Share This Article:

Microbiological Identification of Atmospheric Particles in Hermosillo, Sonora, México

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:878KB) PP. 376-386
DOI: 10.4236/jep.2014.55041    3,923 Downloads   5,084 Views  

ABSTRACT

The air quality in many cities has been deteriorating and affecting population’s health. Airborne particles can block the defense mechanisms of respiratory system and may lead biological elements such as pollen, bacteria, fungi and viruses into the lungs. This paper presents the study of biologically contaminated air in the city of Hermosillo, analyzing filters containing particulate matter with a diameter equal or less than 10 micrometers (PM10) and Total Suspended Particles (TSP). Three sampling periods were analyzed during 2011. Samples taken from the filters were placed in tubes containing nutritive broth BHI (Brain Heart Infusion) and incubated at 37 °C for 24 hours. The identification of the isolated microorganisms was done by a biochemical test recommended in Bergey’s Manual. Results showed a high bacteria concentration in the presence of microorganisms such as Klebsiella pneumoniae sub pneumoniae, Citrobacter, Enterococcus faecalis, Proteus penneri, Butiauxellaagrestis, Salmonella paratyphi A and Enterobacter sacazakii. When bacterial concentration was analyzed separately, the lowest number of bacteria was observed during February for the south location and in August for the north location. The highest degree of bacterial air pollution was found in the central area of the city.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Alvaro, S. , Janeth, S. , Teresa, C. , Javier, A. , Onofre, M. , Jorge, H. and Joel, Z. (2014) Microbiological Identification of Atmospheric Particles in Hermosillo, Sonora, México. Journal of Environmental Protection, 5, 376-386. doi: 10.4236/jep.2014.55041.

References

[1] Sepulveda, J.D. (2004) MorphologicalProfile and Elemental Chemical of Respirable Particulateson Punctual Emission Sources and Environmental Sampling (Perfil Morfologico y Quimico Elemental de Particulas Respirables en Fuentes de Emision Puntual y Muestreos Ambientales). Informe Final INE-CENICA, Mexico.
[2] SSA (2005) Official Mexican Standard NOM-025-SSA1-1993, Environmental Health. Criteria for Assessing the Allowable Limit for the Concentration of Particulate Matter, Permissible Limit for the Concentration of Total Suspended Particles TSP, Particles Less than 10 Microns PM10 and Particles Smaller than 2.5 Micrometers PM2.5 of Ambient Air Quality. Criteriaforassessingthe Air Quality (SSA 2005) Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-025-SSA1-1993, Salud Ambiental. Criterios para Evaluar el valor Limite Permisible para la Concentracion de Material Particulado. Valor Limite Permisible para la Concentracion de Particulas Suspendidas Totales PST, Particulas Menores de 10 Micrometros PM10 y Particulas Menores de 2.5 Micrometros PM2.5 de la Calidad del Aire Ambiente Criterios para Evaluar la calidad del Aire). Diario Oficial de la Federacion, Mexico.
[3] Cruz, M.E., Gomez, A., Quintero, M. and Varela, J. (2013) Assessment of Air QualityRegarding Total Suspended Particles (TSP) and Heavy Metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Cr) in Thecity of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico, duringan Annual Period (Evaluacion de la Calidad del Aire Respecto de Particulas Suspendidas Totales (PST) y Metales Pesados (Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Cr) en la Ciudad de Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico, Durante un Periodo Anual). Revista Internacional de Contaminacion Ambiental, 29, 269-283.
http://200.77.231.100/work/normas/noms/2005/025ssa12005.pdf
[4] Kappos, A.D., et al. (2004) Health Effects of Particles in Ambient Air. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 207, 399-407.
[5] de la Rosa, M.C., Mosso, M.A. and Ullán, C. (2002) The Air: Habitat and Transmission of Microorganismsvia (El Aire: Hábitat y Medio de Transmision de Microorganismos). Observatorio Medioambiental, 5, 375-402.
[6] Reoun, H., Mainelisa, G. and White, L. (2006) Development and Calibration of Real-time PCR for Quantification of Airborne Microorganisms in Air Samples. Atmospheric Environment, 40, 7924-7939.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.07.020
[7] Jensen, P.A., Cih, P.E. and Schafer, M.P. (1998) Sampling and Characterization of Bioaerosols. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods NIOSH/DPSE, Chapter 2.
[8] USEPA (1992) 40 CFR Ch. I Pt. 50, App. B—Reference Method for the Determination of Suspended Particulate Matter in the Atmosphere (High-Volume Method). United States Environmental Protection Agency—Code of Federal Regulations, Washington DC.
[9] Breed, R.S., Murray, E.G.D. and Smith, N.R. (1957) Bergey’s Manual Determinative Bacteriology. 7th Edition, The Williams & Wilkins Company, Baltimore.
[10] SSA (Ministry of Health United States of Mexico) (1994) Mexican Official Standard NOM-113-SSA1-1994. Goods and Services. Counting Method for Total Coliform Microorganisms in plate (SSA, Secretaria de Salud Estados Unidos Mexicanos (Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-113-SSA1-1994. Bienes y Servicios. Metodo para la Cuenta de Microorganismos Coliformes Totales en Placa). Diario Oficial de la Federacion, Mexico.
[11] SSA (Ministry of Health United States of Mexico) (1994) Mexican Official Standard NOM-024-SSA1-1993. Environmental Health. Criteria for Assessing Ambient Air Quality with Respect to Total Suspended Particles (TSP). Allowable Value for the Concentration of Total Suspended Particles (TSP) in Ambient Air as a Protection to the Population’s Health (SSA, Secretaria de Salud Estados Unidos Mexicanos, Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-024-SSA1-1993. Salud Ambiental. Criterio para evaluar la calidad del aire ambiente con respecto a particulas suspendidas totales (PST). Valor permisible para la concentracion de particulas suspendidas totales (PST) en el aire ambiente como medida de proteccion a la salud de la poblacion). Diario Oficial de la Federacion, Mexico.
[12] Aceves, M.A., et al. (2012) Analysis of Key Features of Non-Linear Behavior Using Recurrence Plots, Case Study: Urban Pollution in Mexico City. Journal of Environmental Protection, 3, 1147-1160.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jep.2012.329133
[13] Capilla, C. (2012) Application of Statistical Methods to Assess Carbon Monoxide Pollution Variations within an Urban Area. International Journal of Geosciences, 3, 885-890. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ijg.2012.325090
[14] Naddafi, K., Sowlat, M.H. and Safari, M.H. (2012) Integrated Assessment of Air Pollution in Tehran, Over the Period from September 2008 to September 2009. Iranian Journal of Public Health, 41, 77-86.
[15] Kabashi, S., et al. (2012) Dynamic Modeling of Air Pollution and Acid Rain from Energy System and Transport in Kosovo. Open Journal of Air Pollution, 1, 82-96. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ojap.2012.13011
[16] Blanchard, C.L., Hidy, G.M., Tanenbaum, S., Edgerton, E.S. and Hartsell, B.E. (2013) The Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH) Study: Spatial Variations and Chemical Climatology, 1999-2010. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 63, 260-275. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10962247.2012.749816
[17] Restrepo, C.E., Simonoff, J.S., Thurston, G.D. and Zimmerman, R. (2012) Asthma Hospital Admissions and Ambient Air Pollutant Concentrations in New York City. Journal of Environmental Protection, 3, 1102-1116.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jep.2012.329129
[18] Spangler, J.G. (2012) Diabetes Mortality and Environmental Heavy Metals in North Carolina Counties: An Ecological Study. Journal of Diabetes Mellitus, 2, 369-372. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jdm.2012.24057
[19] Monick, M.M., et al. (2013) Effects of Eyjafjallajokull Volcanic Ash on Innate Immune System Responses and Bacterial Growth in Vitro. Environmental Health Perspectives, 121, 691-698. http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206004
[20] Newth, D. and Gunasekera, D. (2012) An Integrated Agent-Based Framework for Assessing Air Pollution Impacts. Journal of Environmental Protection, 3, 1135-1146. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jep.2012.329132
[21] Vivanco, M.G., et al. (2012) Impact of the Transboundary Transport of Air Pollutants on Air Quality in Spain. Journal of Environmental Protection, 3, 1167-1175. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jep.2012.329135
[22] Kalwasinska, A., Burkowska, A. and Swiontek, M. (In Press) Exposure of Workers of Municipal Landfill Site to Bacterial and Fungal Aerosol. Clean—Soil, Air and Water. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/clen.201300385/pdf
[23] Ghosh, D., et al. (2012) Associations between Pollen Counts, Pollutants and Asthma-Related Hospital Admissions in a High-Density Indian Metropolis. Journal of Asthma, 49, 792-799.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/02770903.2012.716473
[24] Duro, A., Piccione, V. and Zampino, D. (2013) Air Quality Biomonitoring through Pollen Viability of Fabaceae. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 185, 3803-3817. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-012-2829-0

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.