Sex Influence on the Formation of Alcohol Preference and Behavior in Rats during the Long-Term Caffeine and Ethanol Intake


Last years the intake of energy drinks (drinks containing caffeine and alcohol) both in young men and women has been increased. However the investigators do not pay attention to the analysis of gender differences. The goal of the study was the investigation of ethanol and caffeine influence on the alcohol preference formation and behavior in male and female rats under the conditions of long-term experiment. It has been found that six month intake of caffeine, ethanol and their combination has led to the increase of alcohol preference both in male and female rats. Alcohol preference was formed earlier in rats consumed combination of caffeine with ethanol, later on in rats consumed ethanol. In animals consumed caffeine the strong alcohol preference did not form up to the end of the experiment. Alcohol preference was higher in female rats consuming caffeine with ethanol and pure ethanol solution compared to male rats. .Behavioral activity significantly increased in females consumed caffeine and caffeine with ethanol, compared to animals received ethanol and controls. Similar tendency was observed in male rats. The anxiety level was significantly higher in females rats in all experimental groups compared to controls, while males did not demonstrate increased anxiety.

Share and Cite:

Kutcher, E. , Egorov, A. , Filatova, E. , Kulagina, K. and Chernikova, N. (2011) Sex Influence on the Formation of Alcohol Preference and Behavior in Rats during the Long-Term Caffeine and Ethanol Intake. Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, 1, 172-180. doi: 10.4236/jbbs.2011.13023.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Prescript No. 46 of 29.06.2009. “On Oversight of Alcoholic Beverages. Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare,” Registered in the Russian Ministry of Justice on 31.08.2009, registration number 14644. (In Russian)
[2] F. E. Sheregi and A. L. Aref’ev, “Estimation of Addiction Situation in Children, Adolescents and Youth. A Report,” Optim Group Edition, Moscow, 2003. (In Russian)
[3] M. C. O’Brien, T. McCoy, S. D. Rhodes, A. Wagoner and M. Wolfson, “Caffeinated Cocktails: Get Wired, Get Drunk, Get Injured,” Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 15, No. 5, 2008, pp. 453-460.
[4] A. Oteri, F. Salvo, A. P. Caputi and G. Calapai, “Intake of Energy Drinks in Association with Alcoholic Beverages in a Cohort of Students of the School of Medicine of the University of Messina,” Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, Vol. 31, No. 10, 2007, pp. 1677- 1680.doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2007.00464.x
[5] J. Istvan and J. D. Matarazzo, “Tobacco, Alcohol, and Caffeine Use: A Review of Their Interrelationships,” Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 95, No. 2, 1984, pp. 301-326. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.95.2.301
[6] L.T. Kozlowski, J. E. Henningfield, R. M. Keenan, H. Lei, G. Leigh, L. C. Jelinek, M. A. Pope and C. A. Haertzen, “Patterns of Alcohol, Cigarette, and Caffeine and Other Drug Use in Two Drug Abusing Populations,” Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, Vol. 10, No. 2, 1993, pp. 171-179. doi:10.1016/0740-5472(93)90042-Z
[7] S.E.Ferreira, M. T. de Mello, S. Pompeia and M. Souza-Formigoni, “Effects of Energy Drink Ingestion On Alcohol Intoxication,” Alcoholism: Clinical and Ex- perimental Research, Vol. 30, No. 4, 2006, pp. 598-605. doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2006.00070.x
[8] C.J. Reissig, E.C. Strain and R. R. Griffiths, “Caffeinated Energy Drinks—A Growing Problem,” Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Vol. 99, No. 1-3, 2009, pp. 1-10. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2008.08.001
[9] K. E. Miller, “Energy Drinks, Race, and Problem Behaviors among College Students,” Journal of Adolescent Health, Vol. 43, No. 5, 2008, pp. 490-497. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2008.03.003
[10] A. M. Arria, K. M. Caldeira, S. J. Kasperski, K. B. Vincent, R. R. Griffiths and K. E. O’Grady, “Energy Drink Consumption and Increased Risk for Alcohol Dependence,” Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Resear, Vol. 35, No. 2, 2011, pp. 365-375. doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2010.01352.x
[11] A. M. Arria, K. M. Caldeira, S. J. Kasperski, K. E. O’Grady, K. B. Vincent, R. R. Griffiths and E. D. Wish, “Increased Alcohol Consumption, Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use, and Illicit Drug Use are Associated with Energy Drink Consumption among College Students,” Journal of Addiction Medicine, Vol. 4 No. 2, 2010, pp. 74-80.doi:10.1097/ADM.0b013e3181aa8dd4
[12] M. A. Dietze and P. J. Kulkosky, “Effects of Caffeine and Bombesin on Ethanol and Food Intake,” Life Sciences, Vol. 48, No. 19, 1991, pp. 1837-1844. doi:10.1016/0024-3205(91)90239-8
[13] D. Kunin, S. Gaskin, F. Rogan, B.R. Smith and Z. Amit, “Caffeine promotes ethanol drinking in rats. Examination using a limited-access free choice paradigm”, Alcohol, Vol. 21, No. 3, 2000, 271-277. doi:10.1016/S0741-8329(00)00101-4
[14] D. Gulick and T. J. Gould, “Effects of Ethanol and Caffeine on Behavior in C57BL/6 Mice in the Plus-Maze Discriminative Avoidance Task,” Behavioral Neuroscience, Vol. 123, No. 6, 2009, pp. 1271-1278. doi:10.1037/a0017610
[15] C. L. Drake, T. Roehrs, L. Turner, H. M. Scofield and T. Roth, “Caffeine Reversal of Ethanol Effects on the Multiple Sleep Latency Test, Memory, and Psychomotor Performance,” Neuropsychopharmacology, Vol. 28, No. 2, 2003, pp. 371-378. doi:10.1038/sj.npp.1300026
[16] M. T. Fillmore, “Alcohol Tolerance in Humans Is Enhanced by Prior Caffeine Antagonism of Alcohol- Induced Impairment,” Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2003, pp. 9-17. doi:10.1037/1064-1297.11.1.9
[17] S. E. Ferreira, I. M. Hartmann Quadros, A. A. Trindade, S. Takahashi, R. G. Koyama, M. L. Souza-Formigoni, “Can Energy Drinks Reduce the Depressor Effect of Ethanol? An Experimental Study in Mice,” Physiology & Behavior, Vol. 82, No. 5, 2004, pp. 841-847.
[18] Y. D. Pometov, V. P. Nujni, A. V. Kovaleva and I. V. Demshina, “Evaluation of Physiological Effects Caused by Taking a Mixture of ‘Energy’ Drinks and Spirits in Studies Involving Men-Volunteers,” Voprosy Narcologii (Addiction Issues), No. 6, 2004, pp. 52-58. (In Russian)
[19] J. L. Temple, A. M. Bulkley, L. Briatico and A. M. Dewey, “Sex Differences in Reinforcing Value of Caffeinated Beverages in Adolescents”, Behavioural Pharmacology, Vol. 20, No. 8, 2009, pp. 731-741. doi:10.1097/FBP.0b013e328333b27c
[20] B. Malinauskas, V. G. Aeby, R. F. Overton, T. Carpenter-Aeby and K. A. Barber, “Heidal Survey of Energy Drink Consumption Patterns aAmong College Students,” Nutrition Journal, Vol. 6, 2007, pp. 35-41. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-6-35
[21] A. Y. Egorov, “Early Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism in Russia” In: K. Kurtakko, M. Rantaniemi and P. Holappa, Eds., Research, Education and Environment in the Barents Region, Lapland University Press, Rovaniemi, 2004, pp. 102-112.
[22] J. A. Tur, M. S. Puig, A. Pons and E. Benito, “Alcohol Consumption among School Adolescents in Palma de Mallorca,” Alcohol, Vol. 38, No. 3, 2003, pp. 243-248.
[23] A.V. Kalueff, T. Keisala, A. Minasyan, S. R. Kumar, J. L. LaPorte, D. L. Murphy and P. Tuohimaa, “The Regular and Light-Dark Suok Tests of Anxiety and Sensorimotor Integration: Utility for Behavioral Characterization in Laboratory Rodents,” Nature Protocols, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2008, pp. 129-136. doi:10.1038/nprot.2007.516
[24] B. B. Fredholm, K. Battig, J. Holmen, A. Nehlig and E. E. Zvartau, “Actions of Caffeine in the Brain with Special Reference to Factors That Contribute to Its Widespread Use,” Pharmacological Reviews, Vol. 51, No. 1, 1999, pp. 84-125.
[25] P. D. Shabanov and S. Y. Kalishevich, “Biology of Alcoholism,” LAN’ Publishing House, Saint-Petersburg 1998. (In Russian)
[26] G. E. Alcohol and health. 7th Spec. Rep. USA Congr. Rockville 1990, 289.
[27] P. D. Shabanov “Drug and Alcohol Abuse: A Practical Guide for Physicians,” Geotar-Med, Мoscow, 2003. (In Russian)
[28] J. L. Temple “Caffeine Use in Children: What We Know, What We Have Left to Learn, and Why We Should Worry,” Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, Vol. 33, No. 6, 2009, pp. 793-806. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2009.01.001
[29] S. L. Blatt and R. N. Takahashi, “Experimental Anxiety and the Reinforcing Effects of Ethanol in Rats,” Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Vol. 32, No. 4, 1999, pp. 457-461. doi:10.1590/S0100-879X1999000400013
[30] R. Spanagel, A. Montkowski, K. Allingham, T. St?hr, M. Shoaib, F. Holsboer and R. Landgraf, “Anxiety: A Potential Predictor of Vulnerability to the Initiation of Ethanol Self-Administration in Rats,” Psychopharmacology, Vol. 122, No. 4, 1995, pp. 369-373. doi:10.1007/BF02246268
[31] R.D. Anita and M. C. Rosa, “Prospective Study of Depression and the Risk of Heavy Alcohol Use in Women,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 157, 2000, pp. 751-758. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.157.5.751
[32] D. H. Overstreet, A. H. Rezvani and D. S. Janowsky, “Genetic Animal Models of Depression and Ethanol Preference Provide Support for Cholinergic and Serotonergic Involvementin Depression and Alcoholism,” Biological Psychiatry, Vol. 31, No. 9, 1992, pp. 919-936. [PubMed] doi:10.1016/0006-3223(92)90118-J
[33] C. A. Stockmeier, “Neurobiology of Serotonin in De- pression and Suicide,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 835, 1997, pp. 220-232. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1997.tb52362.x

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.