Share This Article:

Effect of Rhizobium Inoculation and Supplementation with Phosphorus and Potassium on Growth and Total Leaf Chlorophyll (Chl) Content of Bush Bean Phaseolus vulgaris, L.

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:4600KB) PP. 1413-1426
DOI: 10.4236/as.2014.514152    4,564 Downloads   5,906 Views   Citations


The study was conducted to investigate the effect of Rhizobium inoculation and supplementation of phosphorus and potassium on growth and total leaf chlorophyll content to the three released bush bean varieties in northern Tanzania. To achieve this aim, the glasshouse experiment was conducted at Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology while field experiment were carried out at Tanzania Coffee Research Institute, in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania between April-July 2014. The experiment was laid out in factorial arrangement. Factor I comprised of three bush bean varieties. Factor II involved two inoculation treatments viz 1) inoculation with Rhizobium spp. and 2) without inoculation. Factor III included four fertilizer levels (0 Kg·ha-1 20 Kg K ha-1, 30 Kg P ha-1 and 20 kg·K + 30 Kg P ha-1). Both screen house and field experiments were replicated four times. Plant growth parameters (plant height (cm), number leaves per plant, stem girth (mm)) were measured at 2, 4 and 6 weaks after planting (WAP). The chlorophyll was extracted by using Dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) and absorbance was determined at 645 and 663nm using UV/Visible spectrophotometer. Results showed that Rhizobium application significantly improved the number of leaves per plant, plant height, pant girth and total leaf chlorophyll content. Furthermore, compared with the zero treatment control, potassium fertilization significantly increased the number of leaves per plant, plant height, pant girth and total leaf chlorophyll content of the three varieties. In general, these parameters were significantly increased with phosphorus supplied at 30 kg/ha. The combination of these supplies at different levels resulted in significant interactions in some parameters and thus indicating need for these inputs in the study area.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Mfilinge, A. , Mtei, K. and Ndakidemi, P. (2014) Effect of Rhizobium Inoculation and Supplementation with Phosphorus and Potassium on Growth and Total Leaf Chlorophyll (Chl) Content of Bush Bean Phaseolus vulgaris, L.. Agricultural Sciences, 5, 1413-1426. doi: 10.4236/as.2014.514152.


[1] Graham, P. and Vance, C. (2000) Nitrogen Fixation in Perspective: An Overview of Research and Extension Needs. Field Crops Research, 65, 93-106.
[2] Bambara, S. and Ndakidemi, P.A. (2010) The Potential Roles of Lime and Molybdenum on the Growth, Nitrogen Fixation and Assimilation of Metabolites in Nodulated Legume: A Special Reference to Phaseolus vulgaris L. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9, 2482-2489.
[3] Wortman, C., Kirkby, R., Eledu, C. and Allen, D. (1998) Atlas of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Production in Africa (CIAT Publication No. 297). International Center for Tropical Agriculture, Cali.
[4] Morad, M., Sara, S., Alireza, E., Reza, C.M. and Mohammad, D. (2013) Effects of Seed Inoculation by Rhizobium Strains on Yield and Yield Components in Common Bean Cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). International Journal of Biosciences (IJB), 3, 134-141.
[5] Tairo, E.V. and Ndakidemi, P.A. (2013) Bradyrhizobium Japonicum Inoculation and Phosphorus Supplementation on Growth and Chlorophyll Accumulation in Soybean (Glycine max L.). American Journal of Plant Sciences, 4, 2281.
[6] Vessey, J.K. (2004) Benefits of Inoculating Legume Crops with Rhizobia in the Northern Great Plains. Crop Management. (Online)
[7] Hardarson, G. (1993) Methods for Enhancing Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation. In: Bliss, F.A. and Hardarson, G., Eds., Enhancement of Biological Nitrogen Fixation of Common Bean in Latin America, Springer, Dordrecht, 1-17.
[8] Dakora, F. and Keya, S. (1997) Contribution of Legume Nitrogen Fixation to Sustainable Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 29, 809-817.
[9] Vargas, M.A., Mendes, I.C. and Hungria, M. (2000) Response of Field-Grown Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to Rhizobium Inoculation and Nitrogen Fertilization in Two Cerrados Soils. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 32, 228-233.
[10] Bambara, S. and Ndakidemi, P.A. (2009) Effect of Rhizobium Lime and Molebdenum on Photosynthesis and Chlorophyll Content of Phaseolus vulgaris L. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 3, 791-798.
[11] Bambara, S. and Ndakidemi, P.A. (2010) Effects of Rhizobium Innoculation, Lime and Molybdenum on Nitrogen Fixation of Nodulated Phaseolus vulgaris L. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 4, 682-696.
[12] Nyoki, D. and Ndakidemi, P.A. (2014) Effects of Phosphorus and Bradyrhizobium japonicum on Growth and Chlorophyll Content of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp). American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 4, 1120-1136.
[13] Namvar, A., Sharifi, R.S., Sedghi, M., Zakaria, R.A., Khandan, T. and Eskandarpour, B. (2011) Study on the Effects of Organic and Inorganic Nitrogen Fertilizer on Yield, Yield Components, and Nodulation State of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 42, 1097-1109.
[14] Malik, M.A., Cheema, M.A., Khan, H.Z. and Wahid, M.A. (2006) Growth and Yield Response of Soybean (Glycine max L.) to Seed Inoculation and Varying Phosphorus Levels. Journal of Agricultural Research, 44, 47-53.
[15] CIAT (Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical) (1989) Bean Production Problems in the Tropics. In: Schwartz, H.F. and Pastor-Corrales, M.A., Eds., 2nd Edition, Cali, 726 p.
[16] Uchida, R. (2000) Essential Nutrients for Plant Growth: Nutrient Functions and Deficiency Symptoms. In: Silva, J.A. and Uchida, R., Eds., Plant Nutrient Management in Hawaii’s Soils, Approaches for Tropical and Subtropical Agriculture, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, 31-55.
[17] Khurana, A. and Sharma, P. (2000) Effect of Dual Inoculation of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria, Bradyrhizobium sp. (cicer) and Phosphorus on Nitrogen Fixation and Yield of Chickpea. Indian Journal of Pulses Research, 13, 66-67.
[18] Shahid, M.Q., Saleem, M.F., Khan, H.Z. and Anjum, S.A. (2009) Performance of Soybean (Glycine max L.) under Different Phosphorus Levels and Inoculation. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 46, 237-241.
[19] Rubio, V., Linhares, F., Solano, R., Martín, A.C., Iglesias, J., Leyva, A., et al. (2001) A Conserved MYB Transcription Factor Involved in Phosphate Starvation Signaling both in Vascular Plants and in Unicellular Algae. Genes & Development, 15, 2122-2133.
[20] Ndakidemi, P. and Semoka, J. (2006) Soil Fertility Survey in Western Usambara Mountains, Northern Tanzania. Pedosphere, 16, 237-244.
[21] Araújo, A.P., Teixeira, M.G. and Almeida, D.L.D. (2000) Growth and Yield of Common Bean Cultivars at Two Soil Phosphorus Levels under Biological Nitrogen Fixation. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 35, 809-817.
[22] Olivera, M., Tejera, N., Iribarne, C., Ocana, A. and Lluch, C. (2004) Growth, Nitrogen Fixation and Ammonium Assimilation in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): Effect of Phosphorus. Physiologia Plantarum, 121, 498-505.
[23] Ndakidemi, P., Dakora, F., Nkonya, E., Ringo, D. and Mansoor, H. (2006) Yield and Economic Benefits of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and Soybean (Glycine max) Inoculation in Northern Tanzania. Animal Production Science, 46, 571-577.
[24] Kumar, R. and Chandra, R. (2008) Influence of PGPR and PSB on Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. Viciae Strain Competition and Symbiotic Performance in Lentil. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 4, 297-301.
[25] Marschner, H., Kirkby, E. and Cakmak, I. (1996) Effect of Mineral Nutritional Status on Shoot-Root Partitioning of Photoassimilates and Cycling of Mineral Nutrients. Journal of Experimental Botany, 47, 1255-1263.
[26] Stromberg, K. (1960) Probabilities on a Compact Group. Transactions of the American Mathematical Society, 94, 295-309.
[27] Fletcher, R., Kallidumbil, V. and Bhardwaj, S. (1982) Effects of Fusicoccin on Fresh Weight and Chlorophyll Levels in Cucumber Cotyledons. Plant and Cell Physiology, 23, 717-719.
[28] Maples, R., Thompson, W. and Varvil, J. (1988) Potassium Deficiency in Cotton Takes on a New Look. Better Crops with Plant Food, 73, 6-9.
[29] Zhao, D., Oosterhuis, D. and Bednarz, C. (2001) Influence of Potassium Deficiency on Photosynthesis, Chlorophyll Content, and Chloroplast Ultrastructure of Cotton Plants. Photosynthetica, 39, 103-109.
[30] Collins, M. and Duke, S.H. (1981) Influence of Potassium-Fertilization Rate and Form on Photosynthesis and N2 Fixation of Alfalfa. Crop Science, 21, 481-485.
[31] Li, M., Dac, P., Luo, C. and Zhang, S. (1989) Interaction Effect of K and B on Rapeseed Yield and Nutrient Status in Rape Plants. Journal of Soil Science, 32, 212-216.
[32] Sharma, K., Kuhad, M. and Nandwal, A. (1992) Possible Role of Potassium in Drought Tolerance in Brassica. Journal of Potassium Research, 8, 320-327.
[33] Singh, N. and Kataria, N. (2012) Role of Potassium Fertilizer on Nitrogen Fixation in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under Quantified Water Stress. Journal of Agricultural Technology, 8, 377-392.
[34] Newton, W.E. and Burgess, B.K. (1983) Nitrogen Fixation: Its Scope and Importance. In: Nitrogen Fixation, Springer, Berlin, 1-19.
[35] O’Hara, G.W. (1998) The Role of Nitrogen Fixation in Crop Production. Journal of Crop Production, 1, 115-138.
[36] Bambara, S. and Ndakidemi, P.A. (2010) Phaseolus vulgaris Response to Rhizobium Inoculation, Lime and Molybdenum in Selected Low pH Soil in Western Cape, South Africa. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 5, 1804-1811.
[37] Ravikumar, R. (2012) Growth Effects of Rhizobium Inoculation in Some Legume Plants. International Journal of Current Science, 1, 1-6.
[38] Bambara, S. and Ndakidemi, P.A. (2009) Effects of Rhizobium Inoculation, Lime and Molybdenum on Photosynthesis and Chlorophyll Content of Phaseolus vulgaris L. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 3, 791-798.
[39] Mairura, F., Mugendi, D., Mwanje, J., Ramisch, J., Mbugua, P. and Chianu, J. (2007) Integrating Scientific and Farmers’ Evaluation of Soil Quality Indicators in Central Kenya. Geoderma, 139, 134-143.
[40] Berg Jr., R.K. and Lynd, J. (1985) Soil Fertility Effects on Growth, Yield, Nodulation and Nitrogenase Activity of Austrian Winter Pea. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 8, 131-145.
[41] Pacovsky, R. (1988) Influence of Inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense and Glomus fasciculatum on Sorghum Nutrition. Plant and Soil, 110, 283-287.
[42] Kasturikrishna, S. and Ahlawat, I. (1999) Growth and Yield Response of Pea (Pisum sativum) to Moisture Stress, Phosphorus, Sulphur and Zinc Fertilizers. Indian Journal of Agronomy, 44, 588-596.
[43] Akhtar, N., Amjad, M. and Anjum, M.A. (2003) Growth and Yield Response of Pea (Pisum sativum I.) Crop to Phosphorus and Potassium Application. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 40, 217-222.
[44] Slaton, N.A., DeLong, R., Golden, B.R. and Mozaffari, M. (2007) Full-Season, Irrigated Soybean Response to Potassium Fertilization in Arkansas. Better Crops, 91, 28-30.
[45] Johnston, A.M., Clayton, G.W. and Miller, P.R. (2007) Symposium Papers. Agronomy Journal, 99, 1682-1683.
[46] Kurdali, F., Al-Ain, F. and Al-Shamma, M. (2002) Nodulation, Dry Matter Production, and N2 Fixation by Fababean and Chickpea as Affected by Soil Moisture and Potassium Fertilizer. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 25, 355-368.
[47] Kanaujia, S., Narayan, R. and Narayan, S. (1999) Effect of Phosphorus and Potassium on Growth, Yield and Quality of French Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cv. Contender. Vegetable Science, 26, 91-92.
[48] Chaudhary, M.I. and Fujita, K. (1998) Comparison of Phosphorus Deficiency Effects on the Growth Parameters of Mashbean, Mungbean, and Soybean. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 44, 19-30.
[49] Amijee, F. and Giller, K.E. (1998) Environmental Constraints to Nodulation and Nitrogen Fixation of Phaseolus vulgaris L. in Tanzania. A Survey of Soil Fertility, Root Nodulation and Multi-Locational Responses to Rhizobium Inoculation. African Crop Science Journal, 6, 159-170.
[50] Smithson, J.B., Edje, O.T. and Giller, K.E. (1993) Diagnosis and Correction of Soil Nutrient Problems of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in the Usambara Mountains of Tanzania. The Journal of Agricultural Science, 120, 233-240.
[51] Abdelgani, M., Elsheikh, E. and Mukhtar, N. (1999) The Effect of Rhizobium Inoculation and Chemical Fertilization on Seed Quality of Fenugreek. Food Chemistry, 64, 289-293.
[52] Chen, J. (2006) The Combined Use of Chemical and Organic Fertilizers and/or Biofertilizer for Crop Growth and Soil Fertility. In: International Workshop on Sustained Management of the Soil-Rhizosphere System for Efficient Crop Production and Fertilizer Use, Thailand, 16-20 October, 2006, 20.
[53] Patra, R., Pant, L. and Pradhan, K. (2012) Response of Soybean to Inoculation with Rhizobial Strains: Effect on Growth, Yield, N Uptake and Soil N Status. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 8, 51-54.
[54] Nyoki, D. and Ndakidemi, P.A. (2014) Effects of Bradyrhizobium japonicum Inoculation and Supplementation with Phosphorus on Macronutrients Uptake in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp). American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5, 442-451.
[55] Menaria, B., Pushpendra, S., Nagar, R. and Singh, P. (2003) Effect of Nutrients and Microbial Inoculants on Growth and Yield of Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merril]. Journal of Soil and Crops. Soils and Crops, 13, 14-17.
[56] Popescu, A. (1998) Contributions and Limitations to Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Romania. In: Molecular Microbial Ecology of the Soil, Springer, Berlin, 117-125.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.