Share This Article:

Impact of Monthly Curve Number on Daily Runoff Estimation for Ozat Catchment in India

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:2835KB) PP. 144-155
DOI: 10.4236/ojmh.2014.44014    4,332 Downloads   5,466 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

The Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) is a well-established loss-rate model to estimate runoff. It combines watershed parameters and climatic factors in one entity curve number (CN). The CN exhibits an inherent seasonality beyond its spatial variability, which cannot be accounted for by the conventional methods. In the present study, an attempt has been made to determine the CN for different months of monsoon season with an objective to evaluate the impact of monthly CN on runoff estimation for Ozat catchment (Gujarat State, India). The standard CN and month wise CN were determined by three procedures, viz, the median, geometric mean and standard asymptotic fit using gauged rainfall and runoff. This study shows that the predictive capability of CN determination methods can be improved by using monthly CN. Refined Willmott’s index (dr) and mean absolute error (MAE) were used to assess and validate the performance of each method. The asymptotic fit CN method with monthly CN resulting dr from 0.46 to 0.49 and MAE from 1.13 mm to 1.18 mm was judged to be more consistent with the existing commonly used CN methods in terms of runoff estimation for the study area.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Gundalia, M. and Dholakia, M. (2014) Impact of Monthly Curve Number on Daily Runoff Estimation for Ozat Catchment in India. Open Journal of Modern Hydrology, 4, 144-155. doi: 10.4236/ojmh.2014.44014.

References

[1] Mishra, S.K. and Singh, V.P. (2002) SCS-CN-Based Hydrologic Simulation Package. In: Singh, V.P. and Frevert, D.K., Eds., Mathematical Models in Small Watershed Hydrology and Applications, Water Resources Publications, Littleton, 391-464.
[2] Mishra, S.K. and Singh, V.P. (2003) Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) Methodology. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-0147-1
[3] Ponce, V.M. and Hawkins, R.H. (1996) Runoff Curve Number: Has It Reached Maturity? Journal of Hydrologic Engineering (ASCE), 1, 11-19.
[4] Michel, C., Andréassian, V. and Perrin, C. (2005) Soil Conservation Service Curve Number Method: How to Mend a Wrong Soil Moisture Accounting Procedure? Water Resources Research, 41, 1-6.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2004WR003191
[5] Hawkins, R.H. (1993) Asymptotic Determination of Runoff Curve Numbers from Data. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 119, 334-345.
[6] McCuen, R.H. (2002) Approach to Confidence Interval Estimation for Curve Numbers. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 7, 43-48.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1084-0699(2002)7:1(43)
[7] Garen, D.C. and Moore, D.S. (2005) Curve Number Hydrology in Water Quality Modeling: Uses, Abuses, and Future Directions. Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 41, 377-388.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-1688.2005.tb03742.x
[8] Jacobs, J.M., Myers, D.A. and Whitfield, B.M. (2003) Improved Rainfall/Runoff Estimates Using Remotely Sensed Soil Moisture. Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 39, 313-324.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-1688.2003.tb04386.x
[9] King, K.W., Arnold, J.G. and Bingner, R.L. (1990) Comparison of Green-Ampt and Curve Number Methods on Goodwin Creek Watershed Using SWAT. Transactions of the ASABE, 42, 919-925.
http://dx.doi.org/10.13031/2013.13272
[10] McCutcheon, S.C. (2006) Rainfall-Runoff Relationships for Selected Eastern USA Forested Mountain Watersheds: Testing of the Curve Number Method for Flood Analysis. West Virginia Division of Forestry, Charleston.
[11] Sharpley, A.N. and Williams, J.R. (1990) EPIC Erosion/Productivity Impact Calculator: 1. Model Documentation. USA Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin No. 1768, USA Government Printing Office, Washington DC.
[12] Soulis, K.X. and Valiantzas, J.D. (2012) SCS-CN Parameter Determination Using Rainfall-Runoff Data in Heterogeneous Watersheds: The Two-CN System Approach. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 16, 1001-1015.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/hess-16-1001-2012
[13] Fan, F.L., Deng, Y.B., Hu, X.F. and Weng, Q.H. (2013) Estimating Composite Curve Number Using an Improved SCS-CN Method with Remotely Sensed Variables in Guangzhou, China. Remote Sensing, 5, 1425-1438.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/rs5031425
[14] Jacobs, J.H. and Srinivasan, R. (2005) Effects of Curve Number Modification on Runoff Estimation Using WSR-88D Rainfall Data in Texas Watersheds. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 60, 274-278.
[15] Paik, K., Kim, J.H., Kim, H.S. and Lee, D.R. (2005) A Conceptual Rainfall-Runoff Model Considering Seasonal Variation. Hydrological Processes, 19, 3837-3850.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hyp.5984
[16] National Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) (2001) National Engineering Handbook. Section 4: Hydrology, USA Department of Agriculture, Washington DC.
[17] Sneller, J.A. (1985) Computation of Runoff Curve Numbers for Rangelands from Landsat Data. Technical Report HL85-2, USA Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Hydrology Laboratory, Beltsville.
[18] SCS (1956) In Hydrology, National Engineering of Handbook, Soil Conservation Service. Supplement A, Section 4, Chap. 10, USDA, Washington DC.
[19] Baltas, E.A., Dervos, N.A. and Mimikou, M.A. (2007) Technical Note: Determination of the SCS Initial Abstraction Ratio in an Experimental Watershed in Greece. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 11, 1825-1829.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/hess-11-1825-2007
[20] Woodward, D.E., Hawkins, R.H., Jiang, R., Hjelmfelt, A.T., Van Mullem, J.A. and Quan, Q.D. (2003) Runoff Curve Number Method: Examination of the Initial Abstraction Ratio. Proceeding of the World Water and Environment Resources Congress 2003 and Related Symposia, Philadelphia, 23-26 June 2003.
[21] Fu, S., Zhang, G., Wang, N. and Luo, L. (2011) Initial Abstraction Ratio in the SCS-CN Method in the Loess Plateau of China. Transactions of the ASABE, 54, 163-169.
http://dx.doi.org/10.13031/2013.36271
[22] Hawkins, R.H., Jiang, R., Woodward, D.E., Hjelmfelt, A.T., Van Mullem, J.A. and Quan, Q.D. (2002) Runoff Curve Number Method: Examination of the Initial Abstraction Ratio. Proceedings of the 2nd Federal Interagency Hydrologic Modeling Conference, Las Vegas, 27 June-1 July 2010.
[23] Descheemaeker, K., Posen, J., Borselli, L., Nyssen, J., Raes, D., Haile, M., Muys, B. and Deckers, J. (2008) Runoff Curve Numbers for Steep Hillslopes with Natural Vegetation in Semi-Arid Tropical Highland, Northern Ethiopia. Hydrological Processes, 22, 4097-4105.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hyp.7011
[24] Shi, Z.H., Chen, L.D., Fang, N.F., Qin, D.F. and Cai, C.F. (2009) Research on SCS-CN Initial Abstraction Using Rainfall-Runoff Event Analysis in the Three Gorges Area, China. Catena, 77, 1-7.
[25] D’Asaro, F. and Grillone, G. (2012) Empirical Investigation of Curve Number Method Parameters in the Mediterranean Area. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 17, 1141-1152.
[26] D’Asaro, F. and Grillone, G. (2010) Runoff Curve Number Method in Sicily: CN Determination and Analysis of the Initial Abstraction Ratio. Proceedings of the 4th Federal Interagency Hydrologic Modeling Conference, Las Vegas, 27 June-1 July 2010, 1-12.
[27] Hawkins, R.H., Ward, T.J., Woodward, D.E. and Van Mullem, J.A. (2009) Curve Number Hydrology: State of the Practice. American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, 106 p.
[28] Mishra, S.K. and Singh, V.P. (2003) Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) Methodology. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.
[29] Mishra, S.K., Jain, M.K., Pandey, R.P. and Singh, V.P. (2005) Catchment Area Based Evaluation of the AMC-Dependent SCS-CN-Inspired Rainfall-Runoff Models. Hydrological Processes, 19, 2701-2718.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hyp.5736
[30] Soulis, K.X., Valiantzas, J.D., Dercas, N. and Londra, P.A. (2009) Investigation of the Direct Runoff Generation Mechanism for the Analysis of the SCS-CN Method Applicability to a Partial Area Experimental Watershed. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 13, 605-615.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/hess-13-605-2009
[31] Steenhuis, T.S., Winchell, M., Rossing, J., Zollweg, J.A. and Walter, M.F. (1995) SCS Runoff Equation Revisited for Variable-Source Runoff Areas. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 121, 234-238.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9437(1995)121:3(234)
[32] Huang, M.B., Gallichand, J., Dong, C.Y., Wang, Z.L. and Shao, M.A. (2007) Use of Moisture Data and Curve Number Method for Estimating Runoff in the Loess Plateau of China. Hydrological Processes, 21, 1471-1481.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hyp.6312
[33] Shaw, S.B. and Walter, M.T. (2009) Estimating Storm Runoff Risk Using Bivariate Frequency Analyses of Rainfall and Antecedent Watershed Wetness. Water Resources Research, 45, Article ID: W03404.
[34] Hjelmfelt Jr., A.T., Kramer, L.A. and Burwell, R.E. (1982) Curve Numbers as Random Variables. Proceeding of the International Symposium on Rainfall-Runoff Modeling, Littleton, 18-21 May 1981, 365-373.
[35] Gajbhiye, S., Mishra, S.K. and Pandey, A. (2013) Effects of Seasonal/ Monthly Variation on Runoff Curve Number for Selected Watersheds of Narmada Basin. International Journal of Environmental Sciences, 3, 2034-3046.
[36] USDA-Soil Conservation Service (USDA SCS) (1985) National Engineering Handbook. Section 4. Hydrology. USDA-SCS, Washington DC.
[37] Chen, C.L. (1982) An Evaluation of the Mathematics and Physical Significance of the Soil Conservation Service Curve Number Procedure for Estimating Runoff volume. Proceeding of the International Symposium on Rainfall-Runoff Modeling, Littleton, 18-21 May 1981, 387-418.
[38] Hawkins, R.H., Ward, T.J., Woodward, D.E. and Van Mullem, J.A. (2010) Continuing Evolution of Rainfall-Runoff and the Curve Number Precedent. Proceedings of the 4th Federal Interagency Hydrologic Modeling Conference, Las Vegas, 27 June-1 July 2010, 1-12.
[39] Yuan, P.T. (1993) Logarithmic Frequency Distribution. Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 4, 30-74.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1214/aoms/1177732821
[40] Prasuhn, A. (1992) Fundamentals of Hydraulic Engineering. Oxford University Press, New York.
[41] Woodward, D.E., Van Mullem, J.A., Hawkins, R.H. and Plummer, A. (2010) Curve Number Completion Study. Consultant’s Report to USDA, NRCS, Beltsville, 38 p.
[42] Arnold, J.G., Muttiah, R.S., Srinivasan, R. and Allen, P.M. (2000) Regional Estimation of Base Flow and Ground Water Recharge in the Upper Mississippi River Basin. Journal of Hydrology, 227, 21-40.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-1694(99)00139-0
[43] Nathan, R.J. and McMohan, T.A. (1990) Evaluation of Automated Techniques for Base Flow and Recession Analyses. Water Resources Research, 26, 1465-1473.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/WR026i007p01465
[44] Willmott, C.J., Robeson, S.M. and Matsuura, K. (2012) A Refined Index of Model Performance. International Journal of Climatology, 32, 2088-2094.
[45] Legates, D.R. and McCabe, G.J. (1999) Evaluating the Use of “Goodness-of-Fit” Measures in Hydrologic and Hydroclimatic Model Validation. Water Resources Research, 35, 233-241.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/1998WR900018

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.