Share This Article:

The Limnology of Ohana Lake, a Potential Manmade Aquaculture System in Nigeria

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:615KB) PP. 232-246
DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2013.32031    2,944 Downloads   5,088 Views  
Author(s)    Leave a comment

ABSTRACT


The concentrations of heavy metals (Fe > Zn > Cu > Pb > Ag) in bottom sediments and fish gills in Ohana Lake, were found to be significantly high and far exceeded FEPA and WHO environmental standards for water quality by 1.5 to 18 times, respectively. Six classes of each of phytoplankton and zooplankton with a total of 35 phytoplankton taxa comprising 46 species i.e. 35(46) and 22(28) faunal were observed. The class Chlorophyceae dominated the phytoplankton community with 18(22) followed by Cyanobacteria 6(10). The aquatic fauna was dominated by the Rotifera 8(11), followed by the Copepoda 6(9). The benthic flora community consisted of five classes of phytoplankton made up of 28(36). The class Bacillariophyceae 11(15) dominated the group followed by Chlorophyceae 10(11). Benthic fauna were made up of seven classes of 13(13). The dominant class Nemata 4(4) was followed closely by Protozoa 2(3). Ohana Lake is fast turning to a eutrophic ecosystem with accompanied algal bloom due to very high nutrient contents. The equitability or evenness indices (J) for both phytoplankton and zooplankton were lowly indicating generally low species diversities as well as predominantly unstable ecosystem. The aquacultural implications of these parameters are discussed.


Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

P. Ajah, "The Limnology of Ohana Lake, a Potential Manmade Aquaculture System in Nigeria," Open Journal of Applied Sciences, Vol. 3 No. 2, 2013, pp. 232-246. doi: 10.4236/ojapps.2013.32031.

References

[1] D. E. Schindler, S. I. Geib and M. R. Williams. “Patterns of Fish Growth along a Residential Development Gradient in North Temperate Lake,” Ecosystems, Vol. 3, No. 3, 2000, pp. 229-237. doi:10.1007/s100210000022
[2] S. Punita and S. C. Gajaria. “Feasibility and Utility of Green Algae for Metal Remedy,” Indian Hydrobiology, Vol. 7, No. 1-2, 2004, pp. 85-88.
[3] A. A. Adebisi, “The Physicochemical Hydrology of a Tropical Seasonal River, Upper-Ogun River,” Hydrobiologia, Vol. 79, No. 2, 1981, pp. 157-165. doi:10.1007/BF00006123
[4] A. M. A. Imevbore, “The Chemistry of the River Niger in the Kainji Reservoir Area,” Arch. Hydrobiologia, Vol. 30, 1970, pp. 154-176.
[5] I. F. Adeniyi, “Studies of the Physicochemical Factors and the Planktonic Algae of Lake Kainji, Nigeria,” Ph.D. Thesis, University of Ife, Ile-Ife, 1978.
[6] G. K. Iwama, M. M. Vijayan and J. D. Morgan, “The Stress Response in Fish,” Ichthyology, Recent Research Advances, Oxford & IBH Publishing Co., Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 2000.
[7] K. L. Sachidanandamurthy and H. N. Yajurvedi, “Monthly Variations of Water Quality Parameters (Physico-Chemical) of a Perennial Lake in Mysore City,” Indian Hydrobiology, Vol. 7, No. 1-2, 2004, pp. 217-228.
[8] D. J. Forsyth and R. H. S. McColl, “Limnology of Lake Ngahewa, North Island N.Z,” Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, Vol. 9, No. 1, 1975, pp. 311-332.
[9] J. M. Melack, “Primary Productivity and Fish Yields in Tropical Lakes,” Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, Vol. 105, No. 5, 1976, pp. 575-580. doi:10.1577/1548-8659(1976)105<575:PPAFYI>2.0.CO;2
[10] T. R. Oglesby, “Relationship of Fish Yield to Lake Phytoplankton Standing Crop, Production and Morphoedaphic Index,” Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Vol. 34, No. 12, 1977, pp. 2271-2279. doi:10.1139/f77-305
[11] G. Idodo-Umeh, “Contaminations of Heavy Metals in Water and Hemichromis fasciatus of a Waste Pit Influenced by Petroleum Activities,” Tropical Freshwater Biology, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2007, pp. 45-56.
[12] H. P. Stirling, “Chemical and Biological Methods of Water Analysis for Aquaculture,” University of Stirling, Stir ling, 1985.
[13] H. I. Henderson, “The Significance of Limnology in the Development of Fisheries in Man-Made Lake and River Basins,” The Proceedings of the International Conference of Kainji Lake and River Basins Development in Africa, Ibadan, 11-17 December 1977.
[14] M. Holden and W. Reed, “West African Freshwater Fish,” Longman Group, London, 1978.
[15] G. E. Beedham, “Identification of the British Mollusca,” Pitman Press, Bath, 1972.
[16] H. Maochlan, “Illustration of Freshwater Plankton,” China Press, Kuala Lumpur, 1983.
[17] J. G. Needham and P. R. Needham, “A Guide to the Study of Freshwater Biology,” 5th Edition, Holden-Day, Inc., San Francisco, 1984.
[18] C. Y. Jeje and C. F. Fernando, “A Practical Guide to the Identification of Nigerian Zooplankton (Cladocera, Co pepoda and Rotifera),” KLRI, New Bussa, 1986.
[19] R. A. Vollenweider, “A Manual on Methods for Measuring Primary Production in Aquatic Environments,” IPB Handbook No. 12, 3rd Edition, Oxford Blackwell, Oxford, 1985.
[20] R. Rump and R. Krist, “Manual for the Laboratory Ex aminations of Water, Wastewater and Soil,” 1987.
[21] T. R. Parsons, Y. Maita and C. M. Lalli, “Manual of Chemical and Biological Methods for Seawater Analysis,” Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1984.
[22] APHA, “Standard Methods for the Examinations of Water and Wastewater,” 19th Edition, America Public Health Association, Washington DC, 1995.
[23] FEPA, “Federal Environmental Protection Agency. S.1.9 National Interim Guidelines and Standards for Industrial Effluents, Gaseous Emissions and Hazardous Waste Management in Nigeria,” 1991.
[24] World Health Organisation, “Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality,” WHO, Geneva, 1984.
[25] World Health Organisation, “Environmental Health Criteria, No. 10: Principles for Safety Assessment of Food Additives and Contaminants in Food,” WHO, Geneva, 1987.
[26] W. Chen, S. K. Tan and J. H. Tay, “Distribution, Fractional Composition and Release of Sediment-Bound Heavy Metals in Tropical Reservoirs,” Water, Air & Soil Pollution (Historical Archive), Vol. 92, No. 3-4, 1996, pp. 273-287.
[27] E. K. Ajani and S. O. Ayoola, “The Heavy Metals in the Muscle of Some Imported Frozen Fish in Ibadan, Nigeria,” Journal of Environmental Extension, Vol. 6, 2007, pp. 1-4. doi:10.4314/jext.v6i1.2753
[28] S. E. Kakulu and O. Osibanjo, “A Baseline Study of Mercury in Niger Delta Area of Nigeria,” Environmental Pollution, Vol. 11, No. 4, 1986, pp. 315-322. doi:10.1016/0143-148X(86)90048-0
[29] H. A. Hervey and C. Lee, “Hydrology and Plankton of Eleiyele Reservoir,” Hydrobiologia, Vol. 30, 1982, pp. 154-176.
[30] O. G. Adeyemi, G. O. Adediran and T. Oyeniyi, “Some Trace Elements Concentration in Variety of Fishes from Asa River, Ilorin, Nigeria,” Bioscience Research Communications, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1996, pp. 99-102.
[31] I. A. Amoo, O. T. Adebayo and A. J. Lateef, “Evaluation of Metals in Fishes, Water and Sediments of Lake Kainji,” Nigerian Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2005, pp. 209-212.
[32] S. N. Umeham, “Some Aspects of the Physicochemical limnology of Lake Chad (Southern Sector),” Journal of Aquatic Sciences, Vol. 4, 1989, pp. 21-26.
[33] A. K. Gupta and R. S. Mehrotra, “Studies on Seasonal Variation in pH and DO Content in Senthil Sarovar, Ku rukshetra,” Geobios, Vol. 13, No. 6, 1986, pp. 276-278.
[34] L. R. Bhatt, P. Lacoul, H. D. Lekhak and P. K. Jha, “Physico-Chemical Characteristics and Phytoplankton of Taudaha Lake, Kathmandu,” Pollution Research, Vol. 18, No. 4, 1999, pp. 353-358.
[35] S. M. Banerjea, “Water Quality and Soil Condition of Fishponds in Some States of India in Relation to Fish Production,” India Journal of Fisheries, Vol. 14, No. 1-2, 1967, pp. 115-144.
[36] G. E. Hutchinson, “A Treatise on Limnology. Geography, Physics and Chemistry,” John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, 1957.
[37] S. B. Saxena and A. D. Adoni, “Diurnal Variation in Sa gar Lake, Sagar (India). 1. Studies in Deep Water Areas,” Hydrobiologia, Vol. 37, No. 1, 1973, pp. 7-31.
[38] S. Ayyappan and T. R. Gupta, “Limnology of Ramsamdra Tank-Hydrograph, Mysore,” Journal of Agricultural Science, Vol. 15, 1981, pp. 305-312.
[39] P. S. Welch, “Limnology,” McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc., New York, 1952.
[40] W. Ohle, “Chemisch-Stratigraphische Untersuchungender Sediment-Metamosphozeeines eines Waldsees,” Biochemische Zeitschrift, Vol. 258, 1993, pp. 420-428.
[41] G. L. Shroeder, “Fish Farming in Manure Loaded Ponds,” Proceedings ICLARMSEARCA Conference in Integrated Agriculture and Aquaculture Farming Systems, ICLARM Proceedings, Vol. 4, 1980, pp. 73-86.
[42] O. M. Lind, “Handbook of Common Methods in Lim nology,” The C.V. Mosby Company, London, 1979.
[43] P. O. Ajah, “Identification and Mass Production of Zoo plankton Species Suitable for Early Feeding of African Clariid Catfish,” Ph.D. Thesis, University of Calabar, Calabar, 1995.
[44] A. A. Agrawal, “Induced Responses to Herbivory in Wild Radish: Effects on Several Herbivores and Plant Fitness,” Ecology, Vol. 80, No. 5, 1999, pp. 1713-1723. doi:10.1890/0012-9658(1999)080[1713:IRTHIW]2.0.CO;2
[45] H. C. Kataria, “Preliminary Study of the Drinking Water of Piparian Township,” Pollution Research, Vol. 19, No. 4, 2000, pp. 645-649.
[46] R. C. Hart and C. Boane, “Limnology of Southern Afri can Coastal Lakes-New Vistas from Mozambique,” African Journal of Aquatic Science, Vol. 29, No. 2, 2004, pp. 145-159. doi:10.2989/16085910409503806
[47] K. F. Anil and M. Musaddiq, “A Study on Physico Chemical Characteristic of Kapshi Lake and Purna River Waters in Akola District of Maharastra (India),” Nature Environment and Pollution Technology, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 261-263.
[48] K. S. Pande and S. D. Sharma, “Studies on Water Quality Index for Ramaganga River at Moradabad, UP,” Pollution Research, Vol. 18, No. 3, 1999, pp. 327-333.
[49] S. Rajan, “Biology of Madras Drinking Water Supply System and Health,” Ph.D. Thesis, University of Madras, Madras, 1986.
[50] A. Screenivasan, “Limnology and Productivity of Tropical Upland Impoundments in Nilgiris, Madras States India,” Phytos, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1965, pp. 146-160.
[51] C. N. Sawyer, “Fertilization of Lake by Agriculture and Urban Drainage,” Journal of New Water Lakes Association, Vol. 51, 1947, pp. 109-127.
[52] I. U. Ubong and A. E. Gobo, “Fundamentals of Environ mental Chemistry and Meteorology,” Tom & Harry Publications Ltd., 2004.
[53] S. Rajan and J. Azariah, “Seasonal Changes of Planktons in the Three Water Supply Reservoirs of Madras Drinking Water Supply, Tamilnadu—A Public Health Approach,” Indian Hydrobiology, Vol. 7, No. 1-2, 2004, pp. 205-215.
[54] J. M. Symons, A. A. Stevens, R. M. Clark, E. E. Gel dreich, D. T. Love and J. Demarco, “Treatment Techniques for Controlling Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water,” US Environmental Protection Agency, Cineinnati, 1981.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.