Share This Article:

Characteristics of Seismic Hazard in a V-Shaped Valley and Hazard Mitigation Methods

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:1762KB) PP. 27-36
DOI: 10.4236/ojsst.2015.52004    5,170 Downloads   5,554 Views  


The distribution of hazards triggered by strong earthquakes showed great differences with traditional experience that gained from normal condition or moderate earthquake. This paper researches the differences and discusses the effect on road in V-shaped valleys. The distribution map of slope failures triggered by Lushan earthquake along roads is worked out by detailed investigation. Abnormal areas of seismic hazards are found and marked in the map. Then, co-seismic hazards and post-seismic hazards are researched in detail along Yingxiu-Wolong section of S303 road. V-shaped valleys are abnormal areas in strong earthquakes, where the geological hazards can be extreme large. Rock avalanche is the major type of co-seismic hazard, and debris flow is prone to occur and is the most harmful post-seismic hazard. For new built roads, the line elevation is as high as it can be if the economy and technique are acceptable. In strong earthquake-stricken area, makeshift roads are adopted in damage trunk roads to ensure the traffic. Reconstruction of formal roads should not be started until the end of the active period. The line elevation with enough vertical clearance over the river should be adopted to prevent the post-seismic debris flow hazard.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Qiu, Y. , Yao, L. and Yuan, Q. (2015) Characteristics of Seismic Hazard in a V-Shaped Valley and Hazard Mitigation Methods. Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, 5, 27-36. doi: 10.4236/ojsst.2015.52004.


[1] He, Z.N. (2010) On Geological Location and Main Technical Principles for Railway. In: Zhu, Y., Ed., Proceedings of Railway Location and Overall Design in Complex Mountainous Area, China Railway Press, Beijing, 97-102.
[2] Konietzky, H., te Kamp, L., Hammer, H. and Niedermeyer, S. (2001) Numerical Modelling of in Situ Stress Conditions as an Aid in Route Selection for Rail Tunnels in Complex Geological Formations in South Germany. Computers and Geotechnics, 28, 495-516.
[3] Podverbniy, V. and Filatov, E. (2012) Design of Protective Constructions on East Siberian Railway. The 3rd International Symposium on Innovation and Sustainability of Modern Railway, Nanchang, 20-21 September 2012, 206-215.
[4] Bell, F.G. (2007) Engineering Geology. 2nd Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford.
[5] Pavlopoulos, K., Evelpidou, N. and Vassilopoulos, A. (2009) Mapping Geomorphological Environments. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
[6] Strahler, A.N. (1952) Hypsometric (Area-Altitude) Analysis of Erosional Topography. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 63, 1117-1142.[1117:HAAOET]2.0.CO;2
[7] Schumm, S.A. (1973) Geomorphic Thresholds and Complex Response of Drainage Systems. In: Morisawa, M., Ed., Fluvial Geomorphology, Publications of Geomorphology, State University of New York, Binghamton, 299-310.
[8] Cui, P., Chen, X.Q., Zhu, Y.Y., Su, F.H., Wei, F.Q., Han, Y.S., Liu, H.J. and Zhuang, J.Q. (2011) The Wenchuan Earthquake (May 12, 2008), Sichuan Province, China, and Resulting Geohazards. Natural Hazards, 56, 19-36.
[9] Vallejo, L.G. and Ferrer, M. (2011) Geological Engineering. CRC Press, London.
[10] Tao, M., Li, X.B. and Wu, C.Q. (2012) Characteristics of the Unloading Process of Rocks under High Initial Stress, Computers and Geotechnics, 45, 83-92.
[11] Xia, M. and Ren, G.M. (2013) Characteristics and Mechanism of Concentrated Unloading in Bank Slope of Yangqu Hydropower Station. Journal of the Geological Society of India, 82, 421-429.
[12] Wawersik, W.R. and Fairhurst, C. (1970) A Study of Brittle Rock Fracture in Laboratory Compression Experiments. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 7, 561-575.
[13] Miao, J.L., Jia, X.N. and Cheng, C. (2011) The Failure Characteristics of Granite under True Triaxial Unloading Condition. Procedia Engineering, 26, 1620-1625.
[14] Yin, Z.Q., Li, X.B., Jin, J.F., He, X.Q. and Du, K. (2012) Failure Characteristics of High Stress Rock Induced by Impact Disturbance under Confining Pressure Unloading. Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 22, 175- 184.
[15] Hua, A.Z. and You, M.Q. (2001) Rock Failure due to Energy Release during Unloading and Application to Underground Rock Burst Control. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 16, 241-246.
[16] Tao, M., Li, X.B. and Li, D.Y. (2013) Rock Failure Induced by Dynamic Unloading under 3D Stress State. Theoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics, 65, 47-54.
[17] Shieh, C.L., Chen, Y.S., Tsai, Y.J. and Wu, J.H. (2009) Variability in Rainfall Threshold for Debris Flow after the Chi- Chi Earthquake in Central Taiwan, China. International Journal of Sediment Research, 24, 177-188.
[18] Hayashi, H. (2009) Long-Term Disaster Recovery Processes: Lessons Learned from the 1995 Kobe Earthquake. International Conference on Earthquake Engineering, The First Anniversary of Wenchuan Earthquake, Chengdu, 9-12 May 2009, 670-676.
[19] Frazier, A.E., Renschler, C.S. and Miles, S.B. (2013) Evaluating Post-Disaster Ecosystem Resilience Using MODIS GPP Data. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 21, 43-52.
[20] Wang, Z.Y., Cui, P. and Wang, R.Y. (2009) Mass Movements Triggered by the Wenchuan Earthquake and Management Strategies of Quake Lakes. International Journal of River Basin Management, 7, 391-402.
[21] Di, B.F., Zeng, H.G., Zhang, M.H., Ustin, S.L., Tang, Y., Wang, Z.Y., Chen, N.S. and Zhang, B. (2010) Quantifying the Spatial Distribution of Soil Mass Wasting Processes after the 2008 Earthquake in Wenchuan, China: A Case Study of the Longmenshan Area. Remote Sensing of Environment, 114, 761-771.
[22] Cui, P., He, S.M., Yao, L.K., Wang, Z.Y. and Chen, X.Q. (2011) Formation Mechanism and Risk Control of Mountain Hazards Induced by Wenchuan Earthquake. Science Press, Beijing.
[23] Lin, W.T., Lin, C.Y. and Chou, W.C. (2006) Assessment of Vegetation Recovery and Soil Erosion at Landslides Caused by a Catastrophic Earthquake: A Case Study in Central Taiwan. Ecological Engineering, 28, 79-89.
[24] Lin, C.Y., Lo, H.M., Chou, W.C. and Lin, W.T. (2004) Vegetation Recovery Assessment at the Jou-Jou Mountain Landslide Area Caused by the 921 Earthquake in Central Taiwan. Ecological Modelling, 176, 75-81.
[25] Lin, W.T., Chou, W.C. and Lin, C.Y. (2005) Vegetation Recovery Monitoring and Assessment at Landslides Caused by Earthquake in Central Taiwan. Forest Ecology and Management, 210, 55-66.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.