Share This Article:

Chronic Lyme Disease Complex and Its Commonly Undiagnosed Primary and Secondary Co-Infections

Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:591KB) PP. 143-158
DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2015.53018    4,113 Downloads   7,198 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Chronic Lyme disease complex describes the burden carried by patients infected with Borrelia burgdorferi as well as other co-infections or secondary co-infections (opportunistic infections). These infections can cause a significant burden on patients more so than Lyme disease alone. Along with the many underdiagnosed cases of Lyme disease throughout the world exists numerous undiagnosed co-infection and secondary co-infections leading to debilitating symptoms for many patients. The potential for co-infections varies by location as well as to the exposure to various species of ticks. Since there is potential for patients to experience several tick bites including those of different species, additional microorganisms also commonly transmitted via tick bite are included that are typically left out of the conversation of potential Borrelia burgdorferi co-infections. The most common co-infections of Lyme disease include anaplasmosis, babasiosis, bartonellosis and ehrlichiosis. Secondary co-infections or opportunistic infections commonly seen in patients with Lyme disease are also discussed. By helping to establish a comprehensive list of infections associated with Chronic Lyme disease complex may in fact help patients receive a proper diagnosis in order to administer the much needed comprehensive treatments patients deserve.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Smith, A. , Oertle, J. , Warren, D. and Prato, D. (2015) Chronic Lyme Disease Complex and Its Commonly Undiagnosed Primary and Secondary Co-Infections. Open Journal of Medical Microbiology, 5, 143-158. doi: 10.4236/ojmm.2015.53018.

References

[1] Bakken, J.S., Goellner, P., Van Etten, M., et al. (1998) Seroprevalence of Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis among Permanent Residents of Northwestern Wisconsin. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 27, 1491-1496.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/515048
[2] Bakken, J.S., Dumler, J.S., Chen, S.M., et al. (1994) Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis in the Upper Midwest United States: A New Species Emerging? JAMA, 272, 212-218.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1994.03520030054028
[3] Aguero-Rosnfeld, M.E., Horowitz, H.W., Wormser, G.P., et al. (1996) Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis: A Case Series from a Medical Center in New York State. Annals of Internal Medicine, 125, 904-908.
http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-125-11-199612010-00006
[4] Blanco, J.R. and Oteo, J.A. (2002) Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis in Europe. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 8, 763-772.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1469-0691.2002.00557.x
[5] Bakken, J.S., Krueth, J., Wilson-Nordskog, C., et al. (1996) Clinical and Laboratory Characteristics of Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis. JAMA, 275, 199-205.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1996.03530270039029
[6] Wallace, B.J., Brady, G., Ackman, D.M., et al. (1998) Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis in New York. Archives of Internal Medicine, 158, 769-773.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archinte.158.7.769
[7] Lepidi, H., Bunnel, J.E., Martin, M.E., et al. (2000) Comparative Pathology, and Immunohistology Associated with Clinical Illness after Ehrlichia phagocytophila group Infections. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 62, 29-37.
[8] Bakken, J.S., Erlemeyer, S.A., Kanoff, R.J., et al. (1998) Demyelinating Polyneuropathy Associated with Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 27, 1323-1324.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/clinids/27.5.1323
[9] Horowitz, H.W., Marks, S.J., Weintraub, M. and Dumler, J.S. (1996) Brachial Plexopathy Associated with Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis. Neurology, 46, 1026-1029.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.46.4.1026
[10] Jahangir, A., Kolbert, C., Edwards, W., et al. (1998) Fatal Pancarditis Associated with Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis in a 44-Year-Old Man. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 27, 1424-1427.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/515014
[11] Kuno, G., Artsob, H., Karabatsos, N., Tsuchiya, K.R. and Chang, G.J. (2001) Genomic Sequencing of Deer Tick Virus and Phylogeny of Powassan-Related Viruses of North America. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 65, 671-676.
[12] Horowitz, H.W., Hsieh, T.C., Aguero-Rosenfeld, M.E., Kalantarpour, F., Chowdhury, I., Wormser, G.P. and Wu, J.M. (2001) Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Ehrlichia phagocytophila. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 45, 786-788.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.45.3.786-788.2001
[13] Klein, M.B., Nelson, C.M. and Goodman, J.L. (1997) Antibiotic Susceptibility of the Newly Cultivated Agent of Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis: Promising Activity of Quinolones and Rifamycins. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 41, 76-79.
[14] Maurin, M., Bakken, J.S. and Dumler, J.S. (2003) Antibiotic Susceptibilities of Anaplasma (Ehrlichia) phagocytophilum Strains from Various Geographic Areas in the United States. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 47, 413-415.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.47.1.413-415.2003
[15] Bakken, J.S. and Dumler, J.S. (2000) Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 31, 554-560.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/313948
[16] Bakken, J.S. and Dumler, J.S. (2002) Ehrlichia and Anaplasma Species. In: Yu, V., Weber, R. and Raoult, D., Eds., Antimicrobial Therapy and Vaccine, Apple Trees Productions, LLC, New York, 875-882.
[17] Dumler, J.S. and Walker, D.H. (2001) Tick-Borne Ehrlichioses. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 1, 21-28.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(09)70296-8
[18] Fishbein, D.B., Dawson, J.E. and Robinson, L.E. (1994) Human Ehrlichiosis in the United States, 1985 to 1990. Annals of Internal Medicine, 120, 736-743.
http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-120-9-199405010-00003
[19] Olano, J.P. and Walker, D.H. (2002) Human Ehrlichioses. Medical Clinics of North America, 86, 375-392.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0025-7125(03)00093-2
[20] Paddock, C.D. and Childs, J.E. (2003) Ehrlichia chaffeensis: A Prototypical Emerging Pathogen. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 16, 37-64.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/CMR.16.1.37-64.2003
[21] Carithers, H.A. (1985) Cat-Scratch Disease. An Overview Based on a Study of 1200 Patients. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 139, 1124-1133.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.1985.02140130062031
[22] Rolain, J.M., Lepidi, H., Zanaret, M., Triglia, J.-M., Michel, G., Thomas, P.-A., et al. (2006) Lymph Node Biopsy Specimens and Diagnosis of Cat-Scratch Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12, 1338-1344.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.060122
[23] Rolain, J.M., Brouqui, P., Koehler, J.E., Maguina, C., Dolan, M.J. and Raoult, D. (2004) Recommendations for Treatment of Human Infections Caused by Bartonella Species. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 48, 1921-1933.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.48.6.1921-1933.2004
[24] Bass, J.W., Freitas, B.C., Freitas, A.D., Sisler, C.L., Chan, D.S., Vincent, J.M., et al. (1998) Prospective Randomized Double Blind Placebo-Controlled Evaluation of Azithromycin for Treatment of Cat-Scratch Disease. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 17, 447-452.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006454-199806000-00002
[25] Margileth, A.M. (1992) Antibiotic Therapy for Cat-Scratch Disease: Clinical Study of Therapeutic Outcome in 268 Patients and a Review of the Literature. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 11, 474-478.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006454-199206000-00010
[26] Emmons, R.W. (1985) An Overview of Colorado Tick Fever. Progress in Clinical and Biological Research, 178, 47-52.
[27] Belman, A.L. (1999) Tick-Borne Diseases. Seminars in Pediatric Neurology, 6, 249-266.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1071-9091(99)80024-2
[28] Mansel, J.K., Rosenow III, E.C., Smith, T.F. and Martin Jr., J.W. (1989) Mycoplasma pneumoniae Pneumonia. Chest, 95, 639-646.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1378/chest.95.3.639
[29] Martin, R.E. and Bates, J.H. (1991) Atypical Pneumonia. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, 5, 585-601.
[30] Artsob, H. (1988) Powassan Encephalitis. In: Monath, T.P., Ed., The Arboviruses: Epidemiology and Ecology, Vol. 4, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 29-49.
[31] Ebel, G.D., Spielman, A. and Telford III, S.R. (2001) Phylogeny of North American Powassan Virus. Journal of General Virology, 82, 1657-1665.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/0022-1317-82-7-1657
[32] Gritsun, T.S., Nuttall, P.A. and Gould, E.A. (2003) Tick-Borne Flaviviruses. In: Chambers, T.J. and Monath, T.P., Eds., The Flavivirus: Detection, Diagnosis and Vaccine Development, Advances in Viral Research, Vol. 61, Elsevier Academic Press, San Diego, 318-324.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0065-3527(03)61008-0
[33] Whitney, E. and Jamnback, H. (1965) The First Isolations of Powassan Virus in New York State. Experimental Biology and Medicine, 119, 432-435.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3181/00379727-119-30202
[34] Main, A.J., Carey, A.B. and Downs, W.G. (1979) Powassan Virus in Ixodes cookie and Mustelidae in New England. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 15, 585-591.
http://dx.doi.org/10.7589/0090-3558-15.4.585
[35] Mahdy, M.S., Wilson, M., Wherrett, B. and Dorland, R. (1979) Powassan Virus (POWV) Encephalitis in Ontario: A Case of Meningoencephalitis Attributed to Infection with POWV in Eastern Ontario.
[36] Rossier, E., Harrison, R.J. and Lemieux, B. (1974) A Case of Powassan Virus Encephalitis. CMAJ, 110, 1173-1174.
[37] Smith, R., Woodall, J.P., Whitney, E., Deibel, R., Gross, M.A., Smith, V. and Bast, T.F. (1974) Powassan Virus Infection: A Report of Three Human Cases of Encephalitis. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 127, 691-693.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.1974.02110240077010
[38] Deibel, R., Srihongse, S. and Woodall, J.P. (1979) Arboviruses in New York State: An Attempt to Determine the Role of Arboviruses in Patients with Viral Encephalitis and Meningitis. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 28, 577-582.
[39] Wilson, M.S., Wherrett, B.A. and Mahdy, M.S. (1979) Powassan Virus Meningoencephalitis: A Case Report. CMAJ, 121, 320-323.
[40] Joshua, J.M. (1979) A Case of Powassan Virus Encephalitis Ontario. Canada Diseases Weekly Report, 5, 129-130.
[41] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1995) Arboviral Disease—United States, 1994. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 44, 641-644.
[42] Gholam, B.I., Puksa, S. and Provias, J.P. (1999) Powassan Encephalitis: A Case Report with Neuropathology and Literature Review. CMAJ, 161, 1419-1422.
[43] Gilbert, D.N., Moellering, R.C., Eliopoulos, G.M. and Sande, M.A. (2004) The Sanford Guide to Antimicrobial Therapy. 34th Edition, Antimicrobial Therapy, Hyde Park, 39.
[44] Byrd Jr., R.P., Vasquez, J. and Roy, T.M. (1997) Respiratory Manifestations of Tick-Borne Diseases in the Southeastern United States. Southern Medical Journal, 90, 1-4.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00007611-199701000-00001
[45] Beers, M.H. and Berkow, R. (1999) The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. 17th Edition, Merck Research Laboratories, Whitehouse Station.
[46] Walker, D.H. (1998) Tick-Transmitted Infectious Diseases in the United States. Annual Review of Public Health, 19, 237-269.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.publhealth.19.1.237
[47] Kwitkowski, V.E. and Demko, S.G. (1999) Infectious Disease Emergencies in Primary Care. Lippincott’s Primary Care Practice, 3, 108-125.
[48] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever. Accessed Online 11 April 2005.
http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/rmsf/index.htm
[49] Drage, L.A. (1999) Life-Threatening Rashes: Dermatologic Signs of Four Infectious Diseases. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 74, 68-72.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4065/74.1.68
[50] Steeve, A.C. (2005) Lyme Borreliosis. In: Kasper, D.L. and Harrison, T.R., Eds., Harrison’s Manual of Medicine, 16th Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 995-999.
[51] Shapiro, E.D. (1997) Tick-Borne Diseases. Advances in Pediatric Infectious Diseases, 13, 187-218.
[52] Dennis, D.T., Inglesby, T.V., Henderson, D.A., Bartlett, J.G., Ascher, M.S., Eitzen, E., et al. (2001) Tularemia as a Biological Weapon: Medical and Public Health Management. JAMA, 285, 2763-2773.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.285.21.2763
[53] Mikulska, M., Calandra, T., Sanguinetti, M., Poulain, D. and Viscoli, C. (2010) The Use of Mannan Antigen and Anti-Mannan Antibodies in the Diagnosis of Invasive Candidiasis: Recommendations from the Third European Conference on Infections in Leukemia. Critical Care, 14, R222.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/cc9365
[54] Nguyen, M.H., Wissel, M.C., Shields, R.K., Salomoni, M.A., Hao, B., Press, E.G., Shields, R.M., Cheng, S., Mitsani, D., Vadnerkar, A., et al. (2012) Performance of Candida Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Beta-D-Glucan Assay, and Blood Cultures in the Diagnosis of Invasive Candidiasis. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 54, 1240-1248.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/cis200
[55] Guery, B.P., Arendrup, M.C., Auzinger, G., Azoulay, E., Borges, S.M., Johnson, E.M., Müller, E., Putensen, C., Rotstein, C., Sganga, G., et al. (2009) Management of Invasive Candidiasis and Candidemia in Adult Non-Neutropenic Intensive Care Unit Patients: Part I. Epidemiology and Diagnosis. Intensive Care Medicine, 35, 55-62.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00134-008-1338-7
[56] Ahmad, S. and Khan, Z. (2012) Invasive Candidiasis: A Review of Nonculture-Based Laboratory Diagnostic Methods. Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology, 30, 264-269.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0255-0857.99482
[57] Sendid, B., Tabouret, M., Poirot, J.L., Mathieu, D., Fruit, J. and Poulain, D. (1999) New Enzyme Immunoassays for Sensitive Detection of Circulating Candida albicans Mannan and Antimannan Antibodies: Useful Combined Test for Diagnosis of Systemic Candidiasis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 37, 1510-1517.
[58] Rockey, D.D., Lenart, J. and Sephens, R.S. (2000) Genome Sequencing and Our Understanding of Chlamydiae. Infection and Immunity, 68, 5473-5479.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.68.10.5473-5479.2000
[59] Kalil, A.C., Mindru, C. and Florescu, D.F. (2011) Effectiveness of Valganciclovir 900 mg versus 450 mg for Cytomegalovirus Prophylaxis in Transplantation: Direct and Indirect Treatment Comparison Meta-Analysis. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 52, 313-321.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciq143
[60] Avery, R.K. (2011) Low-Dose Valganciclovir for Cytomegalovirus Prophylaxis in Organ Transplantation: Is Less Really More? Clinical Infectious Diseases, 52, 322-324.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciq145
[61] Okano, M. (1998) Epstein/Barr Virus Infection and Its Role in the Expanding Spectrum of Human Diseases. Acta Paediatrica, 87, 11-18.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1651-2227.1998.tb01377.x
[62] Guerrero-Ramos, A., Patel, M., Kadakia, K. and Haque, T. (2014) Performance of the Architect EBV Antibody Panel for Determination of Epstein-Barr Virus Infection Stage in Immunocompetent Adolescents and Young Adults with Clinical Suspicion of Infectious Mononucleosis. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, 21, 817-823.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/CVI.00754-13
[63] Campadelli Fiume, G., Guerrini, S., Liu, X. and Foà-Tomasi, L. (1993) Monoclonal Antibodies to Glycoprotein B Differentiate Human Herpesvirus 6 into Two Clusters, Variants A and B. Journal of General Virology, 74, 2257-2262.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/0022-1317-74-10-2257
[64] Schirmer, E.C., Wyatt, L.S., Yamanishi, K., Rodriguez, W.J. and Frenkel, N. (1991) Differentiation between Two Distinct Classes of Viruses Now Classified as Human Herpesvirus 6. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 88, 5922-5926.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.88.13.5922
[65] Ablashi, D.V., Balachandran, N., Josephs, S.F., Hung, C.L., Krueger, G.R. and Kramarsky, B. (1991) Genomic Polymorphism, Growth Properties, and Immunologic Variations in Human Herpesvirus-6 Isolates. Virology, 184, 545-552.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0042-6822(91)90424-A
[66] Niederman, J.C., Liu, C.-R., Kaplan, M.H. and Brown, N.A. (1988) Clinical and Serological Features of Human Herpesvirus-6 Infection in Three Adults. Lancet, 2, 817-819.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(88)92783-3
[67] Akashi, K., Eizuru, Y., Sumiyoshi, Y., Minematsu, T., Hara, S., Harada, M., et al. (1993) Brief Report: Severe Infectious Mononucleosis-Like Syndrome and Primary Human Herpesvirus 6 Infection in an Adult. New England Journal of Medicine, 329, 168-171.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199307153290304
[68] Torre, D., Speranza, F., Martegani, R., Ferrante, P., Omodeo-Zorini, E., Mancuso, R. and Fiori, G.P. (1998) Meningoencephalitis Caused by Human Herpesvirus-6 in an Immunocompetent Adult Patient: Case Report and Review of the Literature. Infection, 26, 402-404.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02770845
[69] Cone, R.W., Huang, M.-L., Corey, L., Zeh, J., Ashley, R. and Bowden, R. (1999) Human Herpesvirus 6 Infections after Bone Marrow Transplantation: Clinical and Virologic Manifestations. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 179, 311-318.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/314581
[70] Herbein, G., Strasswimmer, J., Altieri, M., Jaegle, M.-L.W., Wolf, P. and Obert, G. (1996) Longitudinal Study of Human Herpes-virus 6 Infection in Organ Transplant Recipients. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 22, 171-173.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/clinids/22.1.171
[71] Lau, Y.L., Peiris, M., Chan, G.C., Chan, A.C.L., Chiu, D. and Ha, S.Y. (1998) Primary Human Herpesvirus Infection Transmitted from Donor to Recipient through Bone Marrow Infusion. Bone Marrow Transplantation, 21, 1063-1067.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.bmt.1701230
[72] Oehmcke, S., Shannon, O., Mörgelin, M. and Herwald, H. (2010) Streptococcal M Proteins and Their Role as Virulence Determinants. Clinica Chimica Acta, 411, 1172-1180.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2010.04.032
[73] Dowson, C.G., Barcus, V., King, S., Pickerill, P., Whatmore, A. and Yeo, M. (1997) Horizontal Gene Transfer and the Evolution of Resistance and Virulence Determinants in Streptococcus. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 26, 42S-51S.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2672.83.s1.5.x
[74] IARC (1993) International Agency for Research on Cancer, Geneva, Vol. 56, 489.
[75] Goncalez, E., Nogueira, J.H.C., Fonseca, H., Felicio, J.D., Pino, F.A. and Corrêa, B. (2008) Mycoflora and Mycotoxins in Field Samples of Brazil Nuts. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 123, 184-190.
[76] Ellis, W.O., Smith, J.P. and Simpson, B.K. (1991) Aflatoxins in Food: Occurrence, Biosynthesis, Effects on Organisms, Detection, and Methods of Control. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 30, 403-439.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408399109527551
[77] Ngindu, A., Johnson, B., Kenya, P.R., Ngira, J.A. and Ocheng, D.M. (1982) Outbreak of Acute Hepatitis by Aflatoxin Poisoning in Kenya. Lancet, 319, 1346-1348.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(82)92411-4
[78] Lye, M.S., Ghazali, A.A., Mohan, J., Alwin, N. and Nair, R.C. (1995) An Outbreak of Acute Hepatic Encephalopathy Due to Severe Aflatoxicosis in Malaysia. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 53, 68-72.
[79] Vazquez, B.I., Fente, C., Franco, C., Cepeda, A., Prognon, P. and Mahuzier, G. (1996) Simultaneous HPLC Determination of Ochratoxin A and Citrinin in Cheese by Time-Resolved Luminescence Using Terbium. Journal of Chromatography A, 727, 185-193.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(95)01174-9
[80] Reddy, C.S. and Berndt, W.O. (1991) In: Sharma, R.P. and Salunkhe, D.K., Eds., Mycotoxins and Phyloalexins, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 237.
[81] Filek, G. and Lindner, W. (1996) Determination of Mycotoxin Moniliformin in Cereals by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Fluorescence Detection. Journal of Chromatography A, 732, 291-298.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(95)01275-3
[82] D’Mello, J.P.F. and Macdonald, A.M.C. (1997) Mycotoxins. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 69, 155-166.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(97)81630-6
[83] Meerdink, G.L. (2002) Mycotoxins. Clinical Techniques in Equine Practice, 1, 89-93.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/ctep.2002.34240
[84] Prieto-Simón, B., Noguer, T. and Campàs, M. (2007) Emerging Biotools for Assessment of Mycotoxins in the Past Decade. TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 26, 689-702.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trac.2007.05.012
[85] MAFF (1993) The 36th Report of the Steering Group on Chemical Aspects of Food Surveillance. Mycotoxins: Third Report. HMSO, London, 40.
[86] Arbizu, M.M., Penas, E.G., Hansen, S.H., Amézqueta, S. and Ostergaard, J. (2008) Development and Validation of a Microemulsionelctrokinetic Chromatography Method for Patulin Quantification in Commercial Apple Juice. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 46, 2251-2257.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2008.02.027
[87] McKinley, E.K. and Carlton, W.W. (1991) In: Sharma, R.P. and Salunkhe, D.K., Eds., Mycotoxins and Phyloalexins, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 191.
[88] EMAN (2003) European Mycotoxin Awareness Network Co-Ordinated by Leatherhead Food Research Association (UK).
http://www.lfra.co.uk/eman/index.htm
[89] Frisvad, J.C. (1994) In: Hawksworth, D.L., Ed., Identification and Characterization of Pest Organisms, CAB International, Wallingford, 303.
[90] Josephs, R.D., Krska, R., Grasserbauer, M. and Broekaert, J.A.C. (1998) Determination of Tichothecene Mycotoxins in Wheat by Use of Supercritical Fluid Extraction and High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detection or Gas Chromatography with Electron Capture Detection. Journal of Chromatography A, 795, 297-304.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(97)00944-8
[91] D’Mello, J.P.F., Placinta, C.M. and Macdonald, A.M.C. (1999) Fusarium Mycotoxins: A Review of Global Implications for Animal Health, Welfare and Productivity. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 80, 183-205.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(99)00059-0
[92] Tanaka, T., Hasegawa, A., Matsuki, Y., Lee, U.S. and Ueno, Y. (1985) Rapid and Sensitive Determination of Zearalenone in Cereal by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence Detection. Journal of Chromatography A, 328, 271-278.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)87397-0

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.