Angular Photogrammetric Analysis of the Facial Profile of the Adult Bangladeshi Garo


The analysis of facial soft tissue from the photographic records gives information about the standard normative values of different facial parameters of a specific population group, helps in the diagnosis of any abnormalities of face and also helps for the treatment plan of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment or facial plastic surgery. The aim of the present study was to measure some craniofacial angles of the Bangladeshi Garo males and females on standardized facial profile photographs and compare them with each other and with norms of different ethnic group proposed by the other investigators. The study was carried out with a total number of 100 Christian Garo adult male and female subjects. Statistical analysis showed that the females had significantly higher values than the males in three facial angles (p < 0.05): the nasofrontal angle (G-N-Pro, females = 137.97° ± 4.80°; males = 129.57° ± 7.96°), the nasomental angle (N-Prn-Pg, females = 132.79° ± 5.10°; males = 129.75° ± 7.32°) and the angle of facial convexity (G-Sn-Pg, females = 169.26° ± 4.43°; males = 158.65° ± 12.17°) but no differences between the nasofacial (G-Pg/ N-Prn) and nasolabial angle (Cm-Sn-Ls). Findings from the present study might help to establish a distinct facial profile trait for the Garo population.

Share and Cite:

Ferdousi, M. , Mamun, A. , Banu, L. & Paul, S. (2013). Angular Photogrammetric Analysis of the Facial Profile of the Adult Bangladeshi Garo. Advances in Anthropology, 3, 188-192. doi: 10.4236/aa.2013.34026.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Al-Khatib, A. R. (2010). Facial three dimensional surface imaging: An overview. Archives of Orofacial Sciences, 1, 1-8.
[2] Anibor, E., & Okumagba, M. T. (2010). Photometric facial analysis of the Urhobo ethnic group in Nigeria. Archives of Applied Science Research, 3, 28-32.
[3] Anicy-Milosivecy, S., Lapter-Varga, M., & Slaj, M. (2008). Analysis of the soft tissue facial profile by means of angular measurements. European Journal of Orthodontics, 2, 135-140.
[4] Arnett, G. W., & Bergman, R. T. (1993). Facial keys to orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning-Part I. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 103, 299-312.
[5] Banglapedia (2011). Garo people.
[6] Fernandez-Riveiro, P., Smyth-Chamosa, E., Suarez-Quintanilla, D., & Suarez-Cunqueiro, M. (2003). Angular photogrammetric analysis of the soft tissue facial profile. European Journal of Orthodontics, 25, 393-399.
[7] Hwang, Y., Lee, K. H., Choi, B. Y., Lee, K. S., Lee H. Y., Sir, W. S. et al. (1995). Study on the Korean adult cranial capacity. Journal of Korean Medical Science, 4, 239-242.
[8] Kale-Varlik, S. (2003). Angular photogrammetric analysis of the soft tissue facial profile of Anatolian Turkish adults. The Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, 6, 1481-1486.
[9] Kolar, J. C., & Salter, E. M. (1997). Craniofacial anthropometry: Practical measurement of the head and face for clinical, surgical and research use. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C Thomas, Publisher Ltd.
[10] Malkoc, S., Demir, A., & Uysal, T. (2009). Angular photogrammetric analysis of the soft tissue facial profile of Turkish adults. European Journal of Orthodontics, 31, 174-179.
[11] McIntyre, G. T., & Mossey, P. A. (2003). Size and shape measurement in contemporary cephalometrics. European Journal of Orthodontics, 25, 231-242.
[12] Mowlavi, A., Meldrum, D. G., & Wilhelmi, B. J. (2004). Implications for nasal recontouring: Nasion position preferences as determined by a survey of White North Americans. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, 27, 438-445.
[13] Ozkul, T., Ozkul, M. H., Akhtar, R., Al-Kaabi, F., & Jumaia, T. (2009). A software tool for measurement of facial parameters. The Open Chemical and Biomedical Methods Journal, 2, 69-74.
[14] Reddy, M., Ahuja, N. K., Raghav, P., Kundu, V., & Mishra V. A. (2011). Computer-assisted angular photogrammetric analysis of the soft tissue facial profile of North Indian adults. The Journal of Indian Orthodontic Society, 3, 119-123.
[15] Sforza, C., & Ferrario, V. F. (2006). Soft-tissue facial anthropometry in three dimensions: From anatomical landmarks to digital morphology in research, clinics and forensic anthropology. Journal of Anthropological Sciences, 84, 97-124.
[16] Stoner, M. M. (1955). A photometric analysis of the facial profile. American Journal of Orthodontics, 41, 453-469.
[17] Wamalwa, P., Amisi, S. K., & Chen, S. (2011). Angular photogrammetric comparison of the soft-tissue facial profile of Kenyans and Chinese. The Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, 3, 1064-1072.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.