Share This Article:

Distribution of Myxomycetes on Varied Leaf Litter Types in a Mixed Forest in Warm-Temperate Western Japan

Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:1029KB) PP. 686-696
DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2015.57061    4,177 Downloads   4,579 Views   Citations


Myxomycete assemblages were compared on various leaf litters of different vegetation types in a local mixed forest consisting of deciduous and evergreen trees in western Japan. A total of 33 myxomycete species were recorded and associated with the chemical and biological environments of leaf litters under natural condition of the forest floor. Different myxomycete assemblages were found on different sites under the dominant trees in a short distance apart (300 m). A site of Prunus jamasakura tree yielded 21 species, a Quercus glauca tree yielded 20 species, an Ilex pedunculosa tree yielded 12 species, and two Quercus serrata trees yielded 13 and 14 species, respectively. Non-metric multidimensional scaling demonstrated that the myxomycete assemblages were closely related to the litter types of deciduous and evergreen trees, and both litter pH and cellulolytic activity influenced distribution of myxomycete species. Species richness was higher in leaf litters with higher pH than in leaf litters with more acidic pH such as I. pedunculosa litter. The dominant tree litter and litter pH strongly influenced the species distribution of foliicolous myxomycetes in a local mixed forest.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Takahashi, K. (2015) Distribution of Myxomycetes on Varied Leaf Litter Types in a Mixed Forest in Warm-Temperate Western Japan. Open Journal of Forestry, 5, 686-696. doi: 10.4236/ojf.2015.57061.


[1] Berg, B., & Matzner, E. (1997). The Effect of N Deposition on the Mineralization of C from Plant Litter and Humus. Environmental Reviews, 5, 1-25.
[2] Berg, B., & McClaugherty, C. (2010). Plant Litter: Decomposition, Humus Formation, Carbon Sequestration (2nd ed.). Berlin: Springer.
[3] Chao, A. (1984). Non-Parametric Estimation of the Number of Classes in a Population. Scandinavian Journal of Statistics, 11, 265-270.
[4] Claudia, K., & Franz, S. (1988). Cellulolytic, Xylanolytic, and Pectinolytic Activities of Myxomycetes. Journal of General and Applied Microbiology, 34, 321-332.
[5] Collins, O. R., &Tang, H. (1973). Physarum polycepyarum: pH and Plasmodium Formation. Mycologia, 65, 232-236.
[6] Everhart, S. E., Keller, H. W., & Ely, J. S. (2008). Influence of Bark pH on the Occurrence and Distribution of Tree Canopy Myxomycete Species. Mycologia, 100, 191-204.
[7] Fierer, N., & Jackson, R. B. (2006). The Diversity and Biogeography of Soil Bacterial Communities. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103, 626-631.
[8] Foissner, W. (2006). Biogeography and Dispersal of Microorganisms: A Review Emphasizing Protists. Acta Protozoologica, 45, 111-136.
[9] Hammer, Ø., Harper, D. A. T., & Ryan, P. D. (2001). PAST: Paleontological Statistics Software Package for Education and Data Analysis. Palaeontologia Electronica, 4, 9.
[10] Härkönen, M. (1981). Myxomycetes Developed on Litter of Common Finnish Trees in Moist Chamber Cultures. Nordic Journal of Botany, 1, 791-794.
[11] Ing, B. (1994). The Phytosociology of Myxomycetes. New Phytologist, 126, 175-201.
[12] Jaccard, P. (1912). The Distribution of the Flora of the Alpine Zone. New Phytologist, 11, 37-50.
[13] Kamono, A., Kojima, H., Matumoto, J., Kawamura, K., & Fukui, K. (2009). Airborne Myxomycete Spores: Detection Using Molecular Techniques. Naturwissenschaften, 96, 147-151.
[14] Kenkel, N. C., & Orloci, L. (1986). Applying Metric and Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling to Ecological Studies: Some New Results. Ecology, 67, 919-928.
[15] Lado, C. (2005-2015). An on Line Nomenclatural Information System of Eumycetozoa.
[16] Madelin, M. F. (1984). Myxomycetes, Microorganisms and Animals: A Model of Diversity in Animal Interactions. In J. M. Anderson, A. D. M. Rayner, & W. H. Walton (Eds.), Invertebrate-Microbial Interactions (pp. 1-33). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
[17] Ndiritu, G. G., Spiegel, F. W., & Stephenson, S. L. (2009). Distribution and Ecology of the Assemblages of Myxomycetes Associated with Major Vegetation Types in Big Bend National Park, USA. Fungal Ecology, 2, 168-183.
[18] Nioh, I., Haruta, Y., & Kawakami, H. (1989). Chemical and Microbial Changes of Leaf Litter of Japanese Cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) Decomposed in a Pot. Bulletin of Tokyo University Forests, 81, 21-37.
[19] Pielou, E. C. (1966). The Measurement of Diversity in Different Types of Biological Collections. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 13, 131-144.
[20] Rayner, A. D. M., & Boddy, L. (1988). Fungal Decomposition of Wood: Its Biology and Ecology. Amoebae and Myxomycetes (pp. 132-134). Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
[21] Rojas, C., & Stephenson, S. L. (2008). Myxomycete Ecology along an Elevation Gradient on Cocos Island, Costa Rica. Fungal Diversity, 29, 117-127.
[22] Rousk, J., Brookes, P. C., & Baath, E. (2009). Contrasting Soil pH Effects on Fungal and Bacterial Growth Suggest Functional Redundancy in Carbon Mineralization. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 75, 1589-1596.
[23] Shannon, C. E., & Weaver, W. (1963). The Mathematical Theory of Communication. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.
[24] Stephenson, S. L. (1989). Distribution and Ecology of Myxomycetes in Temperate Forests. II. Patterns of Occurrence on Bark Surface of Living Trees, Leaf Litter, and Dung. Mycologia, 81, 608-621.
[25] Takahashi, K. (2010). Succession in Myxomycete Communities on Dead Pinus densiflora Wood in a Secondary Forest in Southwestern Japan. Ecological Research, 25, 995-1006.
[26] Takahashi, K. (2011). Occurrence of Myxomycetes Associated with Decaying State of Leaf-Litters in a Secondary Forest of Western Japan. Hikobia, 16, 95-103.
[27] Takahashi, K. (2013). Myxomycete Distribution Varies among Leaf Litters of Different Vegetation in a Local Secondary Forest of Warm-Temperate Western Japan. Mycoscience, 54, 368-377.
[28] Takeda, H., Prachaiyo, B., & Tsutsumi, T. (1984). Comparison of Decomposition Rates of Several Tree Leaf Litters in a Tropical Forest in the North-East Thailand. Japanese Journal of Ecology, 34, 311-319.
[29] Tietema, A., & Wessel, W. W. (1994). Microbial Activity and Leaching during Initial Oak Leaf Litter Decomposition. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 18, 49-54.
[30] Tran, H. T. M., Stephenson, S. L., Hyde, K. D., & Mongkolporn, O. (2006). Distribution and Occurrence of Myxomycetes in Tropical Forests of Northern Thailand. Fungal Diversity, 22, 227-242.
[31] Yamamoto, H., Ohtani, S., Tatsuyama, K., & Akiyama, M. (1991). Preliminary Report on Cellulolytic Activity in the Antarctic Region (Extended Abstract). Proceedings of the NIPR Symposium on Polar Biology, 4, 179-182.
[32] Yamamoto, Y. (1998). The Myxomycete Biota of Japan. Tokyo: Toyo Shorin. (In Japanese)

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.