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Review. Comparative structures and evolution of mammalian lipase I (LIPI) genes and proteins: A close relative of vertebrate phospholipase LIPH

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DOI: 10.4236/ns.2012.412A142    6,357 Downloads   9,149 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Lipase I (enzyme name LIPI or LPDL) (gene name LIPI [human] or Lipi [mouse]) is a phospholipase which generates 2-acyl lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a lipid mediator required for maintaining homeostasis of diverse biological functions and in activating cell surface recaptors. Bioinformatic methods were used to predict the amino acid sequences, secondary and tertiary structures and gene locations for LIPI genes and encoded proteins using data from several mammalian genome projects. LIPI is located on human chromosome 21 and is distinct from other phospholipase A1-like genes (LIPH and PS-PLA1). Mammalian LIPI genes contained 10 (human) or 11 (mouse) coding exons transcribed predominantly on the negative DNA strand. Mammalian LIPI protein subunits shared 61% - 99% sequence identities and exhibited sequence alignments and identities for key LIPI amino acid residues as well as extensive conservation of predicted secondary and tertiary structures with those previously reported for pancreatic lipase (PL), with “N-signal peptide”, “lipase” and “plat” structural domains. Comparative studies of mammalian LIPI sequences with LIPH, PS-PLA1 and pancreatic lipase (PL) confirmed predictions for LIPI N-terminal signal peptides (residues 1 - 15); predominantly conserved mammalian LIPI N-glycosylation sites (63NNSL and 396NISS for human LIPI); active site “triad” residues (Ser159; Asp183; His253); disulfide bond residues (238 - 251; 275 - 286; 289 - 297; 436 - 455); and a 12 residue “active site lid”, which is shorter than for other lipases examined. Phylogenetic analyses supported a hypothesis that LIPI arose from a vertebrate LIPH gene duplication event within a mammalian common ancestral genome. In addition, LIPI, LIPH and PL-PLA1 genes were distinct from the vascular lipase (LIPG, LIPC and LPL) and pancreatic lipase (PL) gene families.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Holmes, R. and Cox, L. (2012) Review. Comparative structures and evolution of mammalian lipase I (LIPI) genes and proteins: A close relative of vertebrate phospholipase LIPH. Natural Science, 4, 1165-1178. doi: 10.4236/ns.2012.412A142.

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