Scientific Research

An Academic Publisher

Swarm Intelligence in Power System Planning

**Author(s)**Leave a comment

Power system planning is one of the essential tasks in the power system operation management, which requires in-depth knowledge of the system under consideration. It can be regarded as a nonlinear, discontinuous, constrained multi objective optimization problem. Although the traditional optimization tools can be used, the modern planning problem requires more advanced optimization tools. In this paper, a survey of state-of-the-art mathematical optimization methods that facilitates power system planning is provided, and the needs of introducing swarm intelligence approaches into power system planning are discussed.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

K. Meng, Z. Y. Dong and Y. C. Qiao, "Swarm Intelligence in Power System Planning,"

*International Journal of Clean Coal and Energy*, Vol. 2 No. 2B, 2013, pp. 1-7. doi: 10.4236/ijcce.2013.22B001.

[1] | F. F. Wu, Z. Yen, Y. H. Hou and Y. X. Ni, “Applications of AI Techniques to Generation Planning and Investment,” 2004 IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting, Vol. 1, 2004, pp. 936-940. |

[2] | G. Y. Yang, “Applying Advanced Methods to Power System Planning Studies,” Ph.D. thesis, the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, Oct. 2008. |

[3] | A. Mazer, “Electric Power Planning for Regulated and Deregulated Markets,” IEEE Press, Wiley Inter-science, 2007. |

[4] | J. H. Zhao, Z. Y. Dong, P. Lindsay and K. P. Wong, “Flexible Transmission Expansion Planning with Uncertainties in an Electricity Market,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 24, No. 1, 2009, pp. 479-488. doi.org/10.1109/TPWRS.2008.2008681 |

[5] | E. Bonabeau, M. Dorigo and G. Theraulaz, “Swarm Intelligence: From Natural to Artificial Systems,” 1st ed, London, U.K.: Oxford Univ., 1999. |

[6] | J. Kennedy, R. Eberhart and Y. Shi, “Swarm Intelligence,” 1st ed. San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 2001. |

[7] | A. Engelbrecht, “Fundamentals of Computational Swarm Intelligence” 1st ed. New York: Wiley, 2005. |

[8] | A. Engelbrecht, X. Li, M. Middendorf and L.M. Gambardella, “Editorial Special Issue: Swarm Intelligence,” IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, Vol. 13, No. 4, 2009, pp. 677-680. doi:10.1109/TEVC.2009.2022002 |

[9] | D. Merkle and M. Middendorf, “Swarm Intelligence and Signal Processing,” IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, Vol. 25, No. 6, 2008, pp. 152-158. doi:10.1109/MSP.2008.929839 |

[10] | M. G. Hinchey, R. Sterritt and C. Rouff, “Swarms and Swarm Intelligence,” Computers, Vol. 40, No. 4, 2007, pp. 111-113. doi:10.1109/MC.2007.144 |

[11] | M. Dorigo and T. Stützle, “Ant Colony Optimization,” Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, Vol. 3172, 2004, pp. 1-12. doi:10.1007/b99492 |

[12] | S. Goss, S. Aron, J. L. Deneubourg and J. M. Pasteels, “Self-Organized Shortcuts in the Argentine Ant,” Naturwissenschaften, Vol. 76, No. 12, 1989, pp. 579-581. doi:10.1007/BF00462870 |

[13] | M. Dorigo, M. Birattari and T. Stützle, “Ant Colony Optimization: Artificial Ants as a Computational Intelligence Technique,” Computational Intelligence Magazine on IEEE, Vol. 1, No. 4, 2006, pp. 28-39. doi:10.1109/MCI.2006.329691 |

[14] | T. Stützle and M. Dorigo, “ACO Algorithms for the Quadratic Assignment Problem,” in D. Corne, M. Dorigo, and F. Glover, (eds): New Ideas in Optimization, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1999. |

[15] | M. Dorigo, V. Maniezzo and A. Colorni, “Ant System: Optimization by a Colony of Cooperating Agents,” IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybern. Part-B, Vol. 26, No. 1, 1996, pp. 29-41. |

[16] | M. Birattari, P. Pellegrini and M. Dorigo, “On the Invariance of Ant Colony Optimization,” IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, Vol. 11, No. 6, 2007, pp. 732-742. doi:10.1109/TEVC.2007.892762 |

[17] | M. Dorigo and L. M. Gambardella, “Ant Colony Sstem: A Cooperative learning approach to the traveling salesman problem,” IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1997, pp. 53-66. doi:10.1109/4235.585892 |

[18] | M. Zlochin, M. Birattari, N. Meuleau and M. Dorigo, “Model-based Search for Combinatorial Optimization: A Critical Survey,” Annals of Operations Research, Vol. 131, No. 1-4, 2004, pp. 373-395. doi:10.1023/B:ANOR.0000039526.52305.af |

[19] | J. Kennedy and R. Eberhart, “Particle Swarm Otimization,” IEEE Int. Conf. Neural Network, Perth, Australia, 1995, pp. 1942-1948. |

[20] | J. Kennedy, “The Particle Swarm: Social Adaptation of Knowledge,” IEEE Int. Conf. Evol. Comput., 1997, pp. 303-308. |

[21] | J. Kennedy, “Small Worlds and Megaminds: Effects of NCZGDbourhood Topology on Particle Swarm Performance,” Proc. IEEE Congr. Evol. Comput., Vol. 3, 1999, pp. 1931-1938. |

[22] | Y. Shi and R. Eberhart, “Parameter Selection in Particle Swarm Optimization,” Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 1447, 1998, pp. 591-600. doi:10.1007/BFb0040810 |

[23] | Y. del Valle, G. K. Venayagamoorthy, S. Mohagheghi, J. C. Hernandez and R. G. Harley, “Particle Swarm Optimization: Basic Concepts, Variants and Applications in power Systems,” IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2008, pp. 171-195. doi:10.1109/TEVC.2007.896686 |

[24] | Z. Y. Dong, K. P. Wong, X. Zhou and C. Ziser, “New Issues on Reliable and Efficient Operation of the National Electricity Market of Australia”, Proc DRPT, 2008, Nanjing, China, Apr 2008. |

[25] | P. Masse and R. Gilbrat, “Application of Linear Programming to Investments in the Electric Power Industry,” Management Science, Vol. 3, No. 2, 1957, pp. 149-166. doi:10.1287/mnsc.3.2.149 |

[26] | W. Rutz, M. Becker, F. E. Wicks and S. Yerazunis, “Sequential Objective Linear Programming for Generation Planning,” IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-98, No. 6, 1979, pp. 2015-2021. doi:10.1109/TPAS.1979.319394 |

[27] | J. K. Delson and S. M. Shahidehpour, “Linear Programming Applications to Power System Economics, Planning and Operations,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 7, No. 3, 1992, pp. 1155-1163. doi:10.1109/59.207329 |

[28] | A. Ramos, I. J. Perez-Arriaga and J. Bogas, “A Nonlinear Programming Approach to Optimal Static Generation expansion Planning,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 4, No. 3, 1989, pp. 1140-1146. doi:10.1109/59.32610 |

[29] | R. T. Jenkins and D. S. Joy, “Wien Automatic System Planning Package (WASP) - An Electric Utility Optimal Generation Expansion Planning Computer Code,” Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, ORNL 4945, 1974. |

[30] | A. K. David and R. D. Zhao, “Integrating Expert Systems with Snamic Programming in Generation Expansion Planning,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 4, No. 3,1989, pp. 1095-1101.doi:10.1109/59.32604 |

[31] | R. Tanabe, K. Yasuda, R. Yokoyama and H. Sasaki, “Flexible Generation Mix under Multi Objectives and Uncertainties,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1993, pp. 581-587. doi:10.1109/59.260824 |

[32] | B. F. Hobbs, “Optimization Methods for Electric Utility resource planning,” European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 83, No. 1, 1995, pp. 1-20. doi:0.1016/0377-2217(94)00190-N |

[33] | Y. M. Park, J. B. Park and J. R. Won, “A Hybrid Genetic algorithm/dynamic Programming Approach to Optimal Long-term Generation Expansion Planning,” Electrical Power and Energy Systems, Vol. 20, No. 4, 1998, pp. 295-303. doi:10.1016/S0142-0615(97)00070-7 |

[34] | J. A. Bloom, “Long-range Generation Planning Uing Decomposition and Probabilistic Simulation,” IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-101, No. 4, 1982, pp. 797-802. doi:10.1109/TPAS.1982.317144 |

[35] | Y. M. Park, K. Y. Lee and L. T. O. Youn, “New Analytical Approach for Long-term Generation Expansion Planning Based on Maximum Principle and Gaussian Distribution Function,” IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-104, No. 2,1985, pp. 390-397. doi:10.1109/TPAS.1985.319054 |

[36] | Y. M. Park, J. R. Won, J. B. Park and D. G. Kim, “Generation Expansion Planning Based on an Advanced Evolutionary Programming,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 14, No. 1,1999, pp. 299-305. doi:10.1109/59.744547 |

[37] | Y. L. Chen, and C. C. Liu, “Interactive fuzzy Satisfying Method for Optimal Multi-objective VAR Planning in Power Systems,” IEE Proceedings - Generation, Transmission and Distribution, Vol. 141, No. 6, 1994, pp. 554-560. doi:10.1049/ip-gtd:19941459 |

[38] | Y. Fukuyama and H. D. Chiang, “A Parallel Genetic Algorithm for Generation Expansion Planning,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1996, pp. 955-961. doi:10.1109/59.496180 |

[39] | J. B. Park, Y. M. Park, J. R. Won and K. Y. Lee, “An Improved Genetic Algorithm for Generation Expansion Planning,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 15, No. 3, 2000, pp. 916-922. doi:10.1109/59.871713 |

[40] | H. Teixeira Firmo, L. F. Loureiro and Legey, “Generation Expansion Planning: An Iterative Genetic Algorithm ApProach,” IEEE Transactions on Power Sys-tems, Vol. 17, No. 3, 2002, pp. 901-906. doi:10.1109/TPWRS.2002.801036 |

[41] | G. B. Shrestha, B. K. Pokharel, T.T. Lie, and S. E. Fleten, “Management of Price Uncertainty in Short-Term Generation Planning,” IET Proceedings - Generation, Transmission and Distribution, Vol. 2, No. 4, 2008, pp. 491-504.doi:10.1049/iet-gtd:20070177 |

[42] | H. A. Shayanfar, A. Saliminia Lahiji, J. Aghaei and A. Rabiee, “Generation Expansion Planning in Pool Market: a Hybrid Modified Game Theory and Improved Genetic Algorithm,” Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 50, No. 5, 2009, pp. 1149-1156. doi:10.1016/j.enconman.2009.02.001 |

[43] | S. L. Chen, T. S. Zhan and M. T. Tsay, “Generation Expansion Planning of the Utility with Refined Immune Algorithm,” Electric Power Systems Research, Vol. 76, No. 4, 2006, pp. 251-258. doi:10.1016/j.epsr.2005.06.005 |

[44] | S. Kannan, S. M. R. Slochanal, P. Subbaraj and N.P. Padhy, “Application of Particle Swarm Optimization Technique and Its Variants to Generation Expansion Planning Problem,” Electric Power Systems Re-search, Vol. 70, No. 3, 2004, pp. 203-210. doi:10.1016/j.epsr.2003.12.009 |

[45] | H. Shayeghi, A. Pirayeshnegab, A. Jalili, and H. A. Shayanfar, “Application of PSO Technique for GEP in Restructured Power Systems,” Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 50, No. 9, 2009, pp. 2127-2135. doi:10.1016/j.enconman.2009.04.018 |

[46] | K. P. Wong and Y. W. Wong, “Combined Genetic Algorithm / simulated annealing / fuzzy Set Approach to Shortterm Generation Scheduling with TakeorPay Fuel Contract,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 1, 1996, No. 1. |

[47] | J. X. Zhu and M. Y. Chow, “A Review of Emerging Techniques on Generation Expansion Planning,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 12, No. 4, 1997, pp. 1722-1728. doi:10.1109/59.627882 |

[48] | S. Kannan, S. M. R. Slochanal and N. P. Padhy, “Application and Comparison of Metaheuristic Techniques to Generation Expansion Planning Problem,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2005, pp. 466-475. doi:10.1109/TPWRS.2004.840451 |

[49] | S. Kannan, S. M. R. Slochanal, S. Baskar, and P. Murugan, “Application and Comparison of Metaheuristic Techniques to Generation Expansion Planning in the Partially Deregulated Environment,” IET Proceedings - Generation, Transmission and Distribution, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2007, pp. 111-118. doi:10.1049/iet-gtd:20050271 |

[50] | J. B. Park, K. S. Lee, J. R. Shin and K. Y. Lee, “A Particle Swarm Optimization for Economic Dispatch with Non-smooth Cost Functions,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2005, pp. 34-42. doi:10.1109/TPWRS.2004.831275 |

[51] | Z. Xu, Z. Y. Dong and K. P. Wong, “Transmission Planning in a Deregulated Environment,” IEE Proceedings - Generation, Transmission and Distribution, Vol. 153, No. 3, May 2006, pp. 326-334. |

[52] | Z. Xu, Z. Y. Dong and K. P. Wong, “A Hybrid Planning Method for Transmission Networks in a Deregulated Environment,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 21, No. 2, 2006, pp. 925-932. doi:10.1109/TPWRS.2006.873134 |

[53] | K. Wissman, “Review of the Ohio Power Siting Board Process,” http://www.nrucpartnerships.org. |

[54] | A. K. David and F. S. Wen, “Transmission Planning and Investment under Competitive Electricity Market Environment,” 2001 IEEE Power Engineering Society Summer Meeting, Vol. 3, 2001, pp. 1725-1730. |

[55] | J. C. Kaltenback, J. Peschon and E. H. Gehrin, “A Mathematical Optimization Technique for the Expansion of Electric Power Transmission Systems,” IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-89, No. 1, 1970, pp. 113-119. doi:10.1109/TPAS.1970.292677 |

[56] | A. Monticelli, A. Santos, M. V. F. Pereira, S. H. F. Cunha, B. J. Parker and J. C. G. Praca, “Interactive Transmission Network Planning Using Least-effort Criterion,” IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-101, No. 10, 1982, pp. 3919-3925. doi:10.1109/TPAS.1982.317043 |

[57] | A. Monticelli, A. Santos, M. V. F. Pereira, S. H. F. Cunha, B. J. Parker and J. C. G. Praca, “Interactive Transmission Network Planning Using Least-effort Criterion,” IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-101, No. 10, 1982, pp. 3919-3925. doi:10.1109/TPAS.1982.317043 |

[58] | R. Villasana, L. L. Garver, and S. J. Salon, “Transmission net Work Planning Using Linear Programming,” IEEE Transactions on Power Appa-ratus and Systems, Vol. PAS-104, No. 2, 1985, pp. 349-356. doi:10.1109/TPAS.1985.319049 |

[59] | A. dos Santos, Jr. P.M. Franca and A. Said, “An Optimization Model for Long-range Transmission Expansion planning,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 4, No. 1, 1989, pp. 94-101. doi:10.1109/59.32462 |

[60] | R. Romero and A. Monticelli, “A Hierarchical Decomposition Approach for Transmission Network Expansion Planning,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 9, No. 1, 1994, pp. 373-380. doi:10.1109/59.317588 |

[61] | R. Romero and A. Monticelli, “A Zero-one Implicit Enumeration Method for Optimizing Investments in Transmission Expansion Planning,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 9, No. 3, 1994, pp. 1385-1391. doi:10.1109/59.336126 |

[62] | G. Latorre-Bayona and I. J. Perez-Arriaga, “Chopin: A Heuristic Model for Long Term Transmission Expansion Planning,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 9, No. 4, 1994, pp. 1886-1894. doi:10.1109/59.331446 |

[63] | N. Alguacil, A. L. Motto and A. J. Conejo, “Transmission Expansion Planning: A Mixed-integer LP Approach,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 18, No. 3, 2003, pp. 1070-1077. doi:10.1109/TPWRS.2003.814891 |

[64] | M. Carrion, J. M. Arroyo and N. Alguacil, “VulnerabilIty-constrained Transmission Expansion Planning: A Stochastic Programming Approach,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 22, No. 4, 2007, pp. 1436-1445. doi.org/10.1109/TPWRS.2007.907139 |

[65] | Y. P. Dusonchet and A. H. El-Abiad, “Transmission Planning Using Discrete Dynamic Optimization,” IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-92, No. 4, 1973, pp. 1358-1371. doi:10.1109/TPAS.1973.293543 |

[66] | R. C. G. Teive, E. L. Silva and L. G. S. Fonseca, “A Cooperative Expert System for Transmission Expansion Planning of Electrical Power Systems,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 3, No. 2, 1998, pp. 636-642. doi:10.1109/59.667393 |

[67] | C. Jaeseok, A. A. El-Keib and T. Tran, “A Fuzzy Branch and Bound-Based Transmission System Expansion Planning for the Highest Satisfaction Level of the Decision Maker,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2005, pp. 476-484. doi:10.1109/TPWRS.2004.840446 |

[68] | R. Romero, R. A. Gallego and A. Monticelli, “Transmission System Expansion Planning by Simulated an-Nealing,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 11, No. 1, 1996, pp. 364-369. doi:10.1109/59.486119 |

[69] | A. S. D. Braga and J. T. Saraiva, “A Multiyear Dynamic Approach for Transmission Expansion Planning and Long-term Marginal Costs Computation,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 20, No. 3, 2005, pp. 1631-1639. doi:10.1109/TPWRS.2005.852121 |

[70] | R. A. Gallego, R. Romero and A. J. Monticelli, “Tabu search Algorithm for Network Synthesis,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 15, No. 2, 2000, pp. 490-495.doi:10.1109/59.867130 |

[71] | A. H. Scobar, R. A. Gallego and R. Romero, “Multistage and Coordinated Planning of the Expansion of Transmission Systems,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 19, No. 2, 2004, pp. 735-744. doi:10.1109/TPWRS.2004.825920 |

[72] | R. Romero, M. J. Rider and I. deJ. Silva, “A Metaheuristic to Solve the Transmission Expansion Planning,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 22, No. 4, 2007, pp. 2289-2291. doi:10.1109/TPWRS.2007.907592 |

[73] | P. Maghouli, S. H. Hosseini, M. O. Buygi and M. Shahidehpour, “A Multi-objective Framework for Transmission Expansion Planning in Deregulated Environments,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 24, No. 2, 2009, pp. 1051-1061. doi:10.1109/TPWRS.2009.2016499 |

[74] | T. Sum-Im, G. A. Taylor, M. R. Irving and Y. H. Song, “Differential Evolution Algorithm for Static and Multistage Transmission Expansion Planning,” IET Proceedings - Generation, Transmission and Distribution, Vol. 3, No. 4, 2009, pp. 365-384. doi:10.1049/iet-gtd.2008.0446 |

[75] | Y. X. Jin, H. Z. Cheng, J. Y. Yan and L. Zhang, “New Discrete Method for Particle Swarm Optimization and Its Application in Transmission Network Expansion Planning,” Electric Power Systems Research, Vol. 77, 2007, pp. 227-233. doi:10.1016/j.epsr.2006.02.016 |

[76] | H. Shayeghi, M. Mahdavi and A. Bagheri, “Discrete PSO Algorithm Based Optimization of Transmission Lines Loading in TNEP Problem,” Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 51, 2010, pp. 112-121. doi:10.1016/j.enconman.2009.08.030 |

[77] | Z. Y. Dong, K. P. Wong, K. Meng, F. Luo, F. Yao and J. Zhao, “Wind Power Impact on System Operations and Planning” Proceedings of IEEE PES General Meeting 2010. doi:10.1109/PES.2010.5590222 |

[78] | G. Chen, D. J. Hill and Z. Y. Dong, “Tansmission Network Expansion Planning with Wind Energy Integration: A Stochastic Programming Model”, IEEE PES General Meeting, San Diego, CA, USA 22-26 May 2012. |

[79] | G.Y. Yang, Z. Y. Dong and K. P. Wong, “Differential Evolution with Niche Method in the Application of Power System Planning”, (Chapter 3) in Z. Xu and Z. Fan edit, Evolutionary Computing for Intelligent Power System Optimization and Control, Nova Publishers, series in Energy Science, Engineering and Technology, published 4th Quarter, 2010. |

[80] | J. H. Zhao, Z. Y. Dong, J. Foster and K. P. Wong, “Flexible Transmission Network Planning Considering Distributed Generation Impacts,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 24, No. 1, 2009, pp. 479-488. |

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.