Share This Article:

Non-Fatal Occupational Injuries and Safety Climate: A Cross-Sectional Study of Construction Building Workers in Mit-Ghamr City, Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:174KB) PP. 69-79
DOI: 10.4236/ojsst.2013.34009    4,553 Downloads   7,504 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Background: Construction is a dangerous industry, with high rates of fatal and non-fatal injuries. Although, safety climate has been linked with safety performance and work-related accidents, yet it is scarcely studied and considered in injury prevention programs in developing countries. So, the objectives of this study are to find out the magnitude, pattern and risk factors of non-fatal occupational injuries among a sample of construction building workers and to explore the level of safety climate and its relationship with occupational injuries. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 91 workers, who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, in 18 large construction sites in Mit-Ghamr city, Dakahlia Governorate. Data about socio-demographic and occupational characteristics, description of occupational injuries, and work-related and behavioral risk factors were collected using a structured questionnaire. Results: Occupational injuries in the past 12 months were reported by 46.2% of workers. The most common body parts injured were upper and lower limbs (31.0% and 26.2%). The majority of injuries were cuts/lacerations (30.9%) and contusions (28.6%). Falls (47.6%) and injuries by manual tools (23.8%) were the main causes of injuries. The majority of injured workers (90.5%) reported complete recovery after the most serious injury. The average of working days was lost per year due to occupational injuries (18.6 ± 7.8 days/year). None of the injured workers reported receiving sufficient first-aid treatment at worksite or filling an accident notification form. Extended working hours, poor safety climate, short duration of work, job dissatisfaction, young age, and job stress were significant risk factors of occupational injuries. Conclusion: Non-fatal occupational injuries are common among this sample of construction workers with significant relation to extended working hours and poor safety climate and other risk factors. So, it is important to build upon this research in order to help develop successful policies to prevent work-related injuries and promote safer work practices for construction building workers.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

R. Abbas Abbas, M. Mohamed Zalat and N. Salah Eldeen Ghareeb, "Non-Fatal Occupational Injuries and Safety Climate: A Cross-Sectional Study of Construction Building Workers in Mit-Ghamr City, Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt," Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Vol. 3 No. 4, 2013, pp. 69-79. doi: 10.4236/ojsst.2013.34009.

References

[1] F. Guldenmund, “The Nature of Safety Culture: A Review of Theory and Research,” Safety Science, Vol. 34, No. 1-3, 2000, pp. 215-257.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0925-7535(00)00014-X
[2] R. Alazab, “Work-Related Diseases and Occupational Injuries among Workers in the Construction Industry in Egypt,” African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Vol. 14, No. 2, 2004, pp. 37-42.
[3] A. Elsafety, A. Elsafety and M. Malek, “Construction Safety and Occupational Health Education in Egypt, the EU, and US Firms,” Open Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 2, No. 3, 2012, pp. 174-182.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ojce.2012.23023
[4] T. Afifi, “The Poor in the Egyptian Labor Market During an Adjustment Period: For Better or Worse?” Economic Research Forum, 2001, pp. 12-13.
http://www.erf.org.eg/CMS/uploads/pdf/0117_Afifi.pdf
[5] H. Brenner and W. Ahern, “Sickness Absence and Early Retirement on Health Grounds in the Construction Industry in Ireland,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 57, No. 9, 2000, pp. 615-620.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/oem.57.9.615
[6] H. Paivi, J. Takala and L. Kaja, “Global Estimates of Occupational Accidents,” Safety Science, Vol. 44, No. 2, 2006, pp. 137-156.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2005.08.017
[7] K. Bharara, P. Sandhu and M. Sidhu, “Issues of Occupational Health and Injuries among Unskilled Female Laborers in Construction Industry: A Scenario of Punjab State,” Studies on Home and Community Science, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2012, pp. 1-6.
[8] Ministry of Manpower and Immigration, “Analytical Study of Serious Accidents in Enterprises in the Arab Republic of Egypt,” Report prepared by the Safety and Occupational Health Department, 2002.
[9] Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statis-tics (CAPMAS)—Arab Republic of Egypt, “Work Injuries Distributed according to Economic Activity at Construction Sector Containing 50 Workers and More,” 2012.
http://www.capmas.gov.eg
[10] D. El-Shafei, “Some Occupational Health Hazards among a Group of Construction Workers with Emphasize on Ac- cidents at Mit-Ghamr City, Dakahlia Governorate,” M.SC. Thesis, Zagazig University, Al Sharqia, 2007.
[11] T. Abdelhamid and J. Everett, “Identifying Root Causes of Construction Accidents,” Journal of Construction En- gineering and Management, Vol. 126, No. 1, 2000, pp. 52-60.
[12] S. Clarke, “Safety Culture: Under-Specified and Overrated?” International Journal of Management Reviews, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2000, pp. 65-90.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-2370.00031
[13] A. Garcia, P. Boix and C. Canosa, “Why Do Workers Behave Unsafely at Work? Determinants of Safe Work Practices in Industrial Workers,” Occupational and Envi- ronmental Medicine, Vol. 61, 2004, pp. 239-246.
[14] I. Godwin, “Effect of Mechanization on Occupational Health and Safety Performance in the Nigerian Construction Industry,” Journal of Construction in Developing Countries, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2011, pp. 27-45.
[15] X. Huang and J. Hinze, “Owner’s Role in Construction Safety,” Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, Vol. 132, No. 2, 2006, pp. 164-173.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2006)132:2(164)
[16] Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics (CAPMAS)—Arab Republic of Egypt, “Egypt in figures: Population Estimates by Governorate (Urban/rural areas),” 2011.
[17] A. Dean, J. Dean, D. Coulombeir and K. Brendel, “Epiinfo Version 6: A Word Processing Data Base and Statistics Program for Epidemiology on Micro-computers,” Center for Disease Control, Atlanta, 2001.
[18] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), “Body Mass Index,” 2007.
www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/bmi/adult_bmi/about_adult_bmi.htm
[19] L. Fiala, R. Faris, S. Sobhy and J. Kraus, “Prevalence, Pattern of and Factors Affecting Occupational Injuries in the Conversion Industries in Ismalia,” Suez Canal University Medical Journal, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1998, pp. 13-20.
[20] C. Che Hassan, O. Basha and W. Wan Hanafi, “Perception of Building Construction Workers towards Safety, Health and Environment,” Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, Vol. 2, No. 3, 2007, pp. 271-279.
[21] A. Hassanein and R. Hanna, “Safety Performance in the Egyptian Construction Industry,” Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, Vol. 134, No. 6, 2008, pp. 451-455. http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2008)134:6(451)
[22] Z. Aderaw, D. Engdaw and T. Tadesse, “Determinants of Occupational Injury: A Case Control Study among Textile Factory Workers in Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia,” Journal of Tropical Medicine, Vol. 2011, 2011, Article ID: 657275.
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jtm/2011/657275/
[23] J. Harrington, “Health Effects of Shift Work and Extended Hours of Work,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 58, No. 1, 2001, pp. 68-72.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/oem.58.1.68
[24] K. Knowles and D. Robertson, “Differences between the Wages of Skilled and Unskilled Workers, 1880-1950,” Bulletin of the Oxford University Institute of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 13, No. 4, 2009, pp. 109-127.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-0084.1951.mp13004002.x/abstract
[25] Marlin Company and the American Institute of Stress, “The Workplace Stress Scale: Attitudes in the American Workplace VII,” 2009.
http://americaninstituteofstress.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/2001Attitude-in-the-Workplace-Harris.pdf
[26] S. Macdonald and P. Maclntyrem, “The Generic Job Satisfaction Scale: Scale Development and Its Correlates,” Employee Assistance Quarterly, Vol. l3, No. 2, 1997, pp. 1-16. http://faculty.capebretonu.ca/pmacintyre/research_pages/journals/job_staisfaction_1997.pdf
[27] IBM, “IBM SPSS Statistics 19 Core System Users’ Guide,” SPSS Inc., Chicago, 2010.
http://www.ibm.com/software/analytics/spss/training
[28] ILO, “Safety and Health at Work,” 2013.
http://www.ilo.org/global/topics/safety-and-health-at-work/lang--en/index.htm
[29] G. Eijkemans, “Occupational Health and Safety in Africa,” WHO/ILO, Vol. 14, No. 2, 2004, pp. 28-29.
[30] N. Zawilla, H. Bader and A. Al Shatti, “Non-Fatal Occupational Injuries and Disability in Construction Workers in Kuwait 2003-2005,” The Egyptian Journal of Occupational Medicine, Vol. 32, No. 1, 2008, pp. 43-61.
[31] P. Hamalainen, J. Takala and K. Saarela, “Global Estimates of Occupational Accidents,” Safety Science, Vol. 44, No. 2, 2006, pp. 137-156.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2005.08.017
[32] J. Leigh, S. Markowitz, M. Fahs and P. Landrigan, “Costs of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses,” University of Michigan, Ann. Arbor, 2000.
[33] K. Nielsen and K. Mikkelsen, “Predictive Factors for Self-Reported Occupational Injuries at 3 Manufacturing Plants,” Safety Science Monitor, Vol. 11, No. 2, 2007, pp. 1-9.
[34] K. Hunting, J. Murawski and L. Welch, “Occupational Injuries among Construction Workers Treated at the George Washington University Emergency Department 1990-97,” The Center to Protect Workers’ Rights (CPWR), 2004. http://www.cpwr.com
[35] N. Chau, G. Gauchard, C. Seigrid and I. Benamgher, “Relationship of Job, Age and Life Conditions with Causes and Severity of Occupational injuries in Construction Workers,” International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Vol. 77, No. 1, 2004, pp. 60-66.
[36] F. Benavides, J. Benach, C. Muntaner and G. Delcos, “Association between Temporary Employment and Occupational Injuries: What are the Mechanisms?” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 63, No. 6, 2006, pp. 416-421.
[37] A. Nakata, T. Ikedo and S. Takala, “Prevalence and Correlates of Occupational Injuries in Small Scale Manufacturing Enterprises,” Journal of Occupational Health, Vol. 38, No. 2, 2006, pp. 366-376.
[38] S. Salminen, “Shift Work and Extended Working Hours as Risk Factors for Occupational Injury,” The Ergonomics Open Journal, Vol. 3, 2010, pp. 14-18.
[39] O. Yiha and A. Kumie, “Assessment of Occupational Injuries in Tendaho Agricultural Development S.C, Afar Regional State,” Ethiopian Journal of Health Development, Vol. 24, No. 3, 2010, pp. 167-174.
[40] A. Neal, M. Griffin and P. Hart, “The Impact of Organizational Climate on Safety Climate and Individual Behavior,” Safety Science, Vol. 34, No. 1-3, 2000, pp. 99-109. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0925-7535(00)00008-4
[41] U. Varonen and M. Mattila, “The Safety Climate and its Relationship to Safety Practices, Safety of the Work Environment and Occupational Accidents in Eight Wood-Processing Companies,” Accident Analysis & Prevention, Vol. 32, No. 6, 2000, pp. 761-769.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0001-4575(99)00129-3
[42] T. Rundmo, “Safety Climate, Attitudes and Risk Perception in Norsk Hydro,” Safety Science, Vol. 34, No. 1-3, 2000, pp. 47-59.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0925-7535(00)00006-0
[43] H. Shannon, V. Walters, W. Lewchulk, et al., “Workplace Organizational Correlates of Lost-Time Accident Rates in Manufacturing,” American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Vol. 29, No. 3, 1996, pp. 258-268.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0274(199603)29:3<258::AID-AJIM5>3.0.CO;2-M
[44] R. Gershon, C. Karkashian, J. Grosch, et al., “Hospital Safety Climate and Its Relationship with Safe Work Practices and Workplace Exposure Incidents,” American Journal of Infection Control, Vol. 28, No. 3, 2000, pp. 211-221. http://dx.doi.org/10.1067/mic.2000.105288
[45] C. Smith, G. Silverman, T. Heckert, et al., “A Comprehensive Method for the Assessment of Industrial Injury Events,” Journal of Prevention and Intervention in the Community, Vol. 22, No. 1, 2001, pp. 5-20.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.