Share This Article:

Chemical Modification of Scraped Tires through Grafting with 2-Acrylamido-2-methylpropansulfonic Acid

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:369KB) PP. 48-53
DOI: 10.4236/ojpchem.2013.33010    2,920 Downloads   4,871 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Scrap vulcanized rubber is amongst a bigger waste polymers. It does not decompose easily owing to its cross linked structure. Modification of scrap tires powder by the grafting with 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid (AMPS) is described. The grafting is achieved through free radical initiation. The effects of different amount of monomer and initiator were examined. Also the influence of reaction time and temperature were investigated. The grafted waste rubber was characterized by FT/IR, SEM and DSC measurements. The proposed mechanism of the grafting reaction is discussed. From DSC and SEM studies of WR-g-AMPS compared with PAMPS and WR, the results show that the particle size and crystallinity were enhanced for the grafted copolymers. The obtained modified scraped tires will used as an ion exchanger for the future applications.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Y. Aggour, A. Al-Shihri and M. Bazzet, "Chemical Modification of Scraped Tires through Grafting with 2-Acrylamido-2-methylpropansulfonic Acid," Open Journal of Polymer Chemistry, Vol. 3 No. 3, 2013, pp. 48-53. doi: 10.4236/ojpchem.2013.33010.

References

[1] V. Makarov and V. F. DrozDovski, “Reprocessing of Tires and Rubber Wastes Recycling from the Rubber Products Industry,” 1st Edition, Ellis Horwood, Chiche ster, 1991.
[2] G. Cheater and I. D. Loan, “Rubber and Plastic Research Association of Great Britain,” Technical Review, Vol. 37, No. 13, 1966.
[3] M. R. Islam, H. Haniu and J. Fardoushi, “Pyrolysis Kine tics of Solid Tire Wastes Available in Bangladesh,” Waste Management, Vol. 29, No. 2, 2009, pp. 668-677.
[4] J. Scheirs, “Polymer Recycling,” Chap.12, Wiley, New York, 1998.
[5] G. M. Trofimora, D. D. Novikov, L. V. Kompaniets, T. T. Medintseva, Y. S. Yan and E. V. Prut, “Effect of the Me thod of Tire Grinding on the Rubber Crumb Structure,” Journal of Polymer Science Part A, Vol. 442, No. 7, 2000, pp. 825-830.
[6] B. Adhikari and D. De Maiti, “Reclimation and Recycling of Waste Rubber,” Progress in Polymer Science, Vol. 25, No. 7, 2000, pp. 909-948.
[7] F. Gavalieri, F. Cadella and F. Cataldo, “Mechanical Sur face Activation of Ground Tire Rubber by Solid State Devulcanization and Grafting,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 90, No. 6, 2003, pp. 1631-1638.
[8] F. Cataldo, O. Ursini and G. Angelini, “Surface Oxidation of Rubber Crumb with Ozone,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, Vol. 95, No. 5, 2010, pp. 803-810. doi:10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.
2010.02.003
[9] S. L. Zheng, Z. X. Zheng, K. Pal, Z. X. Xin, J. Suh and J. K. Kim, “Prediction of Mechanical Properties of Waste Polypropylene/Waste Ground Tire Powder Blends Using Artificial Neutral Networks,” Material & Design, Vol. 31 No. 8, 2010, pp. 3624-3629. doi:10.1016/j.matdes.2010.02.039
[10] C. T. Torrado, M. A. Franco, C. F. Gonzalez, M. A. Do mingues and V. G. Serrano, “Development of Adsor bents from Used Tires Rubber, Their Uses in the Adsorption of Organic and Inorganic Solutes in Aqueous Solution,” Fuel Processing Technology, Vol. 92, No. 2, 2011, pp. 206-212.
[11] S. Coiai, E. Passaglia and F. Ciardell, “Gradient Density Grafted Polymers on Ground Tire Rubber Particles by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization,” Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 207, No. 4, 2005, pp. 2289-2298. doi:10.1002/macp.200600376
[12] N. Shahidi, F. Taeymour and H. Arastoopour, “Amphiphilic Particulate Phase Semi-Interepenetrating Polymer Networks Based on Recycled Rubber Matrix,” Polymer, Vol. 45, No. 15, 2004, pp. 5183-5190.
[13] E. M. Adel-Bary, A. M. Dessouki., E. M. El-Neser and M. M. Hassan, “Radiation Induced Graft Copolymerization of Some Vinyl Monomers onto Waste Rubber Powder,” Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, Vol. 36, No. 2, 1997, pp. 241-256.
[14] A. Brydon, G. M. Burnett and G. G. Cameron, “Free Radical Grafting of Monomers to Polydienes. II. Kinetics and Mechanism of Styrene Grafting to Polybutadiene,” Jour nal of Polymer Science, Vol. 12, No. 5, 1974, pp. 1011-1021.
[15] Y. A. Aggour, A. S. Al-Shihri and M. R. Bazzt, “Recycling of Vulcanized Waste Rubber through Halogenations and Amination Chemical Reactions,” WIT Transaction on Ecology & Environment WIT Press, Vol. 120, No. 2, 2009, pp. 875-883.
[16] Y. A. Aggour, A. S. Al-Shihri and M. R. Bazzt, “Surface Modification of Waste Tire by Grafting with Styrene and Maleic Anhydride,” Open Journal of Polymer Chemistry, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2012, pp. 70-76.
[17] J. Travaa-Sejdic and A. J Easteal, “Equilibrium Swelling of Poly(AAm-co-AMPS) Gels in Surfactant Solutions,” Polymer, Vol. 41, No. 20, 2000, pp. 7451-7458.
[18] K. Ito and T. Shibano, “Process for the Preparation of Water Absorptive Composite Material,” Mitsubishi Petrochemical Co. Ltd., Kokai, 1988.
[19] M. Matsukata, M. Hirata, J. P. Gong, Y. Osada, Y. Sakurai and T. Okano, “Two-Step Surfactant Binding of Solvated and Cross-linked Poly(N-propylacrylamide-co (2-acrylamido-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid),” Colloid and Polymer Science, Vol. 276, No. 12, 1998, pp. 11.
[20] Y. A. Aggour, “Reaction Kinetics of Graft Coolyme rization and Thermochemical Studies of the Degradation of Some PVA Graf Copolymer,” Polymer International, Vol. 50, No. 4, 2001, pp. 347-353.
[21] D. Hunkeler, “Macromolecules Mechanism and Kinetics of the Persulfate-Initiated Polymerization of Acrylamide,” Macromolecules, Vol. 24, No. 9, 1991, pp. 2160-2171. doi:10.1021/ma00009a004
[22] C. Nakason, A. Kaesaman and P. Supasanthitikul, “The Grafting of Maleic Anhydride onto Natural Rubber,” Po lymer Testing, Vol. 23, No. 1, 2004, pp. 35-41. doi:10.1016/S0142-9418(03)00059-X
[23] Y. A. Aggour, G. Bekhat and A. M. Atia, “Copolyme rization and Thermal Investigation of AMPS with Acry lonitrile,” Journal of Polymer Materials, Vol. 17, No. 3, 2000, p. 193.
[24] Y. A. Aggour, “Modification of Polystyrene Properties through N-vinylcarboxamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic Acid Monomer,” Polymer International, Vol. 53, No. 12, 2004, pp. 1930-1935. doi:10.1002/pi.999
[25] J. T. Guthrie and P. D. Dune, “The Preparation, Characterization, and Application of Cellulose-MMA Graft Copolymers. I. The Aqueous-Based Preparation of Cellulose-MMA Graft Copolymers,” Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry, Vol. 29, No. 9, 1991, pp. 1301-1312.
[26] L. J. Bellamy, “The Infrared Spectra of Complex Molecules,” Wiley, New York, 1964.
[27] F. Chen and J. Quian, “Studies of the Thermal Degradation of Waste Rubber,” Waste Management, Vol. 23, No. 6, 2003, pp. 463-467.
[28] G. S. Miguel, J. Aguodo, D. P. Serrano and J. M. Escola, “Thermal and Catalytic Conversion of Used Tyre Rubber and Its Polymeric Constituents Using Py-GC/MS,” Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Vol. 64, No. 3-4, 2006, pp. 209-219.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.