Share This Article:

Coupling between the Changes in CO2 Concentration and Sediment Biogeochemistry in Mudflat of Salinas de San Pedro, California, USA

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:818KB) PP. 1173-1180
DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.410134    3,873 Downloads   5,676 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

We investigated the effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) on biogeochemistry of marsh sediment including speciation of selected heavy metals in Salinas de San Pedro mudflat in California. The Salinas de San Pedro mudflat has higher carbon (C) content than the vast majority of fully-vegetated salt marshes even with the higher tidal action in the mudflat. Sources for CO2 were identified as atmospheric CO2 as well as due to local fault degassing process. We measured carbon dioxide, methane, total organic carbon, dissolved oxygen, salinity, and heavy metal concentration in various salt marsh locations. Overall, our results showed that CO2 concentration ranging from 418.7 to 436.9 (ppm), which are slightly different in various chambers but are in good agreement with some heavy metal concentrations values in mudflat at or around the same location. The selected metal concentration values (ppm) ranging from 0.003 - 0.011 (As); 0.001 - 0.005 (Cd); 0.04 - 0.02 (Cr); 0.13 - 0.38 (Cu); 0.11 - 0.38 (Pb); 0.0009 - 0.020 (Se); and 0.188 - 0.321 (Zn). The low dissolved oxygen (ppm) in the pore water sediment indicated suboxic environment. Additionally, CO2 (ppm) and loss on ignition (LOI) (%) correlated inversely; the higher CO2 content, the lower was the LOI (%); that is to say the excess CO2 causes higher rates of decomposition and therefore it leads to lower LOI (%) on the mudflat surface. It appears that the elevated CO2 makes changes in salt marsh pore water chemistry for instance the free ionic metal (Cu2+, Pb2+, etc.) speciation is one of the most reactive form because simply assimilated by the non-decayed or alive organisms in sediment of salt marsh and/or in water. This means that CO2 not only is a sign of improvement in plant productivity, but also activates microbial decomposition through increases in dissolved organic carbon availability. CO2 also increases acidification processes such as anaerobic degradation of microorganism and oxidation of reduced components. The heavy metal concentrations in sediment samples were slightly higher in suboxic layer, yet it appears that salt marsh sediments in Salinas de San Pedro act like a sink for nutrient and carbon by maximizing carbon sequestration.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

M. Rezaie-Boroon, S. Diaz, V. Torres, T. Lazzaretto and D. Deheyn, "Coupling between the Changes in CO2 Concentration and Sediment Biogeochemistry in Mudflat of Salinas de San Pedro, California, USA," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 4 No. 10, 2013, pp. 1173-1180. doi: 10.4236/jep.2013.410134.

References

[1] J. K. Keller, A. A. Wolf, P. B. Weisenhorn, B. G. Drake and J. P. Megonigal, “Elevated CO2 Affects Porewater Chemistry in a Brackish Marsh,” Biogeochemistry, Vol. 96, No. 1-3, 2009, pp. 101-117.
[2] J. K. Keller, K. K. Takagi, M. E. Brown, Kellie N. Stump, C. G. Takahashi, W. Joo, K. L. Au, C. C. Calhoun, R. K. Chundu, K. M. Hokutan, M. Jessica and K. Roy, “Soil Organic Carbon Storage in Restored Salt Marshes in Huntington Beach, California,” Bulletin of Southern California Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, No. 2, 2012, pp. 153-161.
[3] J. K. Keller, A. E. Sutton-Grier, A, L. Bullock and J. P. Megonigal, “Anaerobic Metabolism in Tidal Freshwater Wetlands: I. Plant Removal Effects on Iron Reduction and Methanogenesis,” Estuaries and Coasts, Vol. 36, No. 3, 2013, pp. 457-470.
[4] P. V. Forster, P. Ramaswamy, T. Artaxo, B. R. Betts, D. W. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. C. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz and R. Van Dorland, “Changes in Atmospheric Constituents and in Radiative Forcing,” In: S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H. L. Miller, Eds., Climate Change: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York, 2007, pp. 131-234.
[5] K. L. Denman, G. Brasseur, A. Chidthaisong, P. Ciais, P. M. Cox, R. E. Dickinson, D. Hauglustaine, C. Heinze, E. Holland, D. Jacob, U. Lohmann, S. Ramachandran, P. L. da Silva Dias, S. C. Wofsy and X. Zhang, “Couplings between Changes in the Climate System and Biogeochemistry,” Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York, 2007, pp. 499-587.
[6] J. P. Megonigal, M. E. Hines and P. T. Visscher, “An aerobic Metabolism: Linkages to Trace Gases and Aerobic Processes,” Treatise on Geochemistry, Vol. 8, 2003, pp. 317-424.
[7] S. M. Mudd, S. M. Howell and J. T. Morris, “Impact of Dynamic Feedbacks between Sedimentation, Sea Level Rise, and Biomass Production on Near Surface Marsh Stratigraphy and Carbon Accumulation,” Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, Vol. 82, No. 3, 2009, pp. 377-389.
[8] G. L. Chmura, C. A. Shimon, D. R. Cahoon and J. C. Lynch, “Global Carbon Sequestration in Tidal Saline Wetland Soil,” Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 17, No. 4, 2003, pp. 1111-1120.
[9] A. M. Barnett, S. M. Bay, K. J. Ritter, S. L. Moore and S. B. Weisberg, “Sediment Quality in California Bays and Estuaries, Technical Report 522,” Southern California Coastal Water Research Project, Costa Mesa, 2008.
[10] K. Schiff, B. Luka, D. Gregorio and S. Gruber, “Assessing Water Quality in Marine Protected Areas from Southern California, USA,” Marine Pollution Bulletin, Vol. 62, No. 12, 2011, pp. 2780-2786.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2011.09.009
[11] N. B. Grimm, D. Foster, P. Groffman, J. M. Grove, C. S. Hopkinson, K. J. Nadelhoffer, D. E. Pataki and P. C. Peters, “The Changing Landscape: Ecosystem Responses to Urbanization and Pollution Across Climatic and Societal Gradients,” Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, Vol. 6, No. 5, 2008, pp. 264-272.
[12] M. H. Rezaie-Boroon, V. Toress, S. Diaz, T. Lazzaretto, M. Tsang and D. D. Deheyn, “The Geochemistry of Heavy Metals in the Mudflat of Salinas de San Pedro Lagoon, California, USA,” Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2013, pp. 12-25.
[13] C. B. Craft, E. D. Seneca and S. W. Broome, “Loss of Ignition and Kjedahl Digestion for Estimating Organic Carbon and Total Nitrogen in Estuarine Marsh Soils: Calibration with Dry Combustion,” Estuaries, Vol. 14, No. 2, 1991, pp. 175-179.
[14] EPA, “Final Project Report for the Development of an Active Soil Gas Sampling Method,” 2007.
http://www.epa.gov/esd/cmb/pdf/203cmb07-Schmacher.pdf
[15] W.-J. Cai, L. R. Pomeroy, M. A. Moran and Y. Wang, “Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Mass Balance for the Estuarine-Intertidal Marsh Complex of Five Rivers in the Southeastern US,” Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 44, No. 3, 1999, pp. 639-649.
[16] S. C. Wainright, “Stimulation of Heterotrophic Microplankton Production by Resuspened Marine Sediments,” Science, Vol. 238, No. 4834, 1987, pp. 1710-1712.
[17] J. J. Middelburg, J. Nieuwenhuize, F. J. Slim and B. Ohowa, “Sediment Biogeochemistry in an East African Mangrove Forest (Gazi Bay, Kenya),” Biogeochemistry, Vol. 34, No. 3, 1996, pp. 133-155.
[18] C. M. R. Almeida, A. P. Mucha and M. T. S. D. Vasconcelos, “The Role of a Salt Marsh Plant on Trace Metal Bioavailability in Sediments Estimation by Different Chemical Approaches,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research, Vol. 12, No. 5, 2005, pp. 271-277.
[19] D. D. Deheyn and M. I. Latz, “Bioavailability of Metals along a Contamination Gradient in San Diego Bay (California, USA),” Chemosphere, Vol. 63, No. 5, 2006, pp. 818-834.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.07.066
[20] Y. J. M. Kone, G. Abril, B. Delille and A. V. Borges, “Seasonal Variability of Methane in the Rivers and Lagoons of Ivory Coast (West Africa),” Biogeochemistry, Vol. 100, No. 1, 2010, pp. 21-37.
[21] Y. L. Lai, M. Thirumavalavan and J. F. Lee, “Effective Adsorption of Heavy Metal Ions (Cu2+, Pb2+, Zn2+) from Aqueous Solution by Immobilization of Adsorbents on Ca-Alginate Beads,” Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry, Vol. 92, No. 4, 2010, pp. 697-705.
[22] H.-M. Hwang, P. G. Green, R. M. Higashi and T. M. Young, “Tidal Salt Marsh Sediment in California, USA. Part 2: Occurrence and Anthropogenic Input of Trace Metals,” Chemosphere, Vol. 64, No. 11, 2006, pp. 1899-1909.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.01.053

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.