Share This Article:

“They Will Wonder What Kind of a Girl I Am”: Adolescent Perceptions towards Contraceptive Use in Nairobi

DOI: 10.4236/asm.2013.31001    4,733 Downloads   8,586 Views   Citations
Author(s)    Leave a comment

ABSTRACT

As in other developing countries, contraceptive use among adolescents is low and only one in twenty adolescents is reported to use contraceptives inKenya. Pregnancies early in life expose adolescents to health complications. Establishing perceptions that affect contraception and factors that influence those perceptions is important in developing appropriate programs and policies to increase contraceptive use prevalence among adolescents. We used primary data from a household survey using a systematic random sampling in eight administrative divisions inNairobiCountyin 2010. The study utilized information collected using structured interviews, focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDIs). The findings revealed that perceptions on parental approval, adolescent approval, ability to get contraceptives for self, knowledge of how to use contraceptives and sexual partner communication had significant effect on contraception. The narratives showed that parents, teachers and service providers had negative perceptions and discouraged contraception among adolescents thereby influencing use. Parents and teachers had inadequate knowledge and skills to communicate sexuality messages creating potential environment likely to have indirect negative influence on adolescents’ perceptions on contraception.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

J. Kinaro, "“They Will Wonder What Kind of a Girl I Am”: Adolescent Perceptions towards Contraceptive Use in Nairobi," Advances in Sexual Medicine, Vol. 3 No. 1, 2013, pp. 1-10. doi: 10.4236/asm.2013.31001.

References

[1] K. Glanz, Emory University and M. C. Kegler, “Concepts of the Social Cognitive Theory Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research and Practice,” Wiley and Sons, San Francisco, 2002.
[2] W. Derrel, “Selective Perception,” 2000. http://www.ciadvertizing.org
[3] A. Bandura, “Social Foundations of Thought and Action,” Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliff, 1986.
[4] C. Undie, J. Crichton and E. Zulu, “Metaphors We Love By: Conceptualizations of Sex among Young People in Malawi,” Africa Journal of Reproductive Health, Vol. 11, No. 3, 2007, pp. 221-235. doi:10.2307/25549741
[5] G. Wingood, J. Ralph, K. Harrington, W. Edward and M. Kim, “Exposure to X-Rated Movies and Adolescents’ Sexual and Contraceptive-Related Attitudes and Behaviors,” Pediatrics, Vol. 107, No. 5, 2001, pp. 1116-1119. doi:10.1542/peds.107.5.1116
[6] Q. Nahar, C. Tunón, I. Houvras, R. Gazi, M. Reza, N. Huq and B. Khuda, “Knowledge Attitudes and Practice of Adolescents Relating to Contraceptive Use,” 12th Annual Scientific Conference in Bangladesh, Dhaka, 2000.
[7] V. O. Otoide, F. Oronsaye and F. E. Okonofua, “Why Nigerian Adolescents Seek Abortion Rather than Contraception: Evidence from Focus Group Discussions,” International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 27, No. 2, 2001, pp. 77-81. doi:10.2307/2673818
[8] K. Kiragu and L. S. Zabin, “Contraceptive Use among High School Students in Kenya,” International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 21, No. 3, 1995, pp. 108-113. doi:10.2307/2133184
[9] S. Ryan, K. Franzett, J. Manlove and E. Hokombe, “Knowledge, Perceptions and Motivation for Contraception: Influence on Teens’ Contraceptive Consistency,” Youth and Society, Vol. 39, No. 2, 2007, pp. 182-208. doi:10.1177/0044118X06296907
[10] Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS) and ICF Macro, “Kenya Demographic and Health Survey 2008-2009,” KNBS and ICF Macro, Calverton, 2010.
[11] Advocates for Youth Organization, “The Facts: Adolescent Protective Behaviors: Abstinence and Contraceptive Use,” 2007. www.advocatesforyouth.or/publications/factsheet
[12] K. A. Moore and B. W. Sugland, “Using Behavioral Theories to Design Abstinence Programs,” Children and Youth Services Review, Vol. 19, No. 5-6, 1997, pp. 485-500. doi:10.1016/S0190-7409(97)00029-7
[13] United Nations Population Fund, “Population Issues: Briefing Kit,” 2001, pp. 9-17.
[14] S. Alford, N. Cheetham and D. Hauser, “Science and Success in Developing Countries: Holistic Programs that Work to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infections,” Advocates for Youth, Washington DC, 2005.
[15] L. A. Hulton, R. Cullen and S. W. Khalokho, “Perceptions of the Risk of Sexual Activity and Their Consequences among Ugandan Adolescents,” Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 31, No. 1, 2000, pp. 35-46 doi:10.1111/j.1728-4465.2000.00035.x
[16] J. Jaccord and J. D. Patricia, “Adolescent Perceptions of Maternal Approval of Birth Control and Sexual Risk Behavior,” America Journal of Public Health, Vol. 90, No. 9, 2000, pp. 1426-1430. doi:10.2105/AJPH.90.9.1426
[17] C. O. Izugbara, “Home-Based Sexuality Education: Nigeria Parents Discussing Sex with Their Children,” Sex Education, Vol. 39, No. 4, 2007, pp. 575-600.
[18] T. E. Oni, E. A. M. Prinsloo, J. D. Nortje and G. Joubert, “High School Students, Practices and Knowledge of Contraception in Jozini, KwaZulu-Natal,” South Africa Family Planning Practice, Vol. 47, No. 6, 2005, pp. 54-57.
[19] L. R. de Belmonte, E. Z. Gutierrez, R. Magnani and V. Lipovsek, “Barriers to Adolescents’ Use of Reproductive Health Services in Three Bolivian Cities,” Focus on Young Adults/Pathfinder International, Washington DC, 2000.
[20] A. S. Erulkar, C. J. Onoka and A. Phiri, “What Is Youth Friendly Adolescent’s Preferences for RH services in Kenya and Zimbabwe,” Africa Journal of Reproductive Health, Vol. 9, No. 3, 2005, pp. 51-58. doi:10.2307/3583411
[21] National Coordinating Agency and Population Development (NCAPD), Ministry of Medical Services (MOMS), Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation (MOPHS), Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS), “ICF Macro 2011. Kenya Service Provision Assessment Survey 2010,” Nairobi, Kenya: National Coordinating Agency and Population Development, Ministry of Medical services, Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation, Kenya National Bureau of Statistics, and ICF Macro.
[22] A. J. Gage, “Sexual Activity and Contraceptive Use: The Components of the Decision Making Process,” Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 29, No. 2, 1998, pp. 154-166. doi:10.2307/172156
[23] C. O. Izugbara, “Home-Based Sexuality Education: Nigeria Parents Discussing Sex with Their Children,” Youth and Society, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2008, pp. 63-79.
[24] J. B. Casterline, Sathar, A. Zeba A, U.L.Haque, Minhaj , “Obstacles to Contraceptive Use in Pakistan: A Study in Punjab,” Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 32, No. 2, 2001, pp. 95-110. doi:10.1111/j.1728-4465.2001.00095.x
[25] B. E. Whitley and J. W. Schofield, “A Meta Analysis of Research on Adolescent Contraceptive Use,” Population and Environment, Vol. 8, No. 3-4, 1986.
[26] A. E. Calves and A. W. Mellon, “Condom Use and Risk Perception among Male and Female Adolescents in Cameroon: Qualitative Evidence from Edea,” Working Paper No. 22, PSI Research Division, 1999.
[27] D. Meekers and M. Klein, “Determinants of Condom Use among Young People in Urban Cameroon,” Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 33, No. 4, 2002, pp. 335-346. doi:10.1111/j.1728-4465.2002.00335.x
[28] E. H. O. Ayiemba, “The Effect of Health Education Programs on Adolescents Sexual Behavior: A case Study on Nairobi City Adolescents,” African Population Studies, Vol. 16, No. 1, 2001, pp. 87-103.
[29] J. W. Khamasi and C. Undie, “Teaching Human Sexuality in Higher Education: A Case from Western Kenya,” In: M. Dunne, Ed., Gender, Sexuality and Development: Education and Society in Sub-Saharan Africa, Sense Publishers, Rotterdam, 2008, pp. 189-196.
[30] A. D. Brown and J. Shireen, “Sexual Relations among Young People in Developing Countries: Evidence from World Health organization Case Studies,” Occasional Paper, Department of Reproductive Health and Research, World Health Organization, Geneva, 2001.
[31] National Council for Population and Development (NC-PD), “Reproductive Health Communication in Kenya: Results of a National Information, Education and Communication Situation Survey,” Republic of Kenya, Nairobi, 1977.
[32] L. Ndhlovu, R. M. Solo and K. Miller, “An Assessment of Clinic Based Family Planning Services in Kenya: Results from the 1995 Situation Analysis Study,” Population Council’s Africa Operations Research and Technical Assistance, Nairobi, 1997, pp. 19-28.
[33] C. O. Izugbara and C. Undie, “Masculinity Scripts and the Sexual Vulnerability of Male Youth in Malawi,” International Journal of Sexual Health, Vol. 20, No. 4, 2008, pp. 2-12.
[34] M. Alauddin, “Reaching Newlywed and Married Adolescents,” Family Health International, 1999. http://www.fhi.org/en/youth/youthnet/publications/focus/newlywedandmarried.htm
[35] M. Fishbein and I. Ajzen, “Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior,” Preventive-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, 1980.
[36] T. M. M. Maja, “Factors Impacting on Contraceptive Use among Youth,” University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, 2007.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.