Solid Boundary as Energy Source and Sink in a Dry Granular Dense Flow: A Comparison between Two Turbulent Closure Models

DOI: 10.4236/eng.2014.613087   PDF   HTML   XML   4,529 Downloads   4,935 Views  

Abstract

Solid boundary as energy source and sink of the turbulent kinetic energy of the grains, and its influence on the mean and turbulent features of a dry granular dense flow, are investigated by using the proposed zero- and first-order turbulent closure models. The first and second laws of thermodynamics are used to derive the equilibrium closure relations, with the dynamic responses postulated by a quasi-static theory for weak turbulent intensity. Two closure models are applied to analyses of a gravity-driven flow down an inclined moving plane. While the calculated mean porosity and velocity correspond to the experimental outcomes, the influence of the turbulent eddy evolution can be taken into account in the first-order model. Increasing velocity slip on the inclined plane tends to enhance the turbulent dissipation nearby, and the turbulent kinetic energy near the free surface. The turbulent dissipation demonstrates a similarity with that of Newtonian fluids in turbulent boundary layer flows. While two-fold roles of the solid boundary are apparent in the first-order model, its role as an energy sink is more obvious in the zero-order model.

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Fang, C. (2014) Solid Boundary as Energy Source and Sink in a Dry Granular Dense Flow: A Comparison between Two Turbulent Closure Models. Engineering, 6, 960-972. doi: 10.4236/eng.2014.613087.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

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