Share This Article:

Assessment of Pollutants in Wet and Dry Depositions in a Suburban Area around a Waste-to-Energy Plant (WEP) in Northern Italy

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:427KB) PP. 16-25
DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.45A003    3,129 Downloads   4,864 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Atmospheric concentrations of many trace elements are significantly affected by human activities, and their quantification in atmospheric deposition can be useful to ascribe to different sources of pollution. An important source of pollution, which creates concern in the inhabitants of neighboring areas, are waste-to-energy-plants, that nonetheless are necessary in the actual management of municipal solid waste. For this reason the waste-to-energy (WEP) plant of Bologna (Italy) was monitored from 2006 to 2008, collecting rainfall water in 6 sites around it. Moreover, dry deposition of pollutants was determined after leaching from leaves, with four samples collected during 2007. Trace elements were analyzed using spectrometry, deposition and fluxes were calculated. Results show that there is a large variability of concentrations of trace elements both in time and space. Moreover, the pollution in the area is quite diffused, with no clear determination of the role of the WEP. As a general remark, elements and trace elements found both in rainfall water and in leaching water from leaves showed a diffused pollution in all the monitored sites, probably due to the WEP but also to industrial/commercial area, large constructions and high traffic roads. In any case the values found in the area are comparable to values detected in similar area all over the world.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

L. Antisari, F. Ventura, A. Simoni, S. Piana, P. Pisa and G. Vianelloz, "Assessment of Pollutants in Wet and Dry Depositions in a Suburban Area around a Waste-to-Energy Plant (WEP) in Northern Italy," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 4 No. 5A, 2013, pp. 16-25. doi: 10.4236/jep.2013.45A003.

References

[1] T. Berg, O. Røyset and E. Steinnes, “Trace Elements in Atmospheric Precipitation at Norweigan Background Stations (1989-1990) Measured by ICP-MS,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 28, No. 21, 1994, pp. 3519-3536. doi:10.1016/1352-2310(94)90009-4
[2] O. Atteia, “Major and Trace Elements in Precipitation on Western Switzerland,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 28, No. 22, 1994, pp. 3617-3624.
[3] I. F. Al-Momani, “Trace Elements in Atmospheric Precipitation at Northern Jordan Measured by ICP-MS: Acidity and Possible Sources,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 37, No. 32, 2003, pp. 4507-4515. doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(03)00562-4
[4] U. C. Kulshrestha, M. J. Kulshrestha, R. Sekar, G. S. R. Sastry and M.Vairamani, “Chemical Characteristics of Rainwater at an Urban Site of South-Central India,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 37, No. 32, 2003, pp. 3019-3026.
[5] I. F. Al-Momani, A.-R. A. Ya’quob and B. M. Al-Bataineh, “Atmospheric Deposition of Major Ions and Trace Metals near an Industrial Area, Jordan,” Journal of. Environment Monitoring, Vol. 4, No. 6, 2002, pp. 985-989. doi:10.1039/b208697b
[6] Legislative Decree Number 152 of the 3rd of March, 2006.
[7] L. Morselli, F. Passarini and M. Bartoli, “The Environmental Fate of Heavy Metals Arising from a MSW Incineration Plant,” Waste Management, Vol. 22, No. 8, 2002, pp. 875-881. doi:10.1016/S0956-053X(02)00073-9
[8] P. A. Valberg, P. J. Drivas, S. McCarthy and A. Y. Watson, “Evaluating the Health Impacts of Incinerator Emissions,” Journal of Hazard Material, Vol. 47, No. 1-3, 1996, pp. 205-227. doi:10.1016/0304-3894(96)82225-4
[9] L. Morselli, P. Olivieri, B. Brusori and F. Passarini, “Soluble and Insoluble Fractions of Heavy Metals in Wet and Dry Atmospheric Depositions in Bologna, Italy,” Environmental Pollution, Vol. 124, No. 3, 2003, pp. 457-469. doi:10.1016/S0269-7491(03)00013-7
[10] L. Pieri, P. Martzeneller, N. Gaspari, I. Marotti, G. Dinelli and P. Rossi, “Bulk Atmospheric Deposition in the Southern Po Valley (Northern Italy),” Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, Vol. 210, No. 1-4, 2010, pp. 155-169. doi:10.1007/s11270-009-0238-y
[11] P. Matzneller, F. Ventura, N. Gaspari and P. R. Pisa, “Analysis of Trends in a Long Term Agrometeorological Data Set in Bologna (Italy),” Climatic Change, Vol. 100, No. 3-4, 2010, pp. 717-731. doi:10.1007/s10584-009-9686-z
[12] L. V. Antisari, S. Carbone, C. Ferronato, A. Simoni and G. Vianello, “Leaf Washing as an Assessment Tool to Characterize dry Atmospheric Deposition,” European Quilt Association, Vol. 9, 2012, pp. 37-50.
[13] R. Huston, Y. C. T. Chana Gardner, G. Shaw and H. Chapman, “Characterization of Atmospheric Deposition as a Source of Contaminants in Urban Rainwater Tanks,” Water Research, Vol. 43, No. 6, 2009, pp. 1630-1640. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2008.12.045
[14] A. P. Rutter, J. J. Schauer, M. M. Shafer, J. E. Creswell, M. R. Olson, M. Robinson, R. M. Collins, A. M. Parman, T. L. Katzman and J. L. Mallek, “ Dry Deposition of Gaseous Elemental Mercury to Plants and Soils Using Mercury Stable Isotopes in a Controlled Environment,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 45, No. 4, 2011, pp. 848-855. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.11.025
[15] B. Lim and T. D. Jickells, “Dissolved, Particulate and Acid-Leachable Trace Metal Concentrations in North Atlantic Precipitation Collected on the Global Change Expedition,” Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 4, No. 4, 1990, pp. 445-458. doi:10.1029/GB004i004p00445
[16] M.-C. Cheng, C.-F. You, F.-J. Lin, K.-F. Huang and C.-H. Chung, “Sources of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in Rainwater at a Subtropical Islet Offshore Northern Taiwan” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 45, No. 11, 2011, pp. 1919-1928. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.01.034
[17] S. Guerzoni, E. Molinaroli and R. Chester, “Saharan Dust Inputs to the Western Mediterranean Sea: Depositional Patterns, Geochemistry and Sedimentological Implications,” Deep-Sea Research. Part II, Topical Studies in Oceanography, Vol. 44, No. 3-4, 1997, pp. 631-654. doi:10.1016/S0967-0645(96)00096-3
[18] G. Kim and T. M. Church, “Wet Deposition of Trace Elements and Radon Daughter Systematic in the South and Equatorial Atlantic Atmosphere,” Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 16, 2002, pp. 19.1-19.8.
[19] L. Poissant, J. P. Schmit and P. Béron, “Trace Inorganic Elements in Rainfall in the Montreal Island,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 28, No. 2, 1994, pp. 339-346. doi:10.1016/1352-2310(94)90109-0
[20] C. Guieu, R. Chester, M. Nimmo, J. M. Martin, S. Guerzoni and E. Nicolas, “Atmospheric Input of Dissolved and Particulate Metals to the Northwestern Mediterranean,” Deep-Sea Research. Part II, Topical Studies in Oceanography, Vol. 44, No. 3-4, 1997, pp. 655-674. doi:10.1016/S0967-0645(97)88508-6
[21] S. Guerzoni, E. Molinaroli, P. Rossini, G. Rampazzo, G. Quarantotto and G. De Falco, “Role of Desert Aerosol in Metal Fluxes in the Mediterranean Area,” Chemosphere, Vol. 39, No. 2, 1999, pp. 229-246. doi:10.1016/S0045-6535(99)00105-8
[22] M. Koulousaris, M. Aloupi and M. O. Angelidis “Total Metal Concentrations in Atmospheric Precipitation from the Northern Aegean Sea,” Water Air Soil Pollution, Vol. 201, No. 1-4, 2009, pp. 389-403. doi:10.1007/s11270-008-9952-0
[23] Z. Cong, S. Kang Y. Zhang and X. Li, “Atmospheric Wet Deposition of Trace Elements to Central Tibet Plateau” Applied Geochemistry, Vol. 25, No. 9, 2010, pp. 1415-1421. doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2010.06.011
[24] A. Báez, R. Belmont, R. García, H. Padilla and M. C. Torres “Chemical Composition of Rainwater Collected at a Southwest Site of Mexico City, Mexico,” Atmospheric Research, Vol. 86, No. 1, 2007, pp. 61-75. doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2007.03.005
[25] G. P. Hu and R. Balasubramanian, “Wet Deposition of Trace Metals in Singapore” Water Air Soil Pollution, Vol. 144, No. 1-4, 2003, pp. 285-300. doi:10.1023/A:1022921418383
[26] T. Ozsoy and S. Ornektekin, “Trace Elements in Urban and Suburban Rainfall, Mersin, Norteastern Mediterranean” Atmospheric Research, Vol. 94, No. 2, 2009, pp. 203-219. doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2009.05.017
[27] L. Mariani, “Fog in the Po Valley: Some Meteo-Climatic Aspects,” Italian Journal of Agrometeorology, Vol. 14, No. 3, 2009, pp. 35-44.
[28] O. A. Al-Khashman, “Ionic Composition of wet Precipitation in the Petra Region, Jordan,” Atmospheric Research, Vol. 78, No. 1-2, 2005, pp. 1-12. doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2005.02.003
[29] K. Adachi and Y. Tainosho, “Characterizations of Heavy Metal Particles Embedded in Trie Dust,” Environment International, Vol. 30, No. 8, 2004, pp. 1009-1017. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2004.04.004
[30] J. R. McConnel and R. Edwards, “Coal Burning Leaves Toxic Heavy Metal Legacy in the Artic,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of America United States, Vol. 105, No. 34, 2008, pp. 12140-12144.
[31] F. Monaci, F. Moni, E. Lanciotti, D. Grechi and R. Bargagli, “Biomonitoring of Airborne Metals in Urban Environments: New Tracers of Vehicle Emission, in Place of Lead,” Environmental Pollution, Vol. 107, No. 3, 2000, pp. 321-327. doi:10.1016/S0269-7491(99)00175-X
[32] O. A. Al-Khashman, “Study of Chemical Composition in Wet Atmospheric Precipitation in Eshidiya Area, Jordan,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 39, No. 33, 2005, pp. 6175-6183. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.06.056
[33] G Guieu, C. M.-D. Loye-Pilot, L. Benyahya and A. Dufour “Spatial Variability of Atmospheric Fluxes of Metals (Al, Fe, Cd, Zn and Pb) and Phosphorus over the Whole Mediterranean from a one Year Monitoring Experiment: Biogeochemical Implications,” Marine Chemistry, Vol. 120, No. 1-4, 2010, pp. 164-178. doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2009.02.004
[34] C. A. Lu, J. F. Zhang, H. M. Jiang, J. C. Yang, J. T. Zhang, J. Z. Wang and H. X. Shan, “Assessment of Soil Contamination with Cd, Pb and Zn and Source Identification in the Area around the Huludao Zinc Plant,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 182, No. 1-3, 2010, pp. 743-748. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.06.097

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.