High frequency wheat regeneration from leaf tissue explants of regenerated plantlets


The specificities of tissue culture of wheat greatly limit the use of chloroplast transformation technologies in this crop. One limitation in wheat tissue culture is that it is difficult to regenerate plantlets from leaf tissue explants of regenerated plantlets, resulting in difficulty in obtaining homoplastic plants via multiple rounds of antibiotic selection of chloroplast transformants. Thus, a repeated in vitro regeneration system from leaf tissues was studied in this research. Our results showed that 2 mm leaf basal segments of the 4 cm high leaves from regenerated plantlets can give the best callus induction at present study. The best callus induction medium was Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 2 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 1 mg/L naphthalenacetic acid, which gave a callus induction rate of up to 87.2%. The optimal differentiation medium was MS basal medium supplemented with 10 mg/L silver nitrate and 1 mg/L 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, which gave a regeneration rate up to 33.7% for the wheat lines tested. This is the first report showing that leaf basal segments of in vitro regenerated plantlets can be used for regeneration of wheat. The establishment of a repetitive regeneration system should pave the way for the development of chloroplast transformation and the plant regeneration systems starting from leaf material of in vitro regenerated wheat and other cereal crops.

Share and Cite:

Yu, H. , Wang, W. , Wang, Y. and Hou, B. (2012) High frequency wheat regeneration from leaf tissue explants of regenerated plantlets. Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology, 3, 46-50. doi: 10.4236/abb.2012.31008.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Chugh, A. and Khurana, P. (2003) Regeneration via somatic embryogenesis from leaf basal segments and genetic transformation of bread and emmer wheat by particle bombardment. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 74, 151-161. doi:10.1023/A:1023945610740
[2] Kopertekh, L.G. and Stribnaya, L.A. (2003) Plant regen-eration from wheat leaf explants. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, 50, 365-368. doi:10.1023/A:1023826304989
[3] Lee, S.M., Kang, K., Chung, H., Yoo, S.H., Xu, X.M., Lee, S.B., Cheong, J.J., Daniell, H. and Kim, M. (2006) Plastid transformation in the monocotyledonous cereal crop, rice (Oryza sativa) and transmission of transgenes to their progeny. Molecules and Cells, 21, 401-410.
[4] Murashige, T. and Skoog, F.A. (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue culture. Physiologia Plantarum, 15, 473-497. doi:10.1111/j.1399-3054.1962.tb08052.x
[5] Gamborg, O.L., Miller, R.A. and Ojima, K. (1968) Nutrient requirement of suspension cultures of soybean root cells. Experimental Cell Research, 50, 151-158. doi:10.1016/0014-4827(68)90403-5
[6] Xia, G.M., Li, Z.Y., He, C.X., Chen, H.M. and Richard, B. (1999) Transgenic plant regeneration from wheat mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Acta Phytophysiologica Sinica, 25, 22-28.
[7] Yu, H.M., Xia, G.M. and Hou, B.K. (2005) Factors improving the efficiency of wheat transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Journal of Shandong University, 40, 120-124.
[8] Chen, H.M., Teng, S.Y. and Yu, J.J. (1980) Callus induction and organ formation from young leaf of wheat. Botanica Sinica, 22, 112.
[9] Dolezelova, M., Dolezel, J. and Nesticky, M. (1992) Relationship of embryogenic competence in maize (Zea mays L.) leaves to mitotic activity, cell cycle and nuclear DNA content. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 31, 215-221.
[10] Chen, Z., Zhuge, Q. and Sundqvist, C. (1995) Oat leaf base: tissue with an efficient regeneration capacity. Plant Cell Report, 14, 354-358. doi:10.1007/BF00238596
[11] Fei, S., Read, P.E. and Riordan, T.P. (2000) Improvement of embryogenic callus induction and shoot regeneration of buffalograss by silver nitrate. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 60, 197-200. doi:10.1023/A:1006468324616
[12] Raghavan, V. (1997) Molecular embryology of flowering plants. Cambridge University Press, New York. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511574528
[13] Mahalakshmi, A., Khurana, J.P and Khurana, P. (2003) Rapid induction of somatic embryogenesis by 2,4-D in leaf base cultures of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Plant Biotechnology, 20, 267-273. doi:10.5511/plantbiotechnology.20.267
[14] Liu, C.M., Xu, Z.H. and Chua, N.H. (1993) Auxin polar transport is essential for the establishment of bilateral symmetry during early plant embryogenesis. Plant Cell, 5, 621-630.
[15] Choi, Y.E, Kim, H.S., Soh, W.Y. and Yang, D.C. (1997) Developmental and structural aspects of somatic embryos formed on medium containing 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid. Plant Cell Report, 16, 738-744. doi:10.1007/s002990050312

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.