Share This Article:

Stem Reserve Mobilization and Sink Activity in Wheat under Drought Conditions

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:143KB) PP. 70-77
DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2011.21010    7,482 Downloads   15,996 Views   Citations


The effect of water deficit on stem reserve mobilization and sink activity in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, viz., C306 (drought tolerant) and PBW343 (drought sensitive) was studied. Drought was maintained in pot raised plants by withholding irrigation at 95 days after sowing (DAS), i.e. just five days before the initiation of anthesis. Drought induced a significant reduction in mean biomass of all the internodes of sensitive cultivar as compared to those of tolerant one. Mobilized dry matter and mobilization efficiency were observed to be higher in the internodes of tolerant cultivar, both under control and stress conditions, which resulted in enhanced translocation of stem reserves to the grains. Water soluble carbohydrates (WSC), which mainly occur as fructans, were observed to be higher in the internodes of tolerant cultivar than those of sensitive one. When drought was applied, fructans were mobilized more effectively from the internodes of tolerant cultivar. A significantly higher sucrose synthase activity in the grains of tolerant cultivar, under drought conditions, increased the sink strength by unloading the assimilates in the sink, thereby increasing further mobilization of assimilates to the grains. Grains of sensitive cultivar attained maturity much earlier as compared to the tolerant one, both under control and stress conditions. The longer duration of grain maturation in tolerant cultivar supported enhanced mobilization of stem reserves, thus restricting heavy decrease in grain yield, under stress conditions, as compared to the sensitive cultivar. It may, therefore, be concluded that certain characteristics viz., enhanced capability of fructan storage, higher mobilization efficiency, stronger sink activity and longer duration of grain maturation might help the drought tolerant cultivar in coping the stress conditions

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

A. Gupta, K. Kaur and N. Kaur, "Stem Reserve Mobilization and Sink Activity in Wheat under Drought Conditions," American Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 2 No. 1, 2011, pp. 70-77. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2011.21010.


[1] A. Blum, “Improving Wheat Grain Filling under Stress by Stem Reserve Utilization,” Euphytica, Vol. 100, No.1, 1998, pp. 77-83. doi:10.1023/A:1018303922482
[2] B. Ehdaie and J. G. Waines, “Adaptation of Landrace and Improved Spring Wheat Genotypes to Stress Environments,” Journal of Genetics and Breeding, Vol. 43, 1989, pp. 151-156.
[3] A. Aprile, A. M. Mastrangelo, A. M. D. Leonardis, G. Galiba, E. Roncaglia, F. Ferrari, L. D. Bellis, L. Turchi, G. Giuliano and L. Cattivelli, “Transcriptional Profiling in Response to Terminal Drought Stress Reveals Differential Responses along the Wheat Genome”, BMC Genomics, Vol. 10:, 2009, p. 279. doi:10.1186/1471-2164-10-279
[4] M. P. Reynolds, A. M. Kazi and M. Sawkins, “Prospects for Utilizing Plant Adaptive Mechanisms to Improve Wheat and Other Crops in Drought and Salinity Prone Environments,” Annals in Applied Biology, Vol. 146, No. 2, 2005, pp. 239-259. doi:10.1111/j.1744-7348.2005.040058.x
[5] R. Ortiz, M. Iwanaga, M. P. Reynolds, H. Wu and J. H. Crouch, “Overview on Crop Genetic Engineering for Drought Prone Environments,” CIMMYT, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2007, pp. 1-30.
[6] D. Bartels and R. Sunkar, “Drought and Salt Tolerance in Plants”, Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, Vol. 24, No. 1, 2005, pp. 23-58. doi:10.1080/07352680590910410
[7] J. Yang, J. Zhang, Z. Huang, Q. Zhu and L. Wang, “Remobilization of Carbon Reserves is Improved by Controlled Soil Drying During Grain Filling in Wheat,” Crop Science, Vol. 40, No. 6, 2000, pp. 1645-1655. doi:10.2135/cropsci2000.4061645x
[8] J. Zhang, X. Sui, B. Li, B. Su, J. Li and D. Zhou, “An Improved Water Use Efficiency for Winter Wheat Grown under Reduced Irrigation,” Field Crop Research, Vol. 59, No. 2, 1998, pp. 91-98. doi:10.1016/S0378-4290(98)00104-X
[9] T. Gebbing and S. Schnyder, “Pre-anthehsis Reserve Utilization for Protein and Carbohydrate Synthesis in Grains of Wheat,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 121, No. 3, 1999, pp. 871-878. doi:10.1104/pp.121.3.871
[10] J. Yang, J. Zhang, Z. Wang, Q. Zhu and W. Wang, “Hormonal Changes in the Grains of Rice Subjected to Water Stress during Grain Filling,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 127, No.1, 2001, pp. 315-323. doi:10.1104/pp.127.1.315
[11] J. Yang, J. Zhang, Z. Wang, Q. Zhu and L. Liu, “Involvement of Abscisic Acid and Cytokinins in the Senescence and Remobilization of Carbon Reserves in Wheat Subjected to Water Stress during Grain Filling”, Plant Cell and Environment, Vol. 26, No. 10, 2003, pp. 1621-1631. doi:10.1046/j.1365-3040.2003.01081.x
[12] I. F. Wardlaw and J. Willenbrink, “Carbohydrate Storage and Mobilization by the Culm of Wheat between Heading and Grain Maturity: the Relation to Sucrose Synthase and Sucrose Phosphate Synthase,” Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, Vol. 21, No. 3, 1994, pp. 255-271. doi:10.1071/PP9940255
[13] J. Yang, J. Zhang, Z. Wang, Q. Zhu and L. Liu, “Water Deficit Induced Senescence and Its Relationship to the Remobilization of Pre Stored Carbon in Wheat during Grain Filling,” Agronomy Journal, Vol. 93, No. 1, 2001, pp. 196-206. doi:10.2134/agronj2001.931196x
[14] E. A. Conocono, “Improving Yield of Wheat Experiencing Post Anthesis Water Deficits through the Use of Shoot Carbohydrate Reserves,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Western Australia, Australia, 2002.
[15] G. P. Xue, C. L. McIntyre, C. L. D. Jenkins, D. Glassop, A. F. Van Herwaarden and R. Shorter, “Molecular Dissection of Variation in Carbohydrate Metabolism Related to Water Soluble Carbohydrate Accumulation in Stems of Wheat,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 146, No. 2, 2008, pp. 441-454. doi:10.1104/pp.107.113076
[16] F. Volaire and F. Lelievre, “Production, Persistence and Water Soluble Carbohydrate Accumulation in 21 Contrasting Populations of Dactylis glomerata L. Subjected to Severe Drought Stress in the South of France,” Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, Vol. 48, No. 6, 1997, pp. 933-944. doi:10.1071/A97004
[17] D. E. Goggin and T. L. Setter, “Fructosyltransferase Activity and Fructan Accumulation during Development in Wheat Exposed to Terminal Drought,” Functional Plant Biology, Vol. 31, No. 1, 2004, pp. 11-21. doi:10.1071/FP03123
[18] B. Ehdaie, G. A. Alloush, M. A. Madore and J. G. Waines, “Genotypic Variation for Stem Reserves and Mobilization in Wheat. I. Post Anthesis Changes in Internode Dry Matter,” Crop Science, Vol. 46, No. 2, 2006, pp. 735-746. doi:10.2135/cropsci2005.04-0033
[19] B. Ehdaie B, G. A. Alloush, M. A. Madore and J. G. Waines, “Genotypic Variation for Stem Reserves and Mobilization in Wheat. II. Post Anthesis Changes in internode Water Soluble Carbohydrates,” Crop Science, Vol. 46, No. 5, 2006, pp. 2093-2103.
[20] M. R. Shakiba, B. Ehdaie, M. A. Madore and J. G. Waines, “Contribution of Internode Reserves to Grain Yield in a Tall and Semi Dwarf Spring Wheat,” Journal of Genetics and Breeding , Vol. 50, 1996, pp. 91-100.
[21] K. Kaur, A. K. Gupta and N. Kaur, “Effect of Water Deficit on Carbohydrate Status and Enzymes of Carbohydrate Metabolism in Seedlings of Wheat Cultivars,” Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Vol. 44, No. 4, 2007, pp. 223-230.
[22] S. Kaur, A. K. Gupta and N. Kaur, “Effect of Kinetin on Starch and Sucrose Metabolizing Enzymes in Salt Stressed Chickpea Seedlings,” Biologia Plantarum, Vol. 46, No. 1, 2003, pp. 67-72. doi:10.1023/A:1022310100557
[23] H. B. Krishnan, J. T. Blanchette and T. W. Okita, “Wheat Invertase Characterization of Cell Wall Bound and Soluble Forms,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 88, 1985, pp. 241-245. doi:10.1104/pp.78.2.241
[24] S. Kaur , A. K. Gupta and N. Kaur, “Effect of GA3, Kinetin and Indole Acetic Acid on Carbohydrate Metabolism in Chickpea Seedlings Germinating under Water Stress,” Plant Growth Regulation, Vol. 30, No. 1, 2000, pp. 61-70. doi:10.1023/A:1006371219048
[25] O. H. Lowry, N. J. Rosebrough, A. L. Farr and R. J. Randall, “Protein Measurement with Folin Phenol Reagent,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol. 193, No. 1, 1951, pp. 265-275.
[26] M. Dubois, K. A. Gilles, J. K. Hamilton, P. A. Robers and F. Smith, “Colorimetric Method for Determination of Sugars and Related Substances,” Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 28, No. 3, 1956, pp. 350-356. doi:10.1021/ac60111a017
[27] L. M. Williard and M. Slattery, “The Colorimetric Determination of Fructosan in Plant Material,” Journal of Bilogical Chemistry, Vol. 157, No. 2, 1945, pp.161-167.
[28] D. J. Davidson and P. M. Chevalier, “Storage and Remobilization of Water Soluble Carbohydrates in Stems of Spring Wheat,” Crop Science, Vol. 32, No. 1, 1992, pp. 186-190. doi:10.2135/cropsci1992.0011183X003200010038x
[29] R. Kumar, A. K. Sarawgi, C. Ramos, S. T. Amarante, A. M. Ismail and L. J. Wade, “Partitioning of Dry Matter during Drought Stress in Rainfed Lowland Rice,” Field Crops Research, Vol. 98, No. 1, 2006, pp. 1-11. doi:10.1016/j.fcr.2005.09.015
[30] B. Ehdaie and J. G. Waines, “Genetic Variation for Contribution of Preanthesis Assimilates to Grain Yield,” Journal of Genetics and Breeding, Vol. 50, 1996, pp. 47-56.
[31] T. L. Housley, “Role of Fructans Redistributed from Vegetative Tissues in Grain Filling of Wheat and Barley,” In A. K. Gupta and N. Kaur, Eds., Carbohydrate Reserves in Plants: Synthesis and Regulation, Developments in Crop Science, Vol. 26. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2000, pp 207-221. doi:10.1016/S0378-519X(00)80011-2
[32] S. A. Ruuska, G. J. Rebetzke, A. F. Van Harwaarden, R. A. Richards, N. A. Fettell, L. Tabe and C. L. D. Jenkins, “Genotypic Variation in Water Soluble Carbohydrate Accumulation in Wheat,” Functional Plant Biology, Vol. 33, No. 9, 2006, pp. 799-809. doi:10.1071/FP06062
[33] A. Blum, B. Sinmena, J. Mayer, G. Golan and L. Shpiler, “Stem Reserve Mobilization Supports Wheat Grain Filling under Heat Stress,” Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, Vol. 21, No. 6, 1994, pp. 771-781. doi:10.1071/PP9940771
[34] A. Borrell, L. D. Incoll and M. J. Dalling, “The Influence of the Rht 1 and Rht 2 Alleles on the Deposition and Use of Stem Reserves in Wheat,” Annals in Botany, Vol. 71, No. 4, 1993, pp.317-326. doi:10.1006/anbo.1993.1041
[35] H. C. Riffkin, C. M. Duffus and I. C. Bridges, “Sucrose Metabolism during Development of Wheat (Triticum aestivum),” Physiologia Plantarum, Vol. 98, 1995, pp. 123- 131. doi:10.1034/j.1399-3054.1995.930118.x
[36] J. Liang, J. Zhang and X. Cox, “Grain Sink Strength May be Related to Poor Grain Filling of Indica Japonica Rice (Oryza sativa) Hybrids,” Physiologia Plantarum, Vol. 112, No. 4, 2001, pp. 470-477. doi:10.1034/j.1399-3054.2001.1120403.x
[37] A. P. Ranwala and W. B. Miller, “Sucrose Cleaving Enzymes and Carbohydrate Pools in Lilium longiflorum Floral Organs,” Physiologia Plantarum, Vol. 103, No. 4, 1998, pp. 541-550. doi:10.1034/j.1399-3054.1998.1030413.x
[38] J. Yang, J. Zhang, Z. Wang, G. Xu and Q. Zhu, “Activities of Key Enzymes in Sucrose to Starch Conversion in Wheat Grains Subjected to Water Deficit during Grain Filling,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 135, No. 3, 2004, pp. 1621-1629. doi:10.1104/pp.104.041038
[39] Z. Dai, Y. Yin and Z. Wang, “Activities of Key Enzymes Involved in Starch Synthesis in Grains of Wheat under Different Irrigation Patterns,” The Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Vol. 147, No. 4, 2009, pp. 437-444. doi:10.1017/S0021859609008612
[40] A. Guóoth , I. Tari , A. Gallé , J. CSiszár , A. Pecsváradi , Cseuz and L. Erdei, “Comparison of the Drought Stress Responses of Tolerant and Sensitive Wheat Cultivars during Grain Filling: Changes in Flag Leaf Photosynthetic Activity, ABA Levels and Grain Yield,” Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, Vol. 28, No. 2, 2009, pp. 167- 176. doi:10.1007/s00344-009-9085-8
[41] I. F. Wardlaw and J. Willenbrink, “Mobilization of Fructan Reserves and Changes in Enzyme Active Ities in Wheat Stems Correlate with Water Stress during Kernel Filling,” New Phytologist, Vol. 148, No. 3, 2000, pp. 413-422. doi:10.1046/j.1469-8137.2000.00777.x

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.