dielectric (ε = 1076), tan δ = 0.013 and piezoelectric properties (d31 = 122 pC/N, kp = 0.631 and Qm = 462) obtained were maximum at y = 0.55 which could be suitable for possible electromechanical and energy harvesting applications.

Share and Cite:

F. Kahoul, L. Hamzioui, N. Abdessalem and A. Boutarfaia, "Synthesis and Piezoelectric Properties of Pb0.98Sm0.02[(Zry,Ti1–y)0.98(Fe1/23+,Nb1/25+)0.02]O3 Ceramics," Materials Sciences and Applications, Vol. 3 No. 1, 2012, pp. 50-58. doi: 10.4236/msa.2012.31008.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] B. V. Hiremath, A. I. Kingon and J. V. Biggers, “Reaction Sequence in the Formation of Lead Zirconate-Lead Titanate Solid Solutions: Role of Raw Materials,” Journal American Ceramic Society, Vol. 66, No. 11, 1983, pp. 790-793. doi:10.1111/j.1151-2916.1983.tb10564.x
[2] S. S. Chandratreya, R. M. Fulrath and J. A. Y. Pask, “Reaction Mechanisms in the Formation of PZT Solid Solutions,” Journal American Ceramic Society, Vol. 64, No. 7, 1981, pp. 422-425. doi:10.1111/j.1151-2916.1981.tb09883.x
[3] A. Boutarfaia, “Study of the Solid State Reaction and the Morphotropic Phase Boundary in Pb(Zr, Ti)O3-Pb(Fe1/5, Ni1/5, Sb3/5)O3 Ceramics,” Ceramics International, Vol. 27, No. 1, 2001, pp. 91-97. doi:10.1016/S0272-8842(00)00047-X
[4] N. Abdessalem and A. Boutarfaia, “Effect of Composition on the Electromechanical Properties of Pb[ZrxTi(0.9-x)-(Cr1/5, Zn1/5, Sb3/5)0.1]O3 Ceramics,” Ceramics International, Vol. 33, No. 2, 2007, pp. 293-296. doi:10.1016/j.ceramint.2005.08.008
[5] K. Kakegawa, J. Mohri, T. Takahashi, H. Yamamura and S. Shirasaki, “A Compositional Fluctuation and Properties of Pb(Zr, Ti)O3,” Solid State Communications, Vol. 24, No. 11, 1977, pp. 769-772. doi:10.1016/0038-1098(77)91186-3
[6] P. Ari-Gur and L. Benguigui, “X-Ray Study of the PZT Solid Solutions near the Morphotropic Phase Transition,” Solid State Communications, Vol. 15, No. 06, 1974, pp. 1077-1079. doi:10.1016/0038-1098(74)90535-3
[7] A. Boutarfaia and S. E. Bouaoud, “Tetragonal and Rhombohedral Phase Co-Existence in the System: PbZrO3-PbTiO3-Pb(Fe1/5, Ni1/5,Sb3/5)O3,” Ceramics International, Vol. 22, No. 4, 1996, pp. 281-286. doi:10.1016/0272-8842(95)00102-6
[8] P. Ari-Gur and L. Benguigui, “Direct Determination of the Coexistence Region in the Solid Solutions Pb(Zrx-Ti1-x)O3,” Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 8, No. 15, 1975, pp. 1856-1862. doi:10.1088/0022-3727/8/15/018
[9] A. Boutarfaia, C. Boudaren, A. Mousser and S. E. Bouaoud, “Study of Phase Transition Line of PZT Ceramics by X-Ray Diffraction,” Ceramics International, Vol. 21, No. 6, 1995, pp. 391-394. doi:10.1016/0272-8842(95)94463-K
[10] R. B. Atkin and R. M. Fulrath, “Point Defects and Sintering of Lead Zirconate-Titanate,” Journal American Ce- ramic Society, Vol. 54, No. 5, 1971, pp. 265-270. doi:10.1111/j.1151-2916.1971.tb12286.x
[11] A. Boutarfaia, “Investigations of Co-Existence Region in Lead Zirconate-Titanate Solid Solutions: X-ray Diffraction Studies,” Ceramics International, Vol. 26, No. 6, 2000, pp. 583-587. doi:10.1016/S0272-8842(99)00099-1
[12] O. Ohtaka, R. Von Der Mühll and J. Ravez, “Low-Temperature Sintering of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 Ceramics with the Aid of Oxyfluoride Additive: X-Ray Diffraction and Dielectric Studies,” Journal American Ceramic Society, Vol. 78, No. 3, 1995, pp. 805-808. doi:10.1111/j.1151-2916.1995.tb08251.x
[13] G. A. Smolenskii and A. I. Agranovskaya, “Dielectric Polarization of a Number of Complex Compounds,” Soviet Physics Solid State, Vol. 1, 1960, pp. 1429-1437.
[14] L. E. Cross, “Relaxor Ferroelectrics,” Ferroelectrics, Vol. 76, No. 3-4, 1987, pp. 241-267. doi:10.1080/00150198708016945
[15] D. Viehland, J. F. Li, S. J. Jung and L. E. Cross, “Dipolar-Glass Model for Lead Magnesium Niobate,” Physical Review B, Vol. 43, No. 10, 1991, pp. 8316-8320. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.43.8316
[16] R. Fisch, “Random-Field Models for Relaxor Ferroelectric Behavior,” Physical Review B, Vol. 67, No. 9, 2003, pp. 4110-4117. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.67.094110
[17] H. Xu, “Ferroelectrics and Piezoelectric Materials,” Science Press, Beijing, 1978.
[18] G. H. Haertling, “Ferroelectric Ceramics: History and Technology,” Journal American Ceramic Society, Vol. 82, No. 4, 1999, pp. 797-818. doi:10.1111/j.1151-2916.1999.tb01840.x
[19] W. Z. Zhu, A. Kholkin, P. Q. Mantas and J. L. Baptista, “Dielectric Response of PZN-Based MPB Composition Doped with Lanthanum,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 73, No. 1, 2002, pp. 62-69. doi:10.1016/S0254-0584(01)00356-X
[20] K. M. Lee, H. M. Jang and W. J. Park, “Mechanism of 1:1 Nonstoichio-Metric Short-Range Ordering in La-Doped Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 Relaxor Ferroelectrics,” Journal of Materials Research, Vol. 12, No. 6, 1997, pp. 1603-1613. doi:10.1557/JMR.1997.0220
[21] W. Heywang, “Ferroelektrizit?t in Perowskitischen Systemen und Ihre Technischen Anwendungen,” Zeitschrif Angewandte Physik, Vol. 19, 1965, pp. 473-481.
[22] V. A. Isupov, “X-Ray Study of the PZT Solid Solutions near the Morphotropic Phase Transition,” Solid State Communications, Vol. 17, No. 11, 1975, pp. 1331-1333. doi:10.1016/0038-1098(75)90595-5
[23] A. Ya. Dantsiger and E. G. Fesenko, “Relation between the Main Electro-Physical and Structural Parameters of Ferro- (Piezo-) Electric Ceramics and Methods of Their Changing,” Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, Vol. 28, 1970, pp. 325-327.
[24] C. Miclea, C. Tanasoiu, C. F. Miclea, L. Amarande, A. Gheorghiu and F. N. Sima, “Effect of Iron and Nickel Substitution on the Piezoelectric Properties of PZT Type Ceramics,” Journal of the European Ceramic Society, Vol. 25, No. 12, 2005, PP. 2397-2400.
[25] J. E. Garcia, R. Pérez, A. Albareda and J. A. Eiras, “Non-Linear Dielectric and Piezoelectric Response in Undoped and Nb5+ or Fe3+ Doped PZT Ceramic System,” Journal of the European Ceramic Society, Vol. 27, No. 13-15, 2007, pp. 4029-4032. doi:10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2007.02.086
[26] Z. Yang, R. Zhang, L. Yang and Y. Chang, “Effects of Cr2O3 Doping on the Electrical Properties and the Temperature Stabilities of PNW-PMN-PZT Ceramics,” Materials Research Bulletin, Vol. 42, No. 12, 2007, pp. 2156- 2162.
[27] S. Takahashi, “Effects of Impurity Doping in Lead Zirconate-Titanate Ceramics,” Ferroelectrics, Vol. 41, No. 1, 1982, pp. 143-156. doi:10.1080/00150198208210617
[28] C. A. Randall, N. Kim, J. P. Kucera, W. Cao and T. R. Shrout, “Intrinsic and Extrinsic Size Effects in Fine-Grained Morphotropic-Phase-Boundary Lead Zirconate Titanate Ceramics,” Journal American Ceramic Society, Vol. 81, No. 3, 1998, pp. 677-688. doi:10.1111/j.1151-2916.1998.tb02389.x
[29] Q. M. Zhang, H. Wang, N. Kim and L. E. Cross, “Direct Evaluation of Domain-Wall and Intrinsic Contributions to the Dielectric and Piezoelectric Response and Their Temperature Dependence on Lead Zirconate-Titanate Ceramics,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 75, No. 1, 1994, pp. 454-459. doi:10.1063/1.355874

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.