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Effect of Bicuspid Aortic Valve Cusp Fusion on Aorta Wall Shear Stress: Preliminary Computational Assessment and Implication for Aortic Dilation

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DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2015.56016    4,625 Downloads   5,615 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

The bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is a major congenital valvular abnormality and is associated with a high prevalence of aortic dilation, whose expression depends on the type of leaflet fusion. Although BAV hemodynamics is considered a potential pathogenic contributor, the impact of BAV fusion on ascending aorta (AA) wall shear stress (WSS) remains largely unknown. A fluid-structure interaction approach was implemented to predict the hemodynamics and WSS characteristics in realistic AA models subjected to the flow of a normal tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) and three BAV morphotypes (left-right coronary cusp fusion (LR), right-non coronary cusp fusion (RN) and non-left coronary cusp fusion (NL)). TAV flow conditions subjected the proximal and middle AA to a streamlined flow typical of flows in bends, while BAV flow conditions generated increased flow helicity. The LR-BAV orifice jet generated flow abnormalities primarily in the proximal AA, which were marked by a uniform WSS overload along the wall circumference and contrasted WSS directionalities on the wall convexity and concavity. Flow abnormalities generated by the RN-BAV and NL-BAV inlet flow conditions were more diffuse and consisted of WSS overloads in the convexity of the proximal and middle AA and contrasted WSS directionalities in the anterior and posterior wall regions. This study demonstrates the impact of the BAV morphotype on AA hemodynamics and provides quantitative evidence for the existence of WSS abnormalities in aortic wall regions prone to dilation.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

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Cao, K. and Sucosky, P. (2015) Effect of Bicuspid Aortic Valve Cusp Fusion on Aorta Wall Shear Stress: Preliminary Computational Assessment and Implication for Aortic Dilation. World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases, 5, 129-140. doi: 10.4236/wjcd.2015.56016.

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