Share This Article:

Characteristic and Performance of Elementary Hemp Fibre

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:568KB) PP. 336-342
DOI: 10.4236/msa.2010.16049    5,816 Downloads   10,795 Views   Citations
Author(s)    Leave a comment


This paper presents systematic and improved methodologies to characterize the surface and fracture of elementary hemp fibres by Field Emission Scanning Microscope (FE-SEM), determine the Microfibril Angles (MFA) by an advanced microscopy technology and examine the crystallinity by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). The results showed that 1) There existed various deformations/defects in elementary hemp fibres, showing four types of deformations, namely kink bands, dislocations, nodes and slip planes. The crack on the surface of elementary fibres was the initial breaking point under stress; 2) Under tension the primary wall and secondary wall of hemp fibres showed different deformation and breaking behaviour. The crack initiated in a weak point of primary wall and subsequently propagated along radial direction from S1 to S2 layers; 3) The average MFA for the broken regions of S2 layer was 6.16? compared to 2.65? for the normal hemp fibres and the breaking of hemp fibres occurred at the points where had the biggest MFA; 4) The average MFA was 2.65? for S2 layer and 80.35? for S1 layer; 5) the Crystallinity Index (CI) determined by XRD and FTIR was very similar, showing the lattice parameters of the hemp fibres tested a = 6.97 Å, b = 6.26 Å, c = 11.88 Å and γ = 97.21?, and the ratio of 1423 to 896 cm-1 was found more suitable for CI evaluation for hemp fibres.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

D. Dai and M. Fan, "Characteristic and Performance of Elementary Hemp Fibre," Materials Sciences and Applications, Vol. 1 No. 6, 2010, pp. 336-342. doi: 10.4236/msa.2010.16049.


[1] J. W. Roulac, “Hemp Horizons: The Comeback of the World’s Most Promising Plant,” Chelsea Green Publishing Co., White River Junction, 1997.
[2] G. Beckermann, “Performance of Hemp-Fibre Reinforced Polypropylene Composite Materials,” Waikato University, Hamilton, 2007.
[3] P. G. Stafford and J. Bigwood, “Psychedelics Encyclopedia. Berkeley, California,” Ronin Publishing, Inc, Oakland, 1992.
[4] B. B. Jungbauernschaft, “Biomasse-Nachwachsende Rohstoffe,” In: Fakten & Trends 2002 Zur Situation der Landwitschaft, Eggenfelden, 2002, pp. 191-207.
[5] M. D. Candilo, P. Ranalli, C. Bozzi and B. Focher, “Preliminary Results of Tests Facing with the Controlled Retting of Hemp,” Industrial Crops and Products, Vol. 11, No. 2, 2001, pp. 197-203.
[6] B. M. Prasad and M. M. Sain, “Mechanical Properties of Thermally Treated Hemp Fibres in Inert Atmosphere for Potential Composite Reinforcement,” Materials Research Innovation, Vol. 7, No. 4, 2003, pp. 231-238.
[7] H. J. Purz, H. P. Fink and H. Graf, “The Structure of Natural Cellulosic Fibres. Part I: The Structure of Bast Fibres and Their Changes by Scouring and Mercerization as Revealed by Optical and Electron Microscopy,” Das Papier, Vol. 6, No. 52, 1998, pp. 315-324.
[8] R. P. Kibblewhite, “Fractures and Dislocations in the Walls of Kraft and Bisulphite Pulp Fibres,” Cellulose Chemistry Technology, Vol. 10, No. 4, 1976, pp. 297-503.
[9] P. Hoffmeyer, “Non-Linear Creep Caused by Slip Plane Formation,” Wood Science Technology, Vol. 27, No. 5, 1993, pp. 321-335. U. B. Mohlin, J. Dahlbom and J. Hornatowska, “Fibre Deformation and Sheet Strength,” Journal of Tappi, Vol. 79, No. 6, 1996, pp. 105-111.
[10] U. B. Mohlin, J. Dahlbom and J. Hornatowska, “Fibre Deformation and Sheet Strength,” Journal of Tappi, Vol. 79, No. 6, 1996, pp. 105-111
[11] M. J. Ellis, G. G. Duffy, R. W. Allison and R. P. Kibblewhite, “Fibre Deformation During Medium Consistency Mixing: Role of Residence Time and Impeller Geometry,” Appita Journal, Vol. 51, No. 1, 1998, pp. 643-649.
[12] R. W. Allison, M. J. Ellis and R. P. Kibblewhite, “Effect of Mechanical Processes on the Strength of Oxygen Delignified Kraft Pulp,” Proceedings of the 1998 International Pulp Bleaching Conference, Helsinki,, 1998, pp. 159-166.
[13] C. H. Ljungqvist, R. Lyng and F. Thuvander, “Influence of Observable Damage on Spruce Latewood Pulp Fibre Properties,” Sustainable Natural and Polymeric Composites-Science and Technology, Proceedings from the 23rd Ris? International Symposium on Materials Science, 2002, pp. 231-238.
[14] C. Baley, “Influence of Kink Bands on the Tensile Strength of Flax Fibres,” Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 39, No. 1, 2004, pp. 331-334.
[15] J. Andersons, E. Sparnins and E. PoriKe, “Strength Distribution of Elementary Flax Fibres for Composite Reinforcement,” 11th Int. Inorgantic-Bonded Fibre Composites Conference. Madrid, 2008.
[16] H. L. Bos, Van den Oever MJA and O. C. J. J. Peters, “The Influence of Fibre Structure and Deformation on the Fracture Behaviour of Flax Fibre Reinforced Composites,” Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Deformation and Fracture of Composites, Manchester, 1997, pp. 499-504.
[17] H. L. BOS and A. M. Donald, “In Situ ESEM Study of the Deformation of Elementary Flax Fibres,” Journal of Materials Sciences, Vol. 34, No. 13, 1999, pp. 3029-3034.
[18] L. G. Thygesen, J. B. Bilde-S?rensen and P. Hoffmeyer, “Visualisation of Dislocations in Hemp Fibres A Comparison between Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Polarized Light Microscopy (PLM),” Industrial Crops and Products, Vol. 24, No. 2, 2006, pp. 181-185.
[19] W. Y. Hamad and S. J. Eichhorn, “Deformation Micromechanics of Cellulose Fibres,” Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology, Vol. 119, No. 3, 1997, pp. 309-313.
[20] S. J. Eichhorn, R. J. Young and W. Y. Yeh, “Deformation Processes in Regenerated Cellulose Fibres,” Textile Research Journal, Vol. 71, No. 2, 2001, pp. 121-129.
[21] S. J. Eichhorn, “Strain Induced Raman Shifts in the Spectra of Natural Cellulose Fibres,” Journal of Materials Science Letters, Vol. 19, No. 3, 2000. pp. 721-723.
[22] S. K. Kovur, K. Schenzel and W. Diepenbrock, “Orientation Dependent FT Raman Microspectroscopy on Hemp Fibres,” Macromolecular Symposia, Vol. 265, No. 1, 2008, pp. 205-210.
[23] L. Mott, S. M. Shaler and L. H. Groom, “A Technique to Measure Strain Distributions in Single Wood Pulp Fibres,” Wood and Fibre Science, Vol. 28, No. 4, 1996, pp. 439-437.
[24] J. H. Greenwood and P. G. Rose, “Compressive Behaviour of Kevlar 49 Fibres and Composites,” Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 9, No. 11, 1974, pp. 1809-1814.
[25] T. Nilsson and P. J. Gustafsson, “Influence of Dislocations and Plasticity on the Tensile Behaviour of Flax and Hemp Fibres,” Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Vol. 38, No. 7, 2007, pp. 1722-1728.
[26] B. Focher, “Physical Properties of Flax Fibre,” In: H. S. Sharma and C. F. Sumere van, Eds., The Biology and Processing of Flax, M Publications, Belfast, 1992, p. 333.
[27] M. Hughes, G. Sebe and J. Hague, “Investigation into the Effects of Micro-Compressive Defects on Interphase Behaviour in Hemp-Epoxy Composites Using Half-Fringe Photoelasticity,” Composite Interfaces, Vol. 7, No. 1, 2000, pp. 13-29.
[28] W. Y. Hamad, “Some Microrheological Aspects of Wood-Pulp Fibres Subjected to Fatigue Loading,” Cellulose, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 51-56.
[29] H. E. Gram, “Durability of Natural Fibres in Concrete,” Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute, 1983, pp. 225.
[30] L. Segal, J. J. Creely, A. E. Martin and C. M. Conrad., “An Empirical Method for Estimating the Degree of Crystallinity of Native Cellulose Using the X-Ray Diffractometer,” Textile Research Journal, Vol. 29, No. 10, 1959, pp. 786-794.
[31] M. B. Roncero, A. L. Torres, J. F. Colom and T. Vidal, “The Effect of Xylanase on Lignocellulosic Components during the Bleaching of Wood Pulps,” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 96, No. 1, 2005, pp. 21-30.
[32] H. P. Fink, E. Walenta and J. Kunze, “The Structure of Natural Cellulosic Fibres-Part 2. The Supermolecular Structure of Bast Fibres and Their Changes by Mercerization as Revealed by X-Ray Diffraction and 13C-NMR-Spectroscopy,” Papier, Vol. 53, No. 9, 1999, pp. 534-542.
[33] A. Thygesen, G. Daniel and H. Lilholt, “Hemp Fibre Microstructure and Use of Fungal Defibration to Obtain Fibres for Composite Materials,” Journal of Natural fibres, Vol. 2, No. 4, 2006, pp. 19-37.
[34] Y. Kataoka and T. Kondo, “FT-IR Microscopic Analysis of Changing Cellulose Crystalline Structure during Wood Cell Wall Formation,” Macromolecules, Vol. 31, No. 3, 1998, pp. 760-764.
[35] R. T. O’Connor, E. F. Dupre and D. Mitchman, “Applications of Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy to Investigations of Cotton and Modified Cottons,” Textile Research Journal, Vol. 28, No. 5, 1958, pp. 382-392.
[36] L. Ferru and P. Page, “Water Retention Value and Degree of Crystallinity by Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy in Caustic Soda Treated Cotton,” Cellulose Chemistry and Technology, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1977, pp. 633-637.
[37] M. L. Troedec, D. Sedan, C. Peyratout, J. P. Bonneta, A. Smitha, R. Guinebretiereb, V. Gloaguenc and P. Krauszc, “Influence of Various Chemical Treatments on the Composition and Structure of Hemp Fibres,” Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Vol. 39, No. 3, 2008, pp. 514-522.
[38] H. L. Bos, M. J. A. Van den Oever and O. C. J. J. Peters, “Tensile and Compressive Properties of Flax Fibres for Natural Fibre Reinforced Composites,” Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 37, No. 8, 2002, pp. 1683-1692.
[39] K. Persson, “Modelling of Wood Properties by a Micromechanical Approach,” Lund University, Lund, 1997.
[40] A. K. Bledzki and J. Gassan, “Composites Reinforced with Cellulose Based Fibres,” Progress in Polymer Science, Vol. 24, No. 2, 1999, pp. 221-274.
[41] A. Thygesen, “Properties of Hemp Fibre Polymer Composites—An Optimization of Fibre Properties Using Novel Defibration Methods and Fibre Characterization,” Royal Agricultural and Veterinary University of Denmark, Roskilde, 2006.
[42] E. C. Mclaughlin and R. A. Tait, “Fracture Mechanism of Plant Fibres,” Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 15, No. 1, 1980, pp. 89-95.
[43] U. B. Mohlin and C. Alfredsson, “Fibre Deformation and Its Implications in Pulp Characterization,” Nordic Pulp and Paper Research Journal, Vol. 5, No. 4, 1990, pp. 172-179.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.