Share This Article:

The social environment is most important for not using snus or smoking among adolescents

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:185KB) PP. 1247-1255
DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.412184    2,979 Downloads   4,490 Views   Citations


Aims: To identify factors, which were related to being smoke-free and snus-free, respectively, among adolescents in relation to adolescents who were smoking and/or using snus, and determine if there were any sex differences. Methods: A questionnaire study was performed among students in year two in upper secondary schools (17-years-old) in southern Sweden in 2009. More than 2200 students completed the questionnaire regarding health and living habits anonymously. The variables were tested by χ2-test, before selection into the logistic model. Because of the salutogenic approach in the study, the results of the logistic regression analyses were expressed as Positive Odds Ratio (POR). Results: The prevalence of being smoke- free was 75.6 percent for girls and 70.2 percent for boys, whilst the prevalence of being snus- free was 95.1 percent for girls and 70.2 percent for boys. Having a tobacco-free best friend was the most important factor that correlated with being smoke- and snus-free as an adolescent, for both boys and girls. Good living habits, such as drinking less alcohol, were also central to being smoke-free and snus-free. Conclusions: The results show that a tobacco-free environment has a great influence on whether or not adolescents stay tobacco-free. As the environment has a big impact, the school has a big challenge to work with the school environment and policies but also with family responsibility, norms and attitudes to tobacco.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Edvardsson, I. , Lendahls, L. , Andersson, T. and Ejlertsson, G. (2012) The social environment is most important for not using snus or smoking among adolescents. Health, 4, 1247-1255. doi: 10.4236/health.2012.412184.


[1] Murray, M., Kiryluk, S. and Av, S. (1985) Relation between parents’ and children’s smoking behaviour and attitudes. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 39, 169-174. doi:10.1136/jech.39.2.169
[2] Scragg, R.L.M. (2007) Influence of smoking by family and best friend on adolescent tobacco smoking: Results from the 2002 New Zealand national survey of year 10 students. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 31, 217-223. doi:10.1111/j.1467-842X.2007.00051.x
[3] Andersen, M.R., Leroux, B.G., Bricker, J.B., Rajan, K.B. and Av, P. (2004) Antismoking parenting practices are associated with reduced rates of adolescent smoking. Jr Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 158, 348-352.
[4] Sargent, J.D. and Dalton, M. (2001) Does parental disap-proval of smoking prevent adolescents from becoming established smokers? Pediatrics, 108, 1256-1262. doi:10.1542/peds.108.6.1256
[5] US Department of Health and Human Services (2012) Preventing tobacco use among youth and young adults: A report of the surgeon general. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, Atlanta.
[6] Bricker, J.B., Rajan, K.B., Sarason, I.G. and Peterson, A.V. Jr. (2007) The role of schoolmates’ smoking and non-smoking in adolescents’ smoking transitions: A longitudinal study. Addiction, 102, 1665-1675. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2007.01945.x
[7] Conrad, K.M., Flay, B.R. and Hill, D. (1992) Why children start smoking cigarettes: Predictors of onset. British Journal of Addiction, 87, 1711-1724. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.1992.tb02684.x
[8] Wetzels, J.J., Kremers, S.P., Vitória, P.D. and De Vries, H. (2003) The alcohol-tobacco relationship: A prospective study among adolescents in six European countries. Addiction, 98, 1755-1763. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2003.00553.x
[9] Bostr?m, G. (2007) H?lsa p? lika villkor.
[10] Henriksson, C. and Leifman, H. (2011) Skolelevers drogvanor. Centralf?rbundet f?r Alkoholoch Narkotikaupplysning, Stockholm, 260.
[11] Edvardsson, I., Lendahls, L. and Hakansson, A. (2009) When do adolescents become smokers? Annual seven-year population-based follow-up of tobacco habits among 2000 Swedish pupils: An open cohort study. Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, 27, 41-46. doi:10.1080/02813430802588675
[12] Galanti, M.R., Rosendahl, I. and Wickholm, S. (2008) The development of tobacco use in adolescence among “snus starters” and “cigarette starters”: An analysis of the Swedish “BROMS” cohort. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 10, 315-323. doi:10.1080/14622200701825858
[13] Haukkala, A., Vartiainen, E. and Hakansson, A. (2006) Progression of oral snuff use among Finnish 13 - 16-year-old students and its relation to smoking behaviour. Addicion, 101, 581-589. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2005.01346.x
[14] Rosendahl, K.I., Galanti, M.R., Gilljam, H. and Ahlbom, A. (2003) Smoking mothers and snuffing fathers: Behavioural influences on youth tobacco use in a Swedish cohort. Tobacco Control, 12, 74-78. doi:10.1136/tc.12.1.74
[15] Wickholm, S.G.M., S?der, B. and Gilljam, H. (2003) Cigarette smoking, snuff use and alcohol drinking: Coexisting risk behaviours for oral health in young males. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 31, 269-274. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0528.2003.00046.x
[16] Ejlertsson, G., Eden, L. and Leden, I. (2002) Predictors of positive health in disability pensioners: A population-based questionnaire study using positive odds ratio. BMC Public Health, 2, 20. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-2-20
[17] Lindstrom, B. and Eriksson, M. (2011) From health education to healthy learning: Implementing salutogenesis in educational science. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 39, 85-92. doi:10.1177/1403494810393560
[18] Koelen, M.A. and Lindstrom, B. (2005) Making healthy choices easy choices: The role of empowerment. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 59, S10-S15, Discus- sion S6-S23.
[19] Currie, C. (2008) Inequalities in young people’s health HBSC international report from the 2005/2006 survey. World Health Organization, Copenhagen.
[20] Bancej, C., O’Loughlin, J., Platt, R.W., Paradis, G. and Gervais, A. (2007) Smoking cessation attempts among adolescent smokers: A systematic review of prevalence studies. Tobacco Control, 16, e8. doi:10.1136/tc.2006.018853
[21] Nutbeam, D. (1998) Health promotion glossary. World Health Organisation, Geneva.
[22] Kulbok, P.A., Rhee, H., Botchwey, N., Hinton, I., Bovbjerg, V. and Anderson, N.L. (2008) Factors influencing adolescents’ decision not to smoke. Public Health Nursing, 25, 505-515. doi:10.1111/j.1525-1446.2008.00737.x
[23] Vitoria, P.D., Salgueiro, M.F., Silva,S.A. and De Vries, H. (2011) Social influence, intention to smoke, and adolescent smoking behaviour longitudinal relations. British Journal of Health Psychology, 16, 779-798. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8287.2010.02014.x
[24] Statens Folkh?lsoinstitut (2010) Folkh?lsopolitisk rapport 2010: Framtidens folkh?lsa: Allas ansvar. Statens Folkh?lsoinstitut, Stockholm.
[25] Rolandsson, M. and Hugoson, A. (2003) Changes in tobacco habits. A prospective longitudinal study of tobacco habits among boys who play ice hockey. Swedish Dental Journal, 27, 175-184.
[26] Wichstrom, T. and Wichstrom, L. (2009) Does sports participation during adolescence prevent later alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use? Addiction, 104, 138-149. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2008.02422.x
[27] Wetzels, J.J., Kremers, S.P., Vitoria, P.D. and De Vries, H. (2003) The alcohol-tobacco relationship: A prospective study among adolescents in six European countries. Addiction, 98, 1755-1763. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2003.00553.x
[28] Nygren, K., Janlert, U. and Nygren, L. (2011) Norm compliance and self-reported health among Swedish adolescents. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 39, 44-50. doi:10.1177/1403494810389846
[29] Post, A.G.H., Rosendahl, I., Meuling, L., Bremberg, S. and Galanti, M.R. (2005) Validity of self reports in a cohort of Swedish adolescent smokers and smokeless tobacco (snus) users. Tobacco Control, 14, 114-117. doi:10.1136/tc.2004.008789

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.