A Blind DWT-SCHUR Based Digital Video Watermarking Technique


Digital watermarking is one of the most powerful tools used in ownership and copyrights protection in digital media. This paper presents a blind digital video watermarking technique based on a combination scheme between the Discrete Wavelet transform in (DWT) and the real Schur Decomposition. The scheme starts with applying twolevel DWT to the video scene followed by Schur decomposition in which the binary watermark bits are embedded in the resultant block upper triangular matrix. The proposed technique shows high efficiency due to the use of Schur decomposition which requires fewer computations compared to other transforms. The imperceptibility of the scheme is also very high due to the use of DWT transform; therefore, no visual distortion is noticed in the watermarked video after embedding. Furthermore, the technique proves to be robust against set of standard attacks like: Gaussian, salt and pepper and rotation and some video attacks such as: frame dropping, cropping and averaging. Both capacity and blindness features are also considered and achieved in this technique.

Share and Cite:

Rajab, L. , Al-Khatib, T. and Al-Haj, A. (2015) A Blind DWT-SCHUR Based Digital Video Watermarking Technique. Journal of Software Engineering and Applications, 8, 224-233. doi: 10.4236/jsea.2015.84023.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Khatib, T., Haj, A., Rajab, L. and Mohammed, H. (2008) A Robust Video Watermarking Algorithm. Journal of Computer Science, 4, 910-915. http://dx.doi.org/10.3844/jcssp.2008.910.915
[2] Voloshynovskiy, S., Pereira, S. and Pun, T. (2001) Attacks on Digital Watermarks: Classification, Estimation-Based Attacks, and Benchmarks. Communications Magazine, 39, 118-126.
[3] Gunjal, B.L. and Manthalkar, R.R. (2010) An Overview of Transform Domain Robust Digital Image Watermarking Algorithms. Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences, 2, 37-42.
[4] Lancini, R., Mapelli, F. and Tubaro, S. (2002) A Robust Video Watermarking Technique in the Spatial Domain. Video/Image Processing and Multimedia Communications 4th EURASIP-IEEE Region 8 International Symposium on VIPromCom, 2002, 251-256.
[5] Hussein, J.A. (2010) Spatial Domain Watermarking Scheme for Colored Images Based on Log-Average Luminance. CoRR, abs/1001.3496.
[6] Mondal, M. and Barik, D. (2012) Spatial Domain Robust Watermarking Scheme for Color Image. International Journal of Advanced Computer Science, 2, 24-27.
[7] Mostafa, S.A., Tolba, A.S., Abdelkader, F.M. and Elhindy, H.M. (2009) Video Watermarking Scheme Based on Principal Component Analysis and Wavelet Transform. International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, 9, 45-52.
[8] Al-Taweel, S.A., Sumari, P., Alomari, S.A. and Husain, A.J. (2009) Digital Video Watermarking in the Discrete Cosine Transform Domain. Journal of Computer Science, 5, 536-543.
[9] Sathik, M. and Sujatha, S. (2012) A Novel DWT Based Invisible Watermarking Technique for Digital Images. International Arab Journal of e-Technology, 2, 167-172.
[10] Hernández, M.C., Miyatake, M.N. and Meana, H.P. (2005) Analysis of a DFT-Based Watermarking Algorithm. 2nd International Conference on Electrical and Electronics Engineering, 7-9 September 2005, 44-47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICEEE.2005.1529569
[11] Rajab, L., Al-Khatib, T. and Al-Haj, A. (2009) Video Watermarking Algorithms Using the SVD Transform. European Journal of Scientific Research, 30, 389-401.
[12] Rajab, L., Al-Khatib, T. and Al-Haj, A. (2008) Hybrid DWT-SVD Video Watermarking. Proceedings of the International Conference on Innovations in Information Technology, Al Ain, 16-18 December 2008, 588-592.http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/INNOVATIONS.2008.4781696
[13] Meenakshi, K., Rao, C.S. and Prasad, K.S. (2014) A Fast and Robust Hybrid Watermarking Scheme Based on Schur and Svd Transform. International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, 3, 7-11.
[14] Panahi, N., Amirani, M., Behnia, S. and Ayubi, P. (2013) A New Colour Image Watermarking Scheme Using Cellular Automata Transform and Schur Decomposition. Proceedings of the 21st Iranian Conference on Electrical Engineering (ICEE), Mashhad, 14-16 May 2013, 1-5.
[15] Seddik, H., Sayadi, M. and Fnaiech, F. (2009) A New Blind Image Watermarking Method Based on Shur Transformation. Proceedings of the 35th Annual Conference of IEEE Industrial Electronics, Porto, 3-5 November 2009, 1967-1972.
[16] Mohan, B.C. and Swamy, K.V. (2010) On the Use of Schur Decomposition for Copyright Protection of Digital Images. International Journal of Computer and Electrical Engineering, 2, 781-787.
[17] Xia, X.G., Boncelet, C.G. and Arce, G.R. (1997) A Multiresolution Watermark for Digital Images. Proceedings of the International Conference on Image Processing, Santa Barbara, 26-29 October 1997, 548-551.http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICIP.1997.647971
[18] Hong, W. and Hang, M. (2006) Robust Digital Watermarking Scheme for Copy Right Protection. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 12, 1-8.
[19] Kundur, D. and Hatzinakos, D. (1998) Digital Watermarking Using Multiresolution Wavelet Decomposition. Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, Seattle, 12-15 May 1998, 2969-2972.
[20] Golub, G.H. and Van Loan, C.F. (1989) Matrix Computations. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.
[21] Mohammad, A.A. (2012) A New Digital Image Watermarking Scheme Based on Schur Decomposition. Multimedia Tools and Applications, 59, 851-883. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11042-011-0772-7
[22] Mohan, B.C., Swamy, K.V. and Kumar, S.S. (2011) A Comparative Performance Evaluation of SVD and Schur Decompositions for Image Watermarking. IJCA Proceedings on International Conference on VLSI, Communications and Instrumentation (ICVCI), 14, 25-29.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.