Share This Article:

Effect of Ambient UV-B on Stomatal Density, Conductance and Isotope Discrimination in Four Field Grown Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] Isolines

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:988KB) PP. 100-108
DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.412A3012    3,945 Downloads   5,374 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

An experiment was designed to test whether ambient levels of UV-B radiation affect stomatal development, decrease stomatal density, and lead to increased water-use efficiency (WUE). Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] isolines with different stomatal distribution and flavonol expression patterns were field grown under shelters that either transmitted or blocked solar UV-B. All isolines exposed to solar UV-B accumulated higher concentrations of UV-screening phenolic pigments but other responses were isoline dependent. Solar UV-B decreased stomatal density and conductance in isolines expressing a unique branched kaempferol triglycoside. Decreased stomatal density was associated with increased season-long WUE and decreased internal CO2 concentration of leaf (estimated by δ13C discrimination). We concluded that photomorphogenic responses to UV-B affected stomatal density and WUE in field grown soybean; but that the magnitude and direction of these response were associated with isogenic pleiotropic differences in stomatal distribution and pigment expression. UV-B radiation had no effect on biomass accumulation or yield in a cultivar expressing only trace levels of kaempferol suggesting that flavonol expression is not prerequisite to UV-B tolerance.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

D. Gitz III, S. Britz and J. Sullivan, "Effect of Ambient UV-B on Stomatal Density, Conductance and Isotope Discrimination in Four Field Grown Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] Isolines," American Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 12C, 2013, pp. 100-108. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2013.412A3012.

References

[1] J. G. Anderson, D. W. Toohey and W. H. Brune, “Free Radicals within the Antarctic Vortex: The Role of CFC’s in Antarctic Ozone Loss,” Science, Vol. 251, No. 4989, 1991, pp. 39-46.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.251.4989.39
[2] M. P. McCormick, L. W. Thomason and C. R. Trepte, “Atmospheric Effects of the Mt. Penatubo Eruption,” Nature, Vol. 373, 1995, pp. 399-404.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.251.4989.39
[3] T. A. Day and P. J. Neale, “Effects of UV-B Radiation on Terrestrial and Aquatic Primary Producers,” Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, Vol. 33, 2002, pp. 371-396.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.33.010802.150434
[4] M. Tevini, “Physiological Changes in Plants Related to UV-B Radiation: An Overview,” In: R. H. Biggs and M. E. B. Joyner, Eds., Stratospheric Ozone Depletion/UV-B Radiation in the Biosphere, NATO ASI Series I: Global Environmental Change, Vol. 18, Springer Verlag, New York, 1994, pp. 37-56.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-78884-0_6
[5] P. A. Ensminger, “Control of Development in Plants and Fungi by Far-UV Radiation,” Physiologia Plantarum, Vol. 88, No. 3, 1993, pp. 501-508.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.1993.tb01365.x
[6] A. H. Teramura, “Effects of UV-B Radiation on the Growth and Yield of Crop Plants,” Physiologia Plantarum, Vol. 58, No. 3, 1983, pp. 415-427.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.1983.tb04203.x
[7] W. G. Gold and M. M. Caldwell, “The Effects of Ultraviolet-B Radiation on Plant Competition in Terrestrial Ecosystems,” Physiologia Plantarum, Vol. 58, No. 3, 1983, pp. 435-444.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.1983.tb04205.x
[8] P. W. Barnes, C. L. Ballaré and M. M. Caldwell, “Photomorphogenic Effects of UV-B Radiation on Plants: Consequences for Light Competition,” Journal of Plant Physiology, Vol. 148, No. 1-2, 1996, pp. 15-20.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0176-1617(96)80288-4
[9] J. H. Sullivan, “Effects of Increasing UV-B Radiation and Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide on Photosynthesis and Growth: Implications for Terrestrial Ecosystems,” Plant Ecology, Vol. 128, No. 1-2, 1997, pp. 195-206.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1009790424214
[10] M. M. Caldwell, “Solar UV Radiation and the Growth and Development of Higher Plants,” In: A. C. Griese, Ed., Photophysiology, Vol. 6, Academic Press, New York, 1971, pp. 137-171.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-282606-1.50010-6
[11] M. Tevini and A. H. Teramura, “UV-B Effects on Terrestrial Plants,” Photochemistry and Photobiology, Vol. 50, No. 4, 1971, pp. 479-487.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-1097.1989.tb05552.x
[12] G. I. Jenkins, “Signal Transduction in Responses to UV-B Radiation,” Annual Review of Plant Biology, Vol. 60, 2009, pp. 407-431.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.arplant.59.032607.092953
[13] H. Bandurska, J. Niedziela and T. Chadzinikolau, “Separate and Combined Responses to Water Deficit and UV-B Radiation,” Plant Science, Vol. 213, 2013, pp. 98-105.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2013.09.003
[14] H. K. Lichtenthaler, “Vegetation Stress: An Introduction to the Stress Concept in Plants,” Journal of Plant Physiology, Vol. 148, No. 1-2, 1996, pp. 4-14.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0176-1617(96)80287-2
[15] C. J. Beggs and E. Wellman, “Photocontrol of Flavonoid Synthesis,” In: R. E. Kendrick and G. H. M. Kronenberg, Eds., Photomorphogenesis in Plants, 2nd Edition, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, 1994, pp. 733-751.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-1884-2_26
[16] D. C. Gitz III and L. Liu-Gitz, “How Do UV Photomorphogenic Responses Confer Water Stress Tolerance?” Photochemistry and Photobiology, Vol. 78, No. 6, 2003, pp. 529-524.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1562/0031-8655(2003)078<0529:HDUPRC>2.0.CO;2
[17] J. H. Sullivan and A. H. Teramura, “Field Study of the Interaction of between Solar Ultraviolet-B Radiation and Drought on Photosynthesis and Growth in Soybean,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 92, No. 1, 1990, pp. 141-146.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.92.1.141
[18] A. H. Teramura, J. H. Sullivan and L. H. Ziska, “Interaction of Elevated Ultraviolet-B Radiation and CO2 on Productivity and Photosynthetic Characteristics in Wheat, Rice, and Soybean,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 94, No. 2, 1990, pp. 470-475. http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.94.2.470
[19] E. M. Middleton and A. H. Teramura, “The Role of Flavanol Glycosides and Carotenoids in Protecting Soybean from Ultraviolet-B Damage,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 103, No. 94, 1993, pp. 741-752.
[20] Q.-J. Dai, S.-B. Peng, A. Q. Chavez and B. S. Vergara, “Effects of UVB Radiation on Stomatal Density and Opening in Rice (Oryza sativa L.),” Annals of Botany, Vol. 76, No. 1, 1995, pp. 65-70.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/anbo.1995.1079
[21] D. J. Allen, S. Nogués and N. R. Baker, “Ozone Depletion and Increased Ultraviolet-B Radiation; Is There a Threat to Photosynthesis?” Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 49, No. 328, 1998, pp. 1775-1778.
[22] S. Nogués, D. J. Allen, J. I. L. Morison and N. R. Baker, “Ultraviolet-B Radiation Effects on Water Relations, Leaf Development, and Photosynthesis in Droughted Pea Plants,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 117, No. 1, 1998, pp. 173-181.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.117.1.173
[23] S. Nogués, D. J. Allen, J. I. L. Morison and N. R. Baker, “Characterization of Stomatal Closure Caused by Ultraviolet-B Radiation,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 121, No. 2, 1999, pp. 489-496.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.121.2.489
[24] S. Nogués and N. R. Baker, “Effects of Drought on Photosynthesis in Mediterranean Plants Grown under Enhanced UV-B Radiation,” Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 51, No. 348, 2000, pp. 1309-1317.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jexbot/51.348.1309
[25] N. Feng, L. An, T. Chen, W. Qiang, S. Xu, M. Zhang, M. Wang and G. Cheng, “The Effect of Enhanced Ultraviolet-B Radiation on Growth, Photosynthesis and Stable Carbon Isotope Composition (δ13C) of Two Soybean Cultivars (Glycine max) under Field Conditions,” Environmental and Experimental Botany, Vol. 49, No. 1, 2003, pp. 1-8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0098-8472(02)00043-6
[26] M. A. Schumaker, J. H. Bassman, R. Robberecht and G. K. Radamaker, “Growth, Leaf Anatomy, and Physiology of Populus Clones in Response to Solar Ultraviolet-B Radiation,” Tree Physiology, Vol. 17, No. 10, 1997, pp. 617-626. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/treephys/17.10.617
[27] D. C. Gitz III, L. Liu-Gitz, S. J. Britz and J. H. Sullivan, “Ultraviolet-B Effects on Stomatal Density, Water-Use Efficiency, and Stable Carbon Isotope Discrimination in Four Glasshouse-Grown Soybean (Glycine max) Cultivars,” Environmental and Experimental Botany, Vol. 53, No. 3, 2004, pp. 343-355.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2004.04.005
[28] M. M. Caldwell, S. D. Flint and P. S. Searles, “Spectral Balance and UV Sensitivity of Soybean: A Field Experiment,” Plant Cell and Environment, Vol. 17, No. 3, 1994, pp. 267-276.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3040.1994.tb00292.x
[29] C. L. Wilson, W. P. Pusey and B. E. Otto, “Plant Epidermal Sections and Imprints Using Cyanoacrylate Adhesives,” Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Vol. 61, 1986, pp. 781-782. http://dx.doi.org/10.4141/cjps81-117
[30] D. C. Gitz III, “Effect of UV-B Radiation on Photosynthesis and Growth of Two Soybean Cultivars,” Master’s Thesis, Miami University, Oxford, 1993.
[31] L. Liu-Gitz, S. J. Britz and W. P. Wergin, “Blue Light Inhibits Stomatal Development in Soybean Isolines Containing Kaempferol 3-O-2G-Glycosyl-Gentiobioside (K9), a Unique Flavonoid Glycoside,” Plant Cell and Environment, Vol. 23, No. 8, 2000, pp. 883-891.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3040.2000.00608.x
[32] G. D. Farquhar, J. R. Ehleringer and K. T. Hubick, “Carbon Isotope Discrimination and Photosynthesis,” Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology, Vol. 40, 1989, pp. 503-547.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pp.40.060189.002443
[33] B. R. Buttery and R. I. Buzzell, “Varietal Differences in Leaf Flavonoids of Soybean,” Crop Science, Vol. 13, No. 1, 1973, pp. 103-106.
[34] B. R. Buttery and R. I. Buzzell, “Leaf Traits Associated with Flavonol Glycoside Genes in Soybean,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 85, No. 1, 1987, pp. 20-21.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.85.1.20
[35] B. R. Buttery and R. I. Buzzell, “Relationships among Photosynthetic Rate, Bean Yield and Other Characters in Field-Grown Cultivars of Soybean,” Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Vol. 61, No. 2, 1981, pp. 191-198.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4141/cjps81-029
[36] N. S. Murali and A. H. Teramura, “Effectiveness of UVB Radiation on the Growth and Physiology of Field Grown Soybean Modified by Water Stress,” Photochemistry and Photobiology, Vol. 44, No. 2, 1986, pp. 215-219.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-1097.1986.tb03588.x
[37] C. Ballaré, A. L. Scopel, R. A. Sanchez and S. R. Radosevich, “Photomorphogenic Processes in the Agricultural Environment,” Photochemistry and Photobiology, Vol. 56, No. 5, 1992, pp. 777-788.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-1097.1992.tb02234.x
[38] W. R. Briggs, and E. Huala, “Blue-Light Photoreceptors in Higher Plants,” Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology, Vol. 15, 1999, pp. 33-62.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.cellbio.15.1.33
[39] M. Heijde and R. Ulm, “UV-B Photoreceptor-Mediated Signalling in Plants,” Trends in Plant Science, Vol. 17, No. 4, 2012, pp. 230-237.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tplants.2012.01.007
[40] C. A. Mazza, H. E. Boccalandro, C. V. Giordano, D. Battista, A. L. Scopel and C. L. Ballaré, “Functional Significance and Induction by Solar Radiation of Ultraviolet-Absorbing Sunscreens in Field-Grown Soybean Crops,” Physiologia Plantarum, Vol. 122, No. 1, 2000, pp. 117-126. http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.122.1.117
[41] J. W. McClure, “Physiology of Phenolic Compounds in Plants,” In: C. F. Van Sumere, T. Swain and J. B. Harborne, Eds., Recent Advances in Phytochemistry, Vol. 12, The Biochemistry of Plant Phenolics, Plenum Publishing Corp., New York, 1979, pp. 525-555.
[42] J. J. Sheahan, “Sinapate Esters Provide Greater UV-B Attenuation Than Flavonoids in Arabidopsis Thaliana (Brassicaceae),” American Journal of Botany, Vol. 83, No. 6, 1996, pp. 679-686.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2445845
[43] T. Swain, “Flavonoids,” In: T. W. Goodwin, Ed., Chemistry and Biochemistry of Plant Pigments, 1976, pp. 166-206.
[44] L. Liu, D. C. Gitz III and J. W. McClure, “Effects of UV-B on Flavonoids, Ferulic Acid, Growth, and Photosynthesis in Barley Primary Leaves,” Physiologia Plantarum, Vol. 93, No. 4, 1995, pp. 725-733.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.1995.tb05123.x
[45] S. Reuber, J. F. Bornman, and G. Weissenb?ck, “Phenylpropanoid Compounds in Primary Leaf Tissues of Rye (Secale cereale): Light Response of Their Metabolism and the Possible Role in UV-B Protection,” Physiologia Plantarum, Vol. 97, No. 1, 1996, pp. 160-168.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.1996.tb00492.x

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.