Share This Article:

Re-Strategising for Effective Health and Safety Standards in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:373KB) PP. 115-128
DOI: 10.4236/ojsst.2011.13013    4,183 Downloads   9,785 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Poor health and safety record impact on the image/reputation and operational capabilities of businesses, especially those within the small and medium enterprise (SME) sector. Given the role of SMEs in the economy, this paper attempts to highlight the issue of poor health and safety performance of the SME sector and suggest a strategy for improving the level of performance. To this end, survey questionnaires were distributed to assess the overall awareness of people about health and safety issues, motivations and constraints, vis-a-viz supply chain improvement initiatives. Based on the findings (responses from questionnaires) and existing literature, the unique characteristics of the supply chain network makes it a suitable medium through which health and safety improvement in small and mediumsized enterprises can be realised. Additionally, the findings show that good health and safety management culture enhances image, lowers costs, and improves the overall competitiveness of organisations. To complement the efforts/desires of health and safety regulators, there is need to leverage on the relationships that exist in supply chains, shown in this exercise to have a major influence on the activities of organisations.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

I. Diugwu, "Re-Strategising for Effective Health and Safety Standards in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises," Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Vol. 1 No. 3, 2011, pp. 115-128. doi: 10.4236/ojsst.2011.13013.

References

[1] R. C. Lefebvre and L. Rochlin, “Social Marketing,” In: K. Glanz, F. M. Lewis and B. K. Rimer, Eds., Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice, 2 Edition, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 1997.
[2] EIM, “Health and Safety at Work,” EIM Business & Policy Research, Zoetermeer, 1998.
[3] European Commission, “A Self-Evaluation Handbook for SMEs,” Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, 1995.
[4] European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, “Comparative Report on Job Qual- ity in Microfirms, (Unpublished National Reports on UK, Sweden, Greece and France),” European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Dublin, 2000.
[5] European Industrial Relations Observatory, “Survey of Company Accident Rates,” 1999, http://www.eiro.eurofund.ie
[6] D. Stokols, S. McMahan, C. Clitheroe and M. Wells, “Enhancing Corporate Compliance with Worksite Health and Safety Legislation,” Journal of Safety Research, Vol. 32, No. 4, 2001, pp. 441-463. doi:10.1016/S0022-4375(01)00063-9
[7] L. Vassie, J. M. Tomas and A. Oliver, “Health and Safety Management in UK and Spanish SMEs: A Comparative Study,” Journal of Safety Research, Vol. 31, No. 1, 2000, pp. 35-43. doi:10.1016/S0022-4375(99)00028-6
[8] J. Borley, “A Health and Safety System Which Works for Small Firms,” Journal of the Royal Society for Health, Vol. 117, No. 4, 1997, pp. 211-215. doi:10.1177/146642409711700403
[9] T. J. N. M. de Bruijn and P. S. Hofman, “Pollution Prevention in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Evoking Structural Changes through Partnerships,” Greenleaf Publishing Ltd., Sheffield, 2001, pp. 71-82.
[10] European Network for Workplace Health Promotion, “Small, Healthy and Competitive: New Strategies for Im- proved Health in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises,” BKK Federal Association, Essen, 2001.
[11] D. Walker and R. Tait, “Health and Safety Management in Small Enterprises: An Effective Low Cost Approach,” Safety Science, Vol. 42, No. 1, 2004, pp. 69-83. doi:10.1016/S0925-7535(02)00068-1
[12] E. Rhodes and R. Carter, “Collaborative Learning in Advanced Supply Systems: The Klass Pilot Project,” The Journal of Workplace Learning, Vol. 15, No. 6, 2003, pp. 271-279. doi:10.1108/13665620310488566
[13] R. Bibbings “Strategy for Meeting the Occupational Safety and Health Needs of Small and Medium Size Enterprises (SMEs)—A Summary of ROSPA’s Views,” Safety Science Monitor, Vol. 7, No. 1, 2003, pp. 1-13.
[14] P. L. Polakoff, “An Oversight Report: Senate Bill 198 Impact and Effectiveness on Workers’ Health and Safety,” California Legislature, California Senate Committee on Industrial Relations, Sacramento, 1992.
[15] M. S. Wright, “Factors Motivating Proactive Health and Safety Management” HSE Books, Sudbury, 1998.
[16] A. Scipioni, F. Arena, M. Villa and G. Saccarola, “Integration of Management Systems,” Environmental Management and Health, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2001, pp. 134-145. doi:10.1108/09566160110389906
[17] J. J. Smallwood, “Client Influence on Contractor Health and Safety in South Africa,” Building Research and Information, Vol. 26, No. 3, 1998, pp. 181-189. doi:10.1080/096132198369959
[18] P. N. Fonteyn, D. Olsberg and J. A. Cross, “Small Business Owners' Knowledge of Their Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) Legislative Responsibilities,” Interna- tional Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, Vol. 3, No. 1-2, 1997, pp. 41-57.
[19] D. R. Walters and K. Frick, “Worker Participation and the Management of Occupational Health and Safety: Reinforcing or Conflicting Strategies?” In: K. Frick, P. L. Jensen, M. Quinlan and T. Wilthagen, Eds., Systematic Occupational Health and Safety Management: Perspec- tives on an International Development, Pergamon, Oxford, 2000.
[20] D. Walters and F. Lamm, “OHS in Small Organisations: Some Challenges and Ways Forward,” National Research Centre for OHS Regulation, Australian National University, Acton, 2003.
[21] P. Ring and A. Van de Ven, “Developmental Processes of Cooperative Interorganizational Relationships,” Academy of Management Review, Vol. 19, No. 1, 1994, pp. 90-118.
[22] S. Chen, Y. Duan, J. S. Edwards and B. Lehaney, “Toward Understanding Inter-Organizational Knowledge Tran- sfer Needs in SMEs: Insight from a UK Investigation,” Journal of Knowledge Management, Vol. 10, No. 3, 2006, pp. 6-23. doi:10.1108/13673270610670821
[23] J. Rimington, “Managing Risk—Adding Value: How Big Firms Manage Contractual Relations to Reduce Risk—A Study,” Health and Safety Executive, London, 1998.
[24] Health and Safety Commission, “Third Report: Organising for Safety, ACSNI Study Group on Human Factors,” HMSO, London, 1993
[25] Commission of the European Communities, “Adapting to Change in Work and Society: A New Community Strategy in Health and Safety at Work 2002-2006,” Commission of the European Communities, 2002
[26] Health and Safety Commission, “Health and Safety Statistical Highlights 2002/03” Health and Safety Executive, Norwich, 2003
[27] P. O’Keeffe, “Understanding Supply Chain Risk Areas, Solutions and Plans: A Five-Part Series,” The Supply Chain Risk Management Series, 2005. http://www.protiviti.com/downloads/PRO/pro-us/publications/SupplyChainRiskAreas.pdf
[28] M. Christopher, “Logistics and Supply Chain Management: Strategies for Reducing Cost and Improving Service,” 2 Edition, Financial Times/Prentice Hall, London, 1998
[29] European Union, “Commission Recommendation of 6 May 2003 Concerning the Definition of Micro, Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (2003/361/EC),” Official Jour- nal of the European Union, OJ L 124, 2003, p. 36
[30] Small Business Administration, Guide to SBA’s Definitions of Small Business, 2002. http://www.sba.gov/gopher/Financial-Assistance/Defin/defi2.txt
[31] D. Walters, “Working Safely in Small Enterprises in Europe: Towards a Sustainable System for Worker Participation and Representation,” European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC), Brussels, 2002.
[32] A. Ghobadian and D. Gallear, “Total Quality Management in SMEs,” OMEGA, Vol. 24, No. 1, 1996, pp. 23- 106. doi:10.1016/0305-0483(95)00055-0
[33] H. Iwasaki, “Introduction,” (u.d). http://www.jsbri.or.jp/new-hp-e/outline/intro.html
[34] DTI Small Business Service, “DTI News Release: URN 04/92,” 26 August 2004. http://www.sbs.gov.uk/SBS_Gov_files/researchandstats/news162.pdf
[35] Europa (2002) “Definition of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SME)—Second External Consultation—to 10.9.2002,” 2002. http://europa.eu.int/comm/enterprise/library/enterprise-europe/news-updates/enterprise-policy/20020708.htm
[36] D. Arias-Aranda, B. Minguela-Rata and A. Rodriguez- Duarte, “Innovation and Firm Size: An Empirical Study for Spanish Engineering Consulting Companies,” European Journal of Innovation Management, Vol. 4, No. 3, 2001, pp. 133-141. doi:10.1108/EUM0000000005671
[37] D. Ariyo, “Small Firms Are the Backbone of the Nigeria Economy,” Africa Economic Analysis, 2000. http://www.afbis.com/analysis/small.htm
[38] C. Smallman, “The Reality of “Revitalising” Health and Safety,” Journal of Safety Research, Vol. 32, No. 4, 2001, pp. 391-439. doi:10.1016/S0022-4375(01)00065-2
[39] Eurostat “Accidents at Work in the EU in 1996,” Statistics in Focus, Theme 3-4/2000, 2000.
[40] T. Nichols, “Size of Employment Unit and Injury Rates in British Manufacturing: A Secondary Analysis of WIRS 1990 Data,” Industrial Relations Journal, Vol. 26, No. 1, 1995, pp. 45-56. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2338.1995.tb00722.x
[41] F. J. Fowler, “Survey Research Methods: Applied Social Research Methods,” Vol. 1, Sage Productions, Watsonville, 1984.
[42] P. Levy and S. Lemeshow, “Sampling of Populations: Methods and Applications,” Wiley, New York, 1991.
[43] M. J. Baker, “Sampling,” Marketing Review, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2002, pp. 103-120. doi:10.1362/146934702321477253
[44] L. Glynn, “A Critical Appraisal Tool for Library and Information Research,” Library Hi Tech, Vol. 24, No. 3, 2006, pp. 387-399. doi:10.1108/07378830610692154
[45] M. Fogliani, “Low Response Rates and Their Effects on Survey Results,” 1999. www.sch.abs.gov.au/SCH/A1610103.NSF/0/3ce43babf8bbf59dca256b7c0001aea4/$FILE/Low%20Response%20Rates.pdf
[46] D. Holt and C. Kockelbergh, “Environmental Supply Chain Management in the UK—an Exploratory Analysis of Current Practices,” Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Conference of the International Purchasing and Supply Education and Research Association (IPSERA), Budapest, 13-16 April 2003.
[47] D. J Storey, “Understanding the Small Business Sector,” Routledge, London, 1994.
[48] L. Vassie, J. M. Tomas and A. Oliver, “Health and Safety Management in UK and Spanish SMEs: A Comparative Study,” Journal of Safety Research, Vol. 31, No. 1, 2000, pp. 35-43. doi:10.1016/S0022-4375(99)00028-6
[49] I. Dalling, “The Future Is Unified: A Model for Integrated Management,” Quality World, Vol. 26, No. 4, 2000, pp. 34-39.
[50] Health and Safety Commission, “Health and Safety in Small Firms, Discussion Document DDE,” HMSO, London, 1995.
[51] N. V. Davies and P. Teasdale, “The Costs to the British Economy of Work Accidents and Work-Related Ill Health,” HSE Books, London, 1994.
[52] B. Sznaider, “Six Sigma Safety,” Manufacturing Engineering, Vol. 125, No. 3, 2000, p. 18.
[53] B. Pomfret, “Do Accidents/ Incidents Really Effect Profits?” A Key Note Speech and Incorporated in the Introduction to “the 5 Star Health & Safety Management System” Manual, World Safety Congress, Singapore, September 2002
[54] J. Mossink and M. De Greef, “Inventory of Socio-Eco- nomic Costs of Work Accidents,” Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, 2002.
[55] M. Curran, “Environmental, Health, and Safety Activity- Based Cost (ABC) Analysis,” undated. http://www.bettermanagement.com/library/library.aspx?libraryid=3864&pagenumber=1
[56] W. A. Tamarelli, “A Revised Discussion Document in the Report of the OECD Workshop on Small and Medium- Sized Enterprises in Relation to Chemical Accident Chemical Accident Prevention, Preparedness and Response,” Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Paris, 1995.
[57] D. R. Walters, “Employee Representation and Health and Safety: A Strategy for Improving Health and Safety Performance in Small Enterprises?” Employee Relations, Vol. 20, No. 2, 1998, pp. 180-195. doi:10.1108/01425459810211331
[58] Health and Safety Commission, “Levels and Trends in Workplace Injury: Rates of Injury within Small and Large Manufacturing Industry,” Health and Safety Commission, London, 2001.
[59] Commission of the European Communities, “Adapting to Change in Work and Society: A New Community Strategy in Health and Safety at Work 2002-2006,” Commission of the European Communities, 2002.
[60] T. C. Lansdown, C. Deighan and C. Brotherton, “Health and Safety in the Small to Medium-Sized Enterprise: Psychosocial Opportunities for Intervention” Health and Safety Executive, London, 2007.
[61] British Chamber of Commerce, “Small Firms Survey: Health and Safety in Small Firms,” British Chamber of Commerce, London, 1995.
[62] D. Elliott, D. Patton and C. Lenaghan, “UK Business and Environmental Strategy: A Survey and Analysis of East Midland Firms’ Approaches to Environmental Audit,” Greenleaf Publishing Ltd., Sheffield, 1996, pp. 30-49.
[63] R. S. Batenburg and R. Rutten, “Managing Innovation in Regional Supply Networks: A Dutch Case of “Knowledge Industry Clustering,” Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, Vol. 8, No. 3, 2003, pp. 263- 270. doi:10.1108/13598540310484654
[64] R. Bennett, P. Robson and W. Bratton, “Government Advice Networks for SMEs: An Assessment of the Influence of Local Context on Business Link Use, Impact and Satisfaction,” Applied Economics, Vol. 33, No. 7, 2001, pp. 871-885.
[65] Department of the Environment Transport and the Regions, “Revitalising Health and Safety: Strategy Statement,” Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, UK, 2000
[66] Y. Duan, R. Mullins, D. Hamblin, S. Stanek, H. Sroka, V. Machado and J. Araujo, “Addressing ICT Skill Challenges in SMEs: Insights from Three Country Investigations,” Journal of European Industrial Training, Vol. 26, No. 9, 2002, pp. 430-441. doi:10.1108/03090590210451524
[67] Y. L. Doz, “The Evolution of Cooperation in Strategic Alliances: Initial Conditions or Learning Processes?” Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 17, 1996, pp. 55-83. doi:10.1002/smj.4250171006
[68] P. Hines and N. Rich, “Outsourcing Competitive Advantage: The Use of Supplier Associations,” International Journal of Physical Distribution and Logistics Management, Vol. 28, No. 7, 1998, pp. 524-546. doi:10.1108/09600039810247489
[69] S. Lippman, “Environmental Responsibility: Are Corporations Buying It? A Look at Corporate Green Purchasing,” Trillium Asset Management Quarterly Newsletter, June 2002. http://207.21.200.202/pages/news/news_detail.asp?ArticleID=163&Status=Archive
[70] J. C. Anderson and J. A. Narus, “A Model of Distributor Firm and Manufacturer Firm Working Partnerships,” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 54, No. 1, 1990, pp. 42-58
[71] M. Aquilon, “Cultural Dimensions in Logistics Management: A Case Study from the European Automotive In- dustry,” Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, Vol. 2, No. 2, 1997, pp. 76-87. doi:10.1108/13598549710166122
[72] M. Cook and R. Tyndall, “Lessons from the Leaders,” Supply Chain Management Review, November/Decem- ber 2001, p. 23.
[73] S. Hutchison, “Leadership and the Value of Strategic Communication,” Issue 06/03, 2003. http://www.ceoforum.com.au/200306_remuneration.cfm
[74] R. M. Morgan and S. D. Hunt, “The Commitment-Trust Theory of Relationship Marketing,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 58, No. 3, 1994, pp. 20-38. doi:10.2307/1252308
[75] N. Gunningham and D. Sinclair, “Environmental Part- nerships; Combining Sustainability and Commercial Advantage in the Agriculture Sector”, 02/004 ACL-1A, Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, Australia, 2002.
[76] T. Redman, E. Snape and A. Wilkinson, “Is Quality Management Working in the UK?” Journal of General Management, Vol. 20, No. 3, 1995, pp. 44-59.
[77] R. Horvath, “Collaboration: The Key to Value Chain Creation in Supply Chain Management,” Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, Vol. 8, No. 3, 2001, pp. 224-240.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.