Share This Article:

Benefits of Combined Mental and Physical Training in Learning a Complex Motor Skill in Basketball

DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.49A2001    5,288 Downloads   9,548 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Previous research in sport psychology and rehabilitation suggests that training with motor imagery (mental practice) is a potentially effective strategy to improve motor performance. The goal of the present study was to investigate the benefits of combining mental and physical training in learning a complex motor skill in basketball (the lay-up shot). To this end, sixty female university students were randomly assigned to either mental practice with physical training, or physical training alone. Motor performance was assessed before and after a four-week training period. To assess motor learning performance, a video analysis was carried out by three independent raters on the motor task before and after the training in both conditions. Results showed that mental practice condition improved coordination and movement accuracy, suggesting the potential effectiveness of this approach in training complex motor skills; furthermore, findings indicate the feasibility and accuracy of using video-based analysis of movement in the assessment of motor performance improvements.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Gaggioli, A. , Morganti, L. , Mondoni, M. & Antonietti, A. (2013). Benefits of Combined Mental and Physical Training in Learning a Complex Motor Skill in Basketball. Psychology, 4, 1-6. doi: 10.4236/psych.2013.49A2001.

References

[1] Allami, N., Paulignan, Y., Brovelli, A., & Boussaud, D. (2007). Visuomotor learning with combination of different rates of motor imagery and physical practice. Experimental Brain Research, 184, 105-113. doi:10.1007/s00221-007-1086-x
[2] Coelho, R. W., De Campos, W., Da Silva, S. G., Okazaki, F. H., & Keller, B. (2007). Imagery intervention in open and closed tennis motor skill performance, Perceptual and Motor Skills, 105, 458-468.
[3] Cumming, J. L., & Ste-Marie, D. M. (2001). The cognitive and motivetional effects of imagery training: A matter of perspective. The Sport Psychologist, 15, 276-288.
[4] Cumming, J., & Williams, S. E. (2012). Imagery: The role of imagery in performance. In S. Murphy (Ed.), Handbook of sport and performance psychology (pp. 213-232). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199731763.013.0011
[5] Decety, J., Jeannerod, M., Germain, M., & Pastene, J. (1991). Vegetative response during imagined movement is proportional to mental effort. Behavioural Brain Research, 42, 1-5. doi:10.1016/S0166-4328(05)80033-6
[6] Decety, J., Jeannerod, M., & Prablanc, C. (1989).The timing of mentally represented actions. Behavioural Brain Research, 34, 35-42. doi:10.1016/S0166-4328(89)80088-9
[7] Doussoulin, A., & Rehbein, L. (2011). Motor imagery as a tool for skill training in children, Motricidade, 7, 37-43.
[8] Driskell, J., Copper, C., & Moran, A. (1994). Does mental practice enhance performance? Journal of Applied Psychology, 79, 481-492. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.79.4.481
[9] Eton, D. T., Gilner, F. H., & Munz, D. C. (1998). The measurement of imagery vividness: A test of the reliability and validity of the vividness of visual imagery questionnaire and the vividness of movement imagery questionnaire. Journal of Mental Imagery, 22, 125-136.
[10] Feltz, D. L., & Landers, D. M. (1983). The effects of mental practice on motor skill learning and performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Sport Psychology, 5, 25-57.
[11] Gaggioli, A., Meneghini, A., Morganti, F., Alcaniz, M., & Riva, G. (2006). A strategy for computer-assisted mental practice in stroke rehabilitation. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 20, 503-507. doi:10.1177/1545968306290224
[12] Guillot, A., Nadrowska, E., & Collet, C. (2009). Using motor imagery to learn tactical movements in basketball. Journal of Sport Behavior, 32, 189-206.
[13] Guillot, A., & Collet, C. (2008). Construction of the motor imagery integrative model in sport: A review and theoretical investigation of motor imagery use. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 1, 31-44. doi:10.1080/17509840701823139
[14] Hall, C. R., & Martin, K. A. (1997). Measuring movement imagery abilities: A revision of the movement imagery questionnaire. Journal of Mental Imagery, 21, 143-154.
[15] Hall, C. R., Mack, D., Paivio, A., & Hausenblas, H. (1998). Imagery use by athletes: Development of the sport imagery questionnaire. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 29, 73-89.
[16] Hall, E., & Erffmeyer, E. S. (1983). The effect of visuo-motor behavior rehearsal with videotaped modeling on free throw accuracy of intercollegiate female basketball players. Journal of Sport Psychology, 5, 343-346.
[17] Hardy, L., & Callow, N. (1999). Efficacy of external and internal imagery perspectives for the enhancement of performance in tasks in which form is important. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 21, 95-112.
[18] Isaac, A., Marks, D., & Russell, D. (1986). An instrument for assessing imagery of movement: The Vividness of Movement Imagery Questionnaire (VMIQ). Journal of Mental Imagery, 10, 23-30.
[19] Jackson, P. L., Lafleur, M. F., Malouin, F., Richards, C. L., & Doyon, J. (2003). Functional cerebral reorganization following motor sequence learning through mental practice with motor imagery. Neuroimage, 20, 1171-1180. doi:10.1016/S1053-8119(03)00369-0
[20] Jeannerod, M. (1994). The representing brain: Neural correlates of motor intention and imagery. Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 17, 187-245. doi:10.1017/S0140525X00034026
[21] Jeannerod, M., & Decety, J. (1995). Mental motor imagery: A window into the representational stages of action. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 5, 727-732.
[22] Karni, A., Meyer, G., Jezzard, P., Adams, M. M., Turner, R., & Ungerleider, L. G. (1995). Functional MRI evidence for adult motor cortex plasticity during motor skill learning, Nature, 377, 155-158. doi:10.1038/377155a0
[23] Lafleur, M. F., Jackson, P. L., Malouin, F., Richards, C. L., Evans, A. C., & Doyon, J. (2002). Motor learning produces parallel dynamic functional changes during the execution and imagination of sequential foot movements. NeuroImage, 16, 142-157. doi:10.1006/nimg.2001.1048
[24] Lamirand, M., & Rainey, D. (1994). Mental imagery, relaxation, and accuracy of basketball foul shooting, Perceptual and Motor Skills, 78, 1229-1230. doi:10.2466/pms.1994.78.3c.1229
[25] Lang, P. J. (1979). A bio-informational theory of emotional imagery. Psychophysiology, 16, 495-512. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8986.1979.tb01511.x
[26] Louis, M., Guillot, A., Maton, S., Doyon, C., & Collet, C. (2008). Effect of imagined movement speed on subsequent motor performance. Journal of Motor Behavior, 40, 117-132. doi:10.3200/JMBR.40.2.117-132
[27] Marks, D. F. (1973). Visual imagery differences in the recall of pictures. British Journal of Psychology, 64, 17-24. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8295.1973.tb01322.x
[28] Miller, K. J., Schalk, G., Fetz, E., den Nijs, M., Ojemann, J., & Rao, R. (2010). Cortical activity during motor execution, motor imagery, and imagery-based online feedback. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107, 4430-4435.
[29] Munroe-Chandler, K. J., Hall, C. R., Fishburne, G. J., & Strachan, L. (2007). Where, when and why young athletes use imagery: An examination of developmental differences. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 78, 103-116. doi:10.1080/02701367.2007.10599408
[30] Murphy, S. M., & Jowdy, D. P. (1992). Imagery and mental practice. In T. S. Horn (Ed.), Advances in sport psychology (pp. 221-225). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
[31] Olsson, C. J., Jonsson, B., & Nyberg, L. (2008). Internal imagery training in active high jumpers. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 49, 133-140. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9450.2008.00625.x
[32] Parker, J. K., & Lovell, G. (2009). Characteristics affecting the use of imagery: A youth sports academy study. Journal of Imagery Research in Sport and Physical Activity, 4, 1-15.
[33] Parker, J. K., & Lovell, G. (2011). The influence of experience upon imagery perspectives in adolescent sport performers. Journal of Imagery Research in Sport and Physical Activity, 6, Article 1.
[34] Peynircioglu, Z. F., Thompson, J. L. W., & Tanielan, T. B. (2000). Improvement strategies in free-throw shooting and grip-strength task. The Journal of General Psychology, 127, 145-156. doi:10.1080/00221300009598574
[35] Ploszay, A. J., Gentner, N. B., Skinner, C. H., & Wrisberg, C. A. (2006). The effects of multisensory imagery in conjunction with physical movement rehearsal on golf putting performance. Journal of Behavioral Education, 15, 247-255. doi:10.1007/s10864-006-9034-6
[36] Post, P. G., Wrisberg, C. A., & Mullins, S. (2010). A field test of the influence of pre-game imagery on basketball free throw shooting. Journal of Imagery Research in Sport and Physical Activity, 5, Article 2.
[37] Richardson, A. (1967). Mental practice: A review and discussion (Part II). Research Quarterly, 38, 263-273.
[38] Roure, R., Collet, C., Deschaumes-Molinaro, C., Dittmar, A., Rada, H., Delhomme, G., & Vernet-Maury, E. (1998). Autonomic nervous system responses correlate with mental rehearsal in volleyball training. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 78, 99-108. doi:10.1007/s004210050393
[39] Savoy, C., & Beitel, P. A. (1996). Mental imagery for basketball. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 27, 454-462.
[40] Schuster, C., Kilfiker, R., Amft, O., Scheidhauer, A., Andrews, B., Butler, J., Kischka, U., & Ettlin, T. (2011). Best practice for motor imagery: A systematic literature review on motor imagery training elements in five different disciplines. BMC Medicine, 9, 75. doi:10.1186/1741-7015-9-75
[41] Shea, C. H., Wright, D. L., Wulf, G., & Whitacre, C. (2000). Physical and observational practice afford unique learning opportunities. Journal of Motor Behavior, 32, 27-36. doi:10.1080/00222890009601357
[42] Shearer, D., Mellalieu, S., Shearer, C., & Roderique-Davies, G. (2009). The effects of a video-aided imagery intervention upon collective efficacy in an international paralympic wheelchair basketball team. Journal of Imagery Research in Sport and Physical Activity, 4, 1-25. doi:10.2202/1932-0191.1039
[43] Sherwood, D. E., & Lee, T. D. (2003). Schema theory: Critical review and implications for the role of cognition in a new theory of motor learning. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 74, 376-382. doi:10.1080/02701367.2003.10609107
[44] Smith, D., Wright, C. J., & Cantwell, C. (2008). Beating the bunker: The effect of PETTLEP imagery on golf bunker shot performance. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 3, 386-391.
[45] Sun, L., Yin, D., Zhu, Y., Fan, M., Zang, L., Wu, Y., Jia, J., Bai, Y., Zhu, B., & Hu, Y. (2013). Cortical reorganization after motor imagery training in chronic stroke patients with severe motor impairment: A longitudinal fMRI study. Neuroradiology, 55, 913-925. doi:10.1007/s00234-013-1188-z
[46] Taktek, K. (2004). The effects of mental imagery on the acquisition of motor skills and performance: A literature review with theoretical implications. Journal of Mental Imagery, 3, 79-114.
[47] White, A., & Hardy, L. (1995). Use of different imagery perspectives on the learning and performance of different motor skills. British Journal of Psychology, 86, 169-180. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8295.1995.tb02554.x
[48] Wilson, P. H., Thomas, P. R., & Maruff, P. (2002). Motor imagery training ameliorates motor clumsiness in children. Journal of Child Neurology, 17, 491-498. doi:10.1177/088307380201700704

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.