Share This Article:

Water Quality Criteria for Water Bodies in Urban Areas and Accompanying Changes in Surrounding and In-Situ Vegetation: Considerations from the Landscape Aspect of Planning Water Recreational Areas

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:1976KB) PP. 156-163
DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.52017    4,535 Downloads   7,255 Views   Citations


Water bodies in urban areas are important as recreational areas. Thus, management plans that maintain high water quality are quite important. At the Hatadate Water Park adjacent to Miyagi University, water quality parameters such as visibility, COD, TOC, and TN were monitored at a small pond and the inflowing stream from August to December in 2011, and photographs were taken of these sites. Variations in COD and TOC were highly related to changes in the physical appearance, especially changes in vegetation. These findings suggest: 1) the importance of management of vegetation for water quality control; and 2) the importance of collecting photographic records of sites for research purposes of interpreting data and even as a data point of water quality. Together with the water quality goals for water bodies in urban areas proposed by Sudo et al. [1], these water quality criteria were assessed, and it was notable that COD often exceeded the set goal. These results suggest that the maintenance of vegetation is more important than controlling incoming TN for primary production in the pond. Seasonal variations in COD and TOC were plotted for surface water of Kamafusa and Okura dams, both are important lakes in Miyagi area and the catchments of both lakes are mainly hilly area, using published water quality reports. Similar annual-cycle changing patterns were shown both for the dams, implying that some kinds of ecological factors in the catchments are affecting the water qualities of the dam, even at those larger scale water bodies. Finally, by shifting the focus from only water to upstream features such as small park, or pocket park, with a parking lot for the water body, the importance of landscape including vegetation and tree cover was highlighted.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

S. Harada, R. Wagatsuma, T. Koseki, T. Aoki and T. Hashimoto, "Water Quality Criteria for Water Bodies in Urban Areas and Accompanying Changes in Surrounding and In-Situ Vegetation: Considerations from the Landscape Aspect of Planning Water Recreational Areas," Journal of Water Resource and Protection, Vol. 5 No. 2, 2013, pp. 156-163. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.52017.


[1] Japan Society for Water Environment, “Integrated Index of Water Environment Quality,” 2004.
[2] J. T. Hamad, T. A. Eshtawi, A. M. Abushaban and M. O. Habboub, “Modeling the Impact of Land-Use Change on Water Budget of Gaza Strip,” Journal of Water Resource and Protection, Vol. 4, 2012, pp. 325-333. doi:10.4236/jwarp.2012.46036
[3] R. Sudo, O. Nishimura, N. Chiba and S. Harada, “Restoration and Creation of Waterfront in Urban Area—Goal of Water Quality and Problems of Applying Technologies,” Journal of Hydrological Systems, Vol. 67, 2008, pp. 5-13.
[4] S. Harada and Y. Mifune, “Planning of Open Space and Water Recreational Area,” In: Y. Mifune, Ed., Keyword for City Planning, Gakugei Press, 2009, pp. 195-214.
[5] S. Harada and Y. Komuro, “Decrease of Non-Point Zinc Runoff Using Porous Concrete,” Chemosphere, Vol. 78, No. 4, 2010, pp. 488-491. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.10.010
[6] S. Harada, R. Wagatsuma, T. Koseki, T. Aoki and T. Hashimoto, “Relationship between TOC and COD at Pond,” Journal of Water and Waste, in Press.
[7] S. Harada and R. Wagatsuma, “Water Quality Indices for Management of Water Body Especially TOC and COD Measurement Methods,” Journal of Environmental Engineering and Management, in Press.
[8] Sendai City, “Annual Water Quality Report,” 2005-2006.
[9] Sendai City, “Annual Water Quality Report,” 2006-2007.
[10] Sendai City, “Annual Water Quality Report,” 2007-2008.
[11] Sendai City, “Annual Water Quality Report,” 2008-2009.
[12] K. Somiya and H. Tsuno, “Environmental Water Quality,” Corona Press, 1999.
[13] S. B. Baines and M. L. Pace, “The Production of Dissolved Organic Matter by Phytoplankton and Its Importance to Bacteria: Patterns across Marine and Freshwater Systems,” Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 36, No. 6, 1991, pp. 1078-1090. doi:10.4319/lo.1991.36.6.1078
[14] A. E. Copping and C. J. Lorenzen, “Carbon Budget of Marine Phytoplankton-Herbivore System with Carbon-14 as a Tracer,” Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 25, No. 5, 1980, pp. 873-882. doi:10.4319/lo.1980.25.5.0873
[15] W. Lampert, “Release of Dissolved Organic Carbon by Grazing Zooplankton,” Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 23, No. 4, 1978, pp. 831-834. doi:10.4319/lo.1978.23.4.0831
[16] R. W. Eppley, S. G. Horrigan, J. A. Fuhrman, E. R. Brooks, C. C. Price and K. Sellner, “Origins of Dissolved Organic Matter in Southern Calfornia Coastal Waters: Experiments on the Role of Zooplankton,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol. 6, 1981, pp. 149-159. doi:10.3354/meps006149
[17] B. C. Cho and F. Azam, “Major Role of Bacteria in Biogeochemical Fluxes in the Ocean’s Interior,” Nature, Vol. 332, No. 6163, 1988, pp. 441-443. doi:10.1038/332441a0
[18] D. M. Karl, G. A. Knauer and J. H. Martin, “Downward Flux of Particulate Organic Matter in the Ocean: A Particle Decomposition Paradox,” Nature, Vol. 332, No. 6163, 1988, pp. 438-441. doi:10.1038/332438a0
[19] D. C. Smith, A. L. Simon, A. L. Alldredge and F. Azam, “Intense Hydrolytic Enzyme Activity on Marine Aggregates and Implications for Rapid Particle Dissolution,” Nature, Vol. 359, No. 6391, 1992, pp. 139-142. doi:10.1038/359139a0

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.