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Pb-Stress Induced Oxidative Stress Caused Alterations in Antioxidant Efficacy in Two Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Cultivars

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DOI: 10.4236/as.2015.610123    2,500 Downloads   3,251 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Lead (Pb) is an important environmental pollutant extremely toxic to plants and other living organisms including humans. To assess Pb phytotoxicity, a pot culture experiment was carried out using two groundnut cultivars (Arachis hypogaea L. cultivar K6 and cultivar K9) on plant growth, ROS levels, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant metabolism using biochemical, histochemical methods. Plants were grown in pots for 14 days, in the botanic garden, and subjected to Pb-stress (0, 100, 200, 400 and 800 ppm) by adding Pb (NO3)2 solution and further allowed to grow for 10 days. The results showed that cultivar K6 registered lower Pb accumulation than cultivar K9, however, localization of Pb was greater in roots than leaves in both groundnut cultivars. The Pb-stress results in an increase in free radicals (O2•- and H2O2) generation in both groundnut cultivars, but more significantly in cultivar K9 than K6. Pb-stress also caused significant changes in the rate of peroxidation as shown in the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) content in roots and leaves of both groundnut cultivars. Free proline, ascorbic acid (AsA) and non-protein thiol (NP-SH) contents were increased in cultivar K6 due to Pb-stress, but less in cultivar K9. Pb treated plants showed increased levels of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). Isozyme band intensities of SOD, GPX and APX were more consistent with the respective changes in antioxidative enzyme activities. These results indicate that cultivar K6 possesses greater tolerance potential for Pb toxicity than cultivar K9.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Nareshkumar, A. , Veeranagamallaiah, G. , Pandurangaiah, M. , Kiranmai, K. , Amaranathareddy, V. , Lokesh, U. , Venkatesh, B. and Sudhakar, C. (2015) Pb-Stress Induced Oxidative Stress Caused Alterations in Antioxidant Efficacy in Two Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Cultivars. Agricultural Sciences, 6, 1283-1297. doi: 10.4236/as.2015.610123.

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