Pulsed Led’s Light at 650 nm Promote and at 470 nm Suppress Melatonin’s Secretion


In a previous research we have studied the effect of the stimulation of the retina, by pulsed LED’s light of different wavelength, on the spectral density of the alpha rhythms of the electroencephalogram [1] [2]. In conformity to our results and the recent discovery of a nonvisual pathway of light from the retina to the brain, we are induced to search for the effect of stimulation of the retina, with different wavelength, on the melatonin’s secretion. We have, therefore, stimulated the retina with blue LED’s light 470 nm and red LED’s light 650 nm, and measured the melatonin’s secretion in saliva by means of High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The results show that melatonin values are higher with long wavelength stimulation (red, 650 nm) to be confronted with short wavelength stimulation where the values are lower (blue, 470 nm), the difference being significant (***). Action spectrum of short wavelength, producing melatonin suppression, was already evidenced in vivo; it was also demonstrated that blue LED’s light differentially modulated cell’s survival and growth, inducing mitochondrial suppression in vitro. We speculate, therefore, that long wavelength light (red) produces photobiomodulation effect at the level of the retina and that this effect is the opposite of the effect produced by the short wavelength (blue). The molecular mechanism underlying both effects may be, we suppose, the activation (red) or depression (blue) of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase activity at the level of the pool of the retina’s ganglion cells.

Share and Cite:

Milone, F. , Bolner, A. , Nordera, G. and Scalinci, S. (2015) Pulsed Led’s Light at 650 nm Promote and at 470 nm Suppress Melatonin’s Secretion. Neuroscience and Medicine, 6, 35-41. doi: 10.4236/nm.2015.61006.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Ferro Milone, F., Minelli, T., Porro, A. and Binda, F. (2009) Memoria comportamentale (test di Rivermead): studio di una possibile interdipendenza in soggetti normali e con deficit cognitivo lieve. Psicogeriatria, 2, 59-65.
[2] Ferro Milone, F., Minelli, A.T. and Cian, R. (2013) Alpha Rhythms Response to 10 Hz Flicker Is Wavelength Dependent. Neuroscience & Medicine, 4, 4-10.
[3] Berson, D.M. (2003) Strange Vision: Ganglion Cells as Circadian Photoreceptors. Trends in Neurosciences, 25, 314-320.
[4] Korf, W., Schomerus, C. and Stehele, J.H. (1998) The Pineal Organ, Its Hormone Melatonin, and the Photoneuro-Endocrine System (Advances in Anatomy, Embriology and Cell Biology). Vol. 146, Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1-8.
[5] Reppert, S. and Weaver, D.R. (2002) Coordination of Circadian Timing in Mammals. Nature, 418, 935-841.
[6] Hannibal, J., Hindersson, P., Knudesen, S.M., Georg, B. and Fahrenkrug, J. (2002) The Photopigment Melanoopsin Is Exclusively Present in Pituitary Adenilate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide-Containing Retinal Ganglion Cells of the Retinohypothalamic Tract. The Journal of Neuroscience, 22, 1-7.
[7] Chen, G., Huo, Y., Tan, D.X., Liang, Z., Zhang, W. and Zhang, Y. (2003) Melatonin in Chinese Medicinal Herbs. Life Sciences, 73, 19-26.
[8] Karu, T. and Kolyakov, S.F. (2005) Exact Action Spectra for Cellular Responses Relevant to Phototherapy. Photomedicine and Laser Surgery, 23, 355-361.
[9] Wong Riley, M.T., Liang, H.L., Eelles, J.T., Chance, B., Henry, M.M., Buchmann, E., Kane, M. and Whelan, H.T. (2005) Photobiomodulation Directly Benefits Primary Neuron Functionally Inactivated by Toxins: Role of Cytochrome c Oxidase. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 280, 4761-4771.
[10] Karu, T. (2010) Mitochondrial Mechanisms of Photobiomodulation in Context of New Data about Multiple Roles of ATP. Photomedicine and Laser Surgery, 28, 159-160.
[11] Timon, C.L., Jan-Ling, J., Xiao-Yang, X., Xiao-Guang, L., Shu-Xun, D. and Song-Hao, L. (2005) Photobio-Modulation: Phenomenology and Its Mechanism. The Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System, Vol. 5630, 185-191.
[12] Amat, A., Rigau, J., Waymant, R.W., Ilev, I.K., Thomas, J. and Anders, J.J. (2005) Modification of Intrinsic Fluorescence and the Biochemical Behavior of ATP after Irradiation with Visible and near Infrared Laser Light. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, 81, 26-32.
[13] Poyton, R.O. and Ball, K.A. (2011) Therapeutic Photobiomodulation: Nitric Oxide and a Novel Function of Mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase. Discovery Medicine, 11,154-159.
[14] Alvesde Almeida, E., Mascio, P., Harumi, T., Spence, W., Moscovitch, A., Hardeland, R., Cardinali, D.P., Brown, G.M. and Pandi-Perunal, S.R. (2011) Measurement of Melatonin in Body Fluids: Standards, Protocols and Procedures. Child’s Nervous System, 27, 879-891.
[15] Lagana, A., Pardo-Martinez, B., Marino, A., Fago, G. and Bizzarri, M. (1995) Determination of Serum Total Lipid and Free Nacetylneuraminic Acid in Genitourinary Malignancies by Fluorimetric High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Relevance of Free N-Acetylneuraminic Acid as Tumour Marker. Clinica Chimica Acta, 243, 165-179.
[16] Desmet, K.D., David, A.P., Corry, J.J., Eelles, J.T., Wong-Riley, M., et al. (2006) Clinical and Experimental Application of NIR-LED Photobiomodulation. Photomedicine and Laser Surgery, 24, 121-126.
[17] Ames, B.N. (2004) Mitochondrial Decay, a Major Cause of Aging, Can Be Delayed. In Special Issue: Oxidative Stress in Aging and Neurodegenerative Diseases: From Biology to Therapy. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 6, 117-121.
[18] Zaldi, F., Hull, J.T., Peirson, S., Wulff, K., Aeschbach, D., Gooley, J.J., Brainard, G., Gregory-Evans, K., Rizzo Ill, J.F., Czeisler, C.A., Foster, R.G., Moseley, M.J. and Lockley, S.W. (2007) Short-Wavelength Sensitivity of Circadian, Pupillary and Visual Awareness in Humans Lacking an Outer Retina. Current Biology, 17, 2122-2128.
[19] Thapan, K., Arendt, J. and Skene, D.J. (2001) An Action Spectrum for Melatonin Suppression: Evidence for a Novel Non-Rod, Non-Cone Photoreceptor System in Human. The Journal of Physiology, 535, 261-267.
[20] Pizzo, P., Brini, M., Leo, S., Fottino, C., Pinton, P. and Rizzuto, R. (2009) Mitochondria, Calcium and Cell Death: A Deadly Triad in Neurodegeneration. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)—Bioenergetics, 1787, 335-344.
[21] Huang, Y.Y., Chen, A.C.H., Carroll, J.D. and Hamblin, M.R. (2009) Biphasic Dose Response in Low Level Laser Therapy. Dose-Response, 7, 358-383.
[22] West, K.E., Jabonski, M., Warfield, B., Cecil, K.S., James, M., Ayers, M.A., Maida, J., Bowen, C., Sliney, D.H., Rollag, M.D., Hanifin, J.P. and Brainard, G.C. (2011) Blue Light from Light-Emitting Diodes Elicits a Dose-Dependent Suppression of Melatonin in Human. Journal of Applied Physiology, 110, 619-626.
[23] Rolenberg, S., Lewis, J.B., Lockwood, P.E., Tseng, W.Y., Messer, R.L., Hsu, S.D., Omata, Y. and Wataha, J.C. (2006) Extracellular Environment as One Mediator of Blue Light-Induced Mitochondrial Suppression. Dental Materials, 22, 759-764.
[24] Wataha, J.C., Lewis, J.B., Lckwood, P.E., Hsu, S., Messer, B.L., Rueggeberg, F.A. and Bouillaget, S. (2004) Blue Light Differentially Modulates Cell Survival and Growth. Journal of Dental Research, 83, 104-108.
[25] Rodriguez-Santanal, E., Reyes, H., Santana-Rodriguez, K.E. and Santana-Bank, L. (2008) Photo-Infrared Puled Biomodulation in Age-Related Macular Degeneration Associated to Neurologial Disease: One Interventional Case Report and Mini-Review. Journal of Chinese Clinical Medicine, 3, 35-43.
[26] Mecocci, P. (2004) Oxidative Stress in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease: A Continuum. Special Issue: Oxidative Stress in Aging and Neurodegenerative Diseases: From Biology to Therapy. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 6, 69-74.
[27] Reiter, R.J., Tan, D.X., Mayo, J.C., Sainz, R.M., Leon, J. and Czarnocki, Z. (2003) Melatonin as an Antioxidant: Biochemical Mechanisms and Pathophysiological Implications in Humans. Acta Biochimica Polonica, 50, 1129-1146.
[28] Reiter, R.J., Manchester, L.C. and Tan, D.X. (2010) Neurotoxins, Free Radical Mechanism, and Melatonin Protection. Current Opinion in Pharmacology, 8, 194-210.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.