Share This Article:

Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis among dogs seized by the Center for Control of Zoonoses (CCZ) of the city of Lages, Santa Catarina, Brazil

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:1441KB) PP. 119-124
DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.51016    4,552 Downloads   6,408 Views   Citations


The knowledge of the epidemiology of parasitic infections in stray and domestic animals, especially of its incidence and prevalence, is fundamental to adopting effective prophylactic measures. Stray dogs play an important role in environmental contamination favoring the transmission cycle of zoonotic agents. Among the parasitic infections that affect humans, Giardia duodenalis is the most common intestinal protozoa and was designated as a re-emerging infectious disease. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of G. duodenalis in dogs siezed by the Center for Control of Zoonoses (CCZ) of the city of Lages, Santa Catarina, Brazil using two diagnostic techniques. In 357 stool samples analysed, the prevalence of G. duodenalis cysts was 5.3% (19/357) and 4.8% (17/357) detected by floatation and sedimentation techniques, respecttively. No correspondence between gender and age was found among the methods used for analyzing the infected dogs in this study. Our data suggested that two diagnostic techniques should be used in a complementary way to ensure that false negatives are not neglected.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Quadros, R. , Weiss, P. , Ezequiel, G. , Tamanho, R. , Lepo, G. , da Silva, M. , da Silva Junior, C. , de Araujo, F. and Miletti, L. (2013) Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis among dogs seized by the Center for Control of Zoonoses (CCZ) of the city of Lages, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Health, 5, 119-124. doi: 10.4236/health.2013.51016.


[1] Batista, C.S.A., Azevedo, S.A., Alves, C.J., Morais, Z., Clementino, I.J., Lima, F.S. and Neto, J.O. (2004) Sor-oprevalência de leptospirose em c?es errantes da cidade de Patos, Estado da Paraíba, Brasil. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science, 41, 131-136. doi:10.1590/S1413-95962004000200009
[2] Scaini, C.J., Toledo, R.N., Lovatel, R., Dionello, M.A., Gatti, F.A., Susin, L. and Signoruni, V.R.M. (2003) Environment contamination by helminth eggs and larvae in dog feces from central area of Cas-sino Beach, Rio Grande do Sul. Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, 36, 617-619.
[3] Tashima, N.T., Sim?es, M.J.S., Leite, C.Q.F., Fluminhan, A., Nogueira, M.A. and Malaspina, C.A. (2009) Classic and molecular study of Giardia duodenalis in children from a daycare Center in the region of Presidente Pru- dente, S?o Paulo, Brazil. Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical, 51, 19-24. doi:10.1590/S0036-46652009000100004
[4] Klan, S.M., Debnath, C., Pramanik, A.K., Xiao, L., Nozaki, T. and Ganguly, S. (2011) Molecular evidence for zoonotic transmission of Giardia duodenalis among dairy farm workers in West Bengal, India. Veterinary Parasi- tology, 178, 342-345. doi:10.1016/j.vetpar.2011.01.029
[5] Díaz, V., Campos, M., Lozano, J., Ma?as, I. and González, J. (1996) Aspects of animal giardioses in Granada province (Southern Spain). Veterinary Parasitology, 64, 171- 176. doi:10.1016/0304-4017(95)00923-X
[6] Adam, R.D. (1991) The biology of Giardia spp. Microbiological Reviews, 55, 706-732.
[7] Gomes, A.D., Barreta, C., Ziegler, D.P., Sausen, L., Stoever, N., Sangioni, L.A., Vogel, F.S.F., Monteiro, S.G. and Zanella, A. (2008) Prevalência de Cryptosporidium spp e Giardia sp em equinos estabulados no Jockey Club de Santa Maria—RS, Brasil. Ciência Rural, 38, 2662-2665. doi:10.1590/S0103-84782008005000012
[8] Babaei, Z.H., Ormazdi, O., Akhlaghi, L., Rezaie, S., Razmjou, E., Solta-ni-Arabshahi, S.K., Meamar, A.R. and Hadighi, R. (2008) Molecular characterization of the Ira- nian isolates of Giardia lam-blia: Application of the glu-tamate dehydrogenase gene. Iranian Journal of Public Health, 37, 75-82.
[9] Doglioni, C., De Boni, M., Cielo, R., Laurino, L., Pelasio, P., Braidotti, P. and Viale, G. (1992) Gastric giardiasis. Journal of Clinical Pathology, 45, 964-967. doi:10.1136/jcp.45.11.964
[10] Howard, L.H., Fink, D.S., Lubin, J. and Robinson, M.J. (1995) Giardiasis diagnosed by biopsy of the colon and terminal ileum: Unusual sites for a common pathogen. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 90, 1011-1013.
[11] Goldstein, F., Thornton, J.J. and Szydlowski, T. (1978) Billiary tract dysfunction in Giardiasis. American Journal of Digestive Diseases, 23, 559-560. doi:10.1007/BF01072702
[12] Thompson, R.C.A., Smith, A., Limbery, A.J., Averis, S., Morris, K.D. and Wayne, A.F. (2010) Giardia in western Australian wildlife. Veterinary Parasitology, 170, 207- 211. doi:10.1016/j.vetpar.2010.02.012
[13] Meireles, P., Montiani-Ferreira, F. and Thomaz-Soccol, V. (2008) Survey of giardiosis in household and shelter dogs from metropolitan areas of Curitiba, Paraná state, southern Brazil. Veterinary Parasitology, 152, 241-248. doi:10.1016/j.vetpar.2007.12.025
[14] Souza-Dantas, L.M., Bastos, O.P.M., Brener, B., Salom?o, M., Guerrero, J. and Labarthe, N.V. (2007) Técnica de centrífugo-flutua??o com sulfato de zinco no diagnóstico de helmintos. Ciência Rural, 37, 904-906. doi:10.1590/S0103-84782007000300051
[15] Hunter, P.R. and Thompson, R.C.A. (2005) The zoonotic transmission of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. International Journal for Parasitology, 35, 1181-1190. doi:10.1016/j.ijpara.2005.07.009
[16] Read, C.M., Monis, P.T. and Thompson, R.C.A. (2004) Discrimination of all genotypes of Giardia duodenalis at the glutamate dehydrogenase locus using PCR-RFLP. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 4, 125-130. doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2004.02.001
[17] Palmer, C.S., Traub, R.J., Robertson, I.D., Devlin, G., Rees, R. and Thompson, R.C.A. (2010) Determining the zoonotic significance of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Australian dogs and cats. Veterinary Parasitology, 154, 142-147. doi:10.1016/j.vetpar.2008.02.031
[18] Elígio-García, L., Cortés-Campos, A. and Jiménez-Cardoso, E. (2008) Classification of Giardia intestinalis isolates by multiple polymerase chain reaction (multiplex). Parasitology Research, 103, 797-800. doi:10.1007/s00436-008-1042-0
[19] Robertson, I.D., Irwin, J.P., Limbery, A.J. and Thompson, R.C.A. (2000) The role of companion animals in the emergence of parasitic zoonoses. International Journal for Parasitology, 30, 1369-1377. doi:10.1016/S0020-7519(00)00134-X
[20] Huber, F., Bomfim, T.C. and Gomes, R.S. (2003) Compa- ra??o da eficiência da técnica de sedimenta??o pelo formaldeído-éter e da técnica de centrífugo-flutua??o modificada na detec??o de oocistos de Giardia sp. e oocistos de Cryptosporidium sp. em amostras fecais de bezerros. Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Vete-rinária, 12, 135-137.
[21] Faust, E.C., D’antonio, J.S., Odom, V., Miller, M.J., Peres, C., Sawitz, W., Thomen, L.F., Toble, J. and Walker, J.H. (1938) A critical study of clinical laboratory techniques for the diagnosis of protozoan cyst and helminth egg in feces. American Journal of Tropical Medicine, 18, 169- 183.
[22] Yong, T.S., Park, S.J., Hwang, U.W., Lee, K.W., Min, D. and Rim, H.J. (2000) Genotyping of Giardia lamblia iso- lates from humans in China and Korea using ribosomal DNA Sequences. Journal of Parasitology, 86, 887-891.
[23] Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE) (2010) Funda??o Sistema Estadual de Análise de Dados. Censo Demográfico, Santa Catarina.
[24] Lutz, A. (1991) O Schistosoma mansoni e a schistoso- mose segundo observa??es feitas no Brasil. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 11, 121-155.
[25] Hoffmann, W.A., Pons, J.A. and Janer, J.L. (1934) The Sedimentation Concentration Method in Schis-tosomiasis mansoni. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 9, 283-298.
[26] Prefeitura Municipal ee Lages (PML) (2012) Disponível.
[27] Klimpel, S., Heu-kelbach, J., Pothmann, D. and Ruckert, S. (2010) Gastrointes-tinal and ectoparasites from urban stray dogs in Fortaleza (Bra-zil): High infection risk for humans? Parasitology Research, 107, 713-719. doi:10.1007/s00436-010-1926-7
[28] Tangtrongsup, S. and Scorza, V. (2010) Update on the diagnosis and management of Giardia spp. Infections in dogs and cats. Topics in Companion Animal Medicine, 25, 155-162. doi:10.1053/j.tcam.2010.07.003
[29] Gennari, S.M. and Souza, S. (2002) Giardiasis. Fort Dodge Saúde Animal LTDA, Boletim Técnico, S?o Paulo, 13 p.
[30] Mundim, M.J., Souza, S.S.Z., Hortêncio, S.M. and Cury, M.C. (2003) Frequência de Giardia spp. por duas técnicas de diagnóstico em fezes de c?es. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, 55, 770-773. doi:10.1590/S0102-09352003000600016
[31] Silva, A.S., Maurer, C.G., Gasperi, D., Pessoa, G.A., Zanette, R.A., Antonow, R.R., Vogel, F.S.F., Sangioni, L.A. and Monteiro, S.G. (2008) Protozoários em c?es de canis de Santa Maria—RS. Revista da FZVA, 15, 191- 199.
[32] Bartmann, A. and Araújo, F.A.P. (2004) Frequência de Giardia lamblia em c?es atendidos em clinicas veteri-nárias de Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil. Ciência Rural, 34, 1093-1096. doi:10.1590/S0103-84782004000400020
[33] Beck, C., Araújo, F.A.P., Olicheski, A.T. and Breyer, A.S. (2005) Freqüencia da infec??o por Giardia lamblia (Kunstler, 1882) em c?es (Canis familiaris) avaliada pelo Método de Faust e cols. (1939) e pela Colora??o da Auramina, no município de Canoas, RS, Brasil. Ciência Rural, 35, 126-130. doi:10.1590/S0103-84782005000100020
[34] Santos, S.V. and Castro, J.M. (2006) Ocorrência de agentes parasitários com potencial zoonótico de transmiss?o em fezes de c?es domiciliados no Município de Guarulhos, SP. Arquivos do Instituto Biológico, 73, 255- 257.
[35] Nikolic, A., Kulisic, Z. and Bojkovski, J. Giardiasis as a zoonosis: The prevalence of Giardia in dogs in Belgrade. Acta Veterinaria, 43, 239-243.
[36] Marcel, A.M., Manso, E.O., Pêrez, H.S., Hernández, O.G. and Melendéz, J.A.S. (1994) Frecuencia de Giardiasis en algunas especies de animales domésticos de la provincia de Villa Clara, Cuba. Veterinaria México, 25, 337-340.
[37] Irwin, P.J. (2002) Companion animal parasitology: A clinical perspective. International Journal for Parasi- tology, 32, 581-593. doi:10.1016/S0020-7519(01)00361-7
[38] Arruda, A., Quadros, R.M., Marques, S.M.T. and Rocha, G.C. (2008) Prevalência de giardiasis em crian?as e seus c?es da periferia urbana de Lages, Santa Catarina. Revista da FZVA, 15, 126-134.
[39] Almeida, C.G., Marques, S.M.T., Miquelluti, D.J. and Quadros, R.M. (2010) Giardiasis em crian?as e c?es do mesmo domicílio e de bairros periféricos de Lages, Santa Catarina. Revista Ciência & Saúde, 3, 9-13.
[40] Papazahariadou, M., Founta, A., Papadopoulos, E., Chliounakis, S., Antoniadou-Sotiriadou, K. and Theodo- rides, Y. (2007) Gastrointestinal parasites of shepherd and hunting dogs in the Serres Prefecture, Northern Greece. Veterinary Parasitology, 148, 170-173. doi:10.1016/j.vetpar.2007.05.013
[41] Oliveira-Siqueira,T.C.G. and Amarante, A.F.T. (2001) Prevalence of intestinal parasites in dogs from S?o Paulo State, Brazil. Veterinary Parasitology, 103, 19-27. doi:10.1016/S0304-4017(01)00575-1
[42] Horejs, R. and Koudela, B. (1994) Giardiasis in dogs in a breeding kennel. Veterinary medicine, 39, 93-101.
[43] Hahn, N.E., Glaser, C.A., Hird, D.W. and Hirsh, D.C. (1998) Prevalence of Giardia in the feces of pups. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 19, 21428-21429.
[44] Barr, S.C. and Bowman, D.D. (1994) Giardiasis in dogs and cats. The compendium Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian, 16, 603-609.
[45] Lallo, M.A. (1994) Ocorrência de Giardia sp em c?es na Grande S?o Paulo. Congresso Brasileiro da Anclivepa, 16, Anais, Goiania, 37.
[46] Barutzki, D., Schimmel, A., Schaper, R. (2000) Eficácia de palmoato de pirantel, febantel e praziquantel contra Giardia em c?es naturalmente contaminados. Informativo Técnico, Giardia, 5-7.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.